His plays, mostly Old Testament and historical dramas, have not proved successful, apart from those written in collaboration with Brecht. Together with others, Feuchtwanger founded the Aurora publishing house in New York at the end of the war to bring out works in German for the reviving German market. In he was awarded the Nationalpreis der DDR. His Gesammelte Werke appeared from —48; the Gesammelte Werke twenty vols from on, with a sixteen-volume edition appearing in Fichte, Hubert —86 The illegitimate son of a Jewish father, Fichte spent part of his childhood in a Catholic orphanage, an experience which formed the basis of his first novel Das Waisenhaus He then trained as an actor, but also worked on the land in North Germany and Provence before becoming a professional writer in Hamburg.
Here he remained until his death, except for extensive journeys in South America and the Caribbean in connection A-Z 85 with his later anthropological works. Nossack, Der Untergang and references to the ritual practices of AfroAmerican religions. These form the subject of the following works: Xango accompanied by a photographic volume with the same title , dealing with Bahia, Haiti and Trinidad, and Petersilie , on Santo Domingo, Venezuela, Miami and Grenada, which develop the preoccupation with abnormal sexual practices and psychopathology reflected in his earlier work.
What was completed of the planned nineteen parts of the cycle of novels Geschichte der Empfindlichkeit appeared between and Der kleine Hauptbahnhof oder Lob des Strichs, 3. Glossen set in Berlin this volume is not to be published until , 4. Glossen set in Rome, Greece, Egypt, Morocco , 6. Der Platz der Gehenkten set in Morocco , 7. In addition there are volumes of Paralipomena: These are assembled in a sixteen-volume cassette. Flake turned to traditional writing after the war and sought to promote understanding between France and Germany: In the s Flake embarked upon a Badische Chronik; he also wrote essays on French literary figures, his best being on the Marquis de Sade , whose preface attempts to explain that it is necessary to describe the perverse in order fully to appreciate the norm.
An autobiography appeared in Es wird Abend. The Werke five vols appeared from to In she met Bertolt Brecht, who had the most far-reaching influence upon her work. More sober is Pioniere in Ingolstadt , a hard-boiled portrayal of the effect on the young girls of the town of the arrival of a troop of soldiers. Avantgarde is a thinly-veiled portrayal of Brecht. Her play on Charles I, Karl Stuart, was first published in The Gesammelte Werke three vols appeared in , a four-volume edition in Flex had also A-Z 87 published two volumes of poems before the war and a historical tragedy in verse, Klaus Bismarck , dealing with an ancestor of the Prussian statesman Flex had been a private tutor to the Bismarck family.
This was reprinted in Riga as late as May Gesammelte Werke two vols appeared in He was famous for short stories concerning the lives of North German fishermen his father having been one: Schullengrieper und Tungenknieper , Fahrersleute and Nordsee He reached a wide readership with his novel Seefahrt ist not!
Much of his writing is in Plattdeutsch, particularly the Hamborger Janmooten His plays, Cilli Cohrs and Doggerbank posthumously, , are less successful. Fock also published a collection of Plattdeutsche Kriegsgedichte —15 , many of them humorous: Das schnellste Schiff der Flotte.
Erinnerungen is an informative and sympathetic document. In Fontana contributed poems to a collection by A companion to twentieth-century german literature 88 E. Rheinhardt entitled Die Botschaft. Fontana turned increasingly to the novel: In appeared Der Weg durch den Berg, a novel dealing with the building of the St Gotthard pass; another novel dealing with the advantages and disadvantages of modern technology the use of gas is Der Atem des Feuers In his later years Fontana devoted himself to theatre criticism. In he published Wiener Schauspieler, a portrayal of famous actors and actresses from Mitterwurzer to Maria Eis.
A selection of his writings, Mond im Abendrot, was published in In Kaspar Hausers Tod analogies to the situation in Germany in anti-terrorist campaign are indicated in the funeral of the famous foundling murdered in Forte is also the author of numerous plays for radio and television in which everyday subjects are treated with original use of these media. In Der Artist im Moment seines Absturzes a play within a play shows actors coming to terms with their roles as a German writer and his wife in exile in Paris in Das Muster is a chronicle novel on how two families, Italian and Polish, settled in Germany and became linked.
Frank, Bruno — Frank can be associated with the generation of middle-class novelists active between the wars Heinrich and Thomas Mann, Lion Feuchtwanger, Franz Werfel, Hermann Broch who combined historical awareness, acute psychological insight and stylistic refinement and who were forced into emigration by the Nazis.
Frank became a member of the Californian emigration close to Thomas Mann, the influence of whose Der Tod in Venedig is evident in the development to a tragic close of Politische Novelle , a A-Z 89 work inspired by the wish for Franco-German reconciliation and European unity. Frank was drawn to proud solitary men with an Achilles heel and portrayed them with imagination and sympathy: His play Sturm im Wasserglas , about an unscrupulous small-town careerist, was adapted by James Bridie as Storm in a Teacup in Frank, Leonard — After training as a mechanic, Frank moved to Munich in , where he studied painting.
It later appeared as the introductory story of the collection Der Mensch ist gut Another much-read Novelle was Die Ursache , which Frank dramatized in Frank returned to Germany after the war, and received the Kleist prize for Der Mensch ist gut. In Frank escaped to Switzerland, France and finally America. He returned to Germany in , published his autobiographical novel in and the Deutsche Novelle two years later. Frank is best regarded as a novelist who, through his leftwing political sympathies, remained on the fringe of the expressionist movement; his narrative prose is, however, traditional in structure.
Gesammelte Werke in Einzelausgaben five vols appeared in ; the Gesammelte Werke six vols in ; Die Summe in A companion to twentieth-century german literature 90 Franke, Manfred — Having written a doctoral dissertation on the figure of Schinderhannes in the German folk-tradition, Franke went on to produce a documentation in and a demythologizing biography in of the same Robin Hood figure. In aiming to demonstrate what is typical in this microscopic view of a particular case Franke can be associated with other documentary writers active in a similar spirit at the same time, especially Alexander Kluge.
Franke has also written Ein Leben auf Probe , the story of the struggle to survive of a child suffering from a rare illness, Bis der Feind kommt , an autobiographical novel on the last days of the Second World War viewed from the perspective of a fourteen-year-old boy cf. Frenssen, Gustav — Born in Dithmarschen, Frenssen became a pastor there before turning to writing novels. The farm is finally abandoned, but Uhl turns his attention to agricultural industry, builds dikes and continues to serve the community.
In the s Frenssen continued to write novels of life in Dithmarschen; in he was awarded an honorary doctorate at Heidelberg and became a member of the Dichter-Akademie. Frenssen died, four weeks before the end of hostilities, in April Gesammelte Werke six vols were published in Zyklische Gedichte incorporated the non-specific imagery characteristic of certain modernist trends. A political dimension emerges in the laconic word play of Warngedichte and becomes dominant in und Vietnam und Fries, Fritz Rudolf — Born in Spain, the home of his maternal ancestors, Fries came with his family to Germany in , went to school in Leipzig until , studied there, was employed in the s at the GDR Academy of Sciences and then became a fulltime writer and translator.
Fries was one of the first GDR writers to inject a strong element of fantasy conveyed by means of interior monologue into a story which otherwise conforms to conventional realism, thus heralding a trend in GDR writing of growing importance during the s and s, when the influence of the German romantics became ever more apparent cf. They go no farther than West Berlin, A companion to twentieth-century german literature 92 from which they return to play the role expected of them by officialdom of disillusioned victims of Western intrigues aimed at undermining the GDR.
Verlegung eines mittleren Reiches is a futuristic fantasy set in a small town in the GDR after a nuclear war and Alexanders neue Welten provides a satirical confrontation of rationalism and imagination in the efforts of a scholar to get to grips with the colourful life of his friend in a report destined for the Academy of Sciences. Frisch, Max —91 Born in Zurich Frisch studied German literature, travelled extensively in Europe before the Second World War, studied architecture in Zurich, combined writing with the practice of this profession until , when he decided to devote himself exclusively to the former.
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He has since been resident in Switzerland, Rome and New York. His plays may be divided into three groups: The last of these themes becomes central, especially in the novel Stiller , on the determination of the title-figure to preserve his independence from those formerly close to him and from the representatives of officialdom. Ein Spiel and Triptychon , radio version Homo Faber and Montauk offer more self-critical and existentially inspired examinations of human relationships, the former with overtones of Greek tragedy which add depth to a critique of A-Z 93 technological rationality, the latter in a manner close to autobiography.
Frischmuth, Barbara — Barbara Frischmuth visited Turkey in and Hungary in after studying the languages of those countries at the Institute of Interpreters in Graz. Although a member of the Grazer Autorenversammlung, to which also Handke, Kolleritsch, Gerhard Roth, Scharang have belonged, she has lived in Vienna since Die Klosterschule , the autobiographically inspired account of a boarding-school for girls run by nuns, and her early stories Amoralische Kinderklapper and Tage und Jahre concentrate on the experience of children and their relationships to adults. The novel Das Verschwinden des Schattens in der Sonne , set in Istanbul, confronts an Austrian student with local conditions and traces her growing involvement with revolutionary activists which stops short of clear commitment.
The trilogy of autonomous novels Die Mystifikationen der Sophie Silber , Amy oder die Metamorphose and Kai oder die Liebe zu den Modellen is held together by the theme of metamorphosis. The introduction of elementary fairy spirits whose origins lie in the Alpine regions results in a story on two levels: The second volume concerns the transformation of Amaryllis into the totally human Amy Stern, whose personal and professional ambitions are realized, but at a price.
Einander Kind is a family saga centred on the relationship between two women, with flashbacks to the Third Reich. Fuchs, Gerd — Fuchs studied in Cologne, Munich and London, qualified as a secondary schoolteacher, wrote a doctoral dissertation on Rilke in England, then became a journalist for Die Welt and Der Spiegel.
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Since he has been a professional writer based in Hamburg and associated with the Autoren Edition publishing venture. The eleven stories of Landru und andere show him able to devise situations typical of certain historical phases. The title-figure murders women whose beauty in its contrast to the wretchedness of the time renders them guilty in his eyes. Beringer und die lange Wut , inspired by the upheaval of the Studentenbewegung, centres on a journalist who takes stock of his life, friendships and political stance during a visit to his parents, whose lives are illuminated by means of flashbacks to the war and the immediate post-war years.
The consequent adjustment of roles within the family leads eventually to his departure. Schinderhannes places the story of the folk-hero in the context of the effects of the French Revolution in occupied Germany west of the Rhine at the end of the eighteenth century. Katharinas Nacht is a love story. His early poems Die Fahrt nach Stalingrad. These are followed by a series of Novellen and stories in which the experiences of soldiers in occupied territory during the Second World War A-Z 95 induce radical rethinking.
The four stories of Der Jongleur im Kino show a sensitive boy adapting to and adopting a pre-fascist mentality. Erfahrung mit Georg Trakls Gedicht. Im Berg contains the surviving fragments of what was to have been the summa of his work. Briefe — demonstrates his key position in the alternative literary life of the GDR. A Werkausgabe appeared in nine volumes between and and was reprinted in eight volumes in G Gaiser, Gerd —76 Gaiser, whose earliest work appeared during the Third Reich stories in the periodical Das innere Reich and poems in Reiter am Himmel , is difficult to place in the context of the post-war revival of literature.
Further story collections are Zwischenland , Einmal und oft , Revanche , Gib acht in Damokosch and Mittagsgesicht Kalte Zeiten presents a day in the life of a young couple in a proletarian milieu. If Marx had viewed the capitalist system as the organized expropriation of surplus value for the benefit of the wealthy, then Zweig views the discourse of collective guilt as the organized foisting-off of responsibility onto the poor and powerless.
The ruling classes steal not only money but also innocence; the lower classes are not just poor but also — therefore — guilty.
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If Teetjen is Judas, then Koldewey and his kind are Pontius Pilate, seeking to wash their hands of guilt by implicating the common people. At the center of the novel are two German men from different generations: He had gone further than the burghers in the hall, but it was they who had made it possible for him to go so far. They had underwritten his wanderings with their lives. Because art for the Philistine Friedrich Wilhelm had always been a compensation and cosmetic disguise for an inadequate social reality — in other words: His music is dedicated to truth: Siegfried did not want to reproduce himself.
The thought of causing a life that could be subjected to unforeseeable encounters, coincidences, actions, and reactions and which through deed, thought, or further reproduction of its own could once again have consequences throughout the future, the idea of being the father of a child, this provocation to the world, truly appalled him and spoiled any contact with girls for him, even if they were using contraceptives, which were in and of themselves already humiliating and disgusting, and which humiliatingly and disgustingly pointed out the very thing which was to be prevented.
His refusal of sexual intercourse is a logical refusal to propagate the family itself. As the Nazi regime collapsed, Adolf and his comrades were packed into a train and shipped off; but the train was stopped by enemy bombers. As Adolf and his fellow schoolboys make their way by foot along the railroad tracks after leaving the train, they suddenly encounter a group of inmates from a concentration camp who have themselves escaped from a train.
The children trembled in their Party school uniforms. And Adolf thought that his father was probably dead, that he must be dead; but the fact that his father was dead said nothing to him. If he was crying, then he was crying for himself, or maybe not even for himself, he did not know why he was crying, maybe he was crying for the world, but he was not crying because of his father. Had he not loved him? Had he hated him? While Adolf feels a profound sense of guilt when confronted with the Jewish boy — it is this sense of guilt that makes him and the other boys afraid of punishment — he is simultaneously unable to separate himself from his father, a Nazi criminal.
Adolf is therefore pulled in conflicting directions. Perhaps his father, like the father of the Jewish boy, is dead; perhaps he even deserved to die. Whereas the atheist Siegfried has dedicated himself to music as a substitute father-figure and superego, Adolf dedicates himself to God. The greater power of God protects Adolf from his seemingly omnipotent biological father, but at the same time Adolf fears revenge from that real father, a human god of death and destruction.
Eva mourns for the lost and betrayed German Reich and for the dead Hitler, and she feels guilty for having survived the death of her beloved hero. To have survived Hitler is to have made oneself guilty, as if one had contributed to his death. Eva Judejahn is thus a fury seeking revenge. Judejahn heard a voice, not the voice of God nor the voice of conscience, it was the thin, hungry, self-improving voice of his father, the primary schoolteacher, whispering to him: In the service of Hitler, Judejahn imagines himself magnificent and powerful, lord over life and death.
The murder that he commits at the end of the novel comes at the very moment when he feels his own mortality, shortly before the heart attack that ends his life. Powerless to defend himself, Judejahn then receives extreme unction from none other than his son the priest, the representative of the very God whom he has spent his entire life trying to escape. Because of the guilt that they have inherited, Adolf and Siegfried seek in their own different ways to atone for the sins of their fathers, but in the end they are unable to escape from the hell that the Nazis have created.
They have become the executors of their own damnation. Ultimately this novel describes an inferno in which all of its major figures live in varying degrees of torment. Germans know the horrors from which they are trying to escape, but they have no idea where to find a possible refuge. The furies they carry with them wherever they go will quickly seek them out and punish them.
Army anti-fraternization policies in Germany. Dial Press, , Der Horizont ist eng geworden. Man machte nicht mehr Weltgeschichte. Heinz Norden New York: The chapter from which this sentence is taken does not appear in the published English-language translation. This sentence does not appear in the English-language version. Putnam, , — Rowohlt, , Das ist eine bittere Wahrheit.
Harvard UP, , Betrachtungen und Erinnerungen Brockhaus: Wiesbaden, , Beck, , Aufbau, , 34—39; here, In subsequent editions of the novel, this passage does not begin the chapter. Ihr selbst habt die Materie zum Material gemacht. In ihnen wird das Volk mit verurteilt. Juli bis Mitte Mensch, wo bist du gewesen?
Ich hatte mich damals bereits meiner wahren Verantwortung begeben. Wir werden heute verantwortlich gemacht und wollen doch nicht verantwortlich gemacht werden. Werner Hecht et al. Aufbau, , Richard and Clara Winston, Wieviel wiegt die tote Stalingradarmee, wieviel wiegt dieser gespenstische Gefangenenzug, und was ist noch auf die Schale zu legen? Ist die Schuld aufzuwiegen, wie ist sie aufzuwiegen? For an alternative Englishlanguage translation: Kriegserlebnis und Kriegsdeutung in deutschen Medien der Nachkriegszeit — , ed. Sogar Weib und Kinder. Sie haben zugeschaut und ihn nicht gerettet.
Dann ist die Welt verloren. Fallen Sie nicht um, Oderbruch. Sie hatten recht, mit allem. Influenced by the Eichmann and Auschwitz trials in the early s, and after further criticisms that the figure of Harras was not presented in a sufficiently negative light — and, conversely, that the figure of Oderbruch had failed to appear in a sufficiently positive light — Zuckmayer published a slightly revised version of Des Teufels General in ; in this version Zuckmayer made it even clearer that Harras ultimately accepts his own guilt.
Volk, das bist auch du und bin auch ich. Aber ich habe, verdammt nochmal, keinen Auftrag gegeben. Der Rathenau-Mord und die deutsche Gegenrevolution Frankfurt: Alles, was um uns herum geschieht, lebt nicht aus denen heraus, die es tun; es lebt aus einem Kollektiv heraus. Wer sich zu diesem Kollektiv nicht bekennen kann, der ist tot. Das Kollektiv handelt immer unbedingt. Es verlangt auch das unbedingte Bekenntnis. Aber dieses Kollektiv, es hat uns nicht aufgenommen, sondern atomisiert. Atomisierte Teilchen bilden keine Gemeinschaft, sondern eine Sprengmasse.
An den Methoden der Psychoanalyse schien doch etwas dran zu sein. Er hatte nur zugesehen. Sie hatten sein Wandern mit dem Tod gebilligt. For alternative translations, see 49 in the Hofmann version and 50 in the Savill version. For an alternative translation, see in the Hofmann version. For alternatives, see in the Hofmann translation and in the Savill translation. Tote guckten sie an. Hatte er ihn nicht geliebt? Er glaubte es nicht. For alternative translations, see 75—76 in the Hofmann version and 79—80 in the Savill version.
Koeppen, Death in Rome Savill translation , In both the original and the two published English-language translations, this phrase is part of a rhetorical question.
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However Der Tod in Rom was not published until , well after the zero hour itself. Die Welt der Angeklagten No: In other words their response to what appeared to be an unprecedented event was in fact predetermined by tradition. All access to the past may have been broken off, but the inability to connect with the past does not yet imply the compensatory turn toward the future that was later to become part of the zero hour myth.
In fact it is precisely because the connection to the past has been broken off that the future appears inaccessible: In this context both survival and death seem little more than coincidences, without fundamental meaning. The only thing we could do was not to be loud and not to have too much weight. All it would have taken would have been for someone to start shouting, and we 3 would all have been lost. The abyss over which the narrator floats is his present, and the present is all he has.
Only small size and light weight offer the possibility of a grace that might blow him over the danger zone. Powerlessness is the fundamental fact of a zero hour in which human agency has been reduced to nothingness. In this world of nullity, human response can take two possible routes. On the one hand people can acknowledge the fact of their powerlessness; on the other, they can seek, through frenetic activity, to hide their impotence from themselves and others. For those in the first group, the destruction of their world means the end of ordinary life; while the second group clings desperately to ordinary life in order to obscure a more profound reality.
See, life goes on! Again and again he describes his alienation from the routine activities of life. This ordinary activity appears bizarre and unaccountable to the narrator: The people on this side and on the 6 other side have begun to hate each other. Once upon a time there was a man who had no mother. A fist thrust him naked into the world, and a voice called out: And he dared not look behind, for behind him was noth7 ing but fire. The subject of the parable has no mother and therefore no connection to a reassuring past or to tradition.
Nor has he willed his own coming into the world. Far from being a hero of the zero hour, the narrator of this parable is at an utter loss. Beyond the world of daily necessity and the hoped-for end of the war the narrator perceives nothing, and he believes that no one else can see beyond the present either: No visions of a grand rebuilding or of a newer, better Germany make the loss of the past more bearable; instead, the narrator suggests that the destruction of Hamburg heralds the end of European history. The city and the continent are both gone for good.
What remain are the living dead and those who are already ghosts.
Even those who have busied themselves with the ordinary tasks of daily life are not necessarily thinking up grand schemes for the future: In the midst of their frenetic activity they suddenly stop, forgetting any projects they may have, and gather together with other people to listen to the news.
To an outsider it must have seemed as if we had a lot of time, and yet we were people without rest. Everything we did be10 came instantly meaningless in our own eyes. The dissociation from time renders meaning impossible. For those outside time, any action taking place within time makes no sense.
Hence ordinary life has become radically alienating for the narrator. It is only in the context of the disappearance of the past and the absence of the future that the narrator is able to find himself in a present that, precisely through the terrible alienation of everyday life, bears the seeds of transformation and transcendence. Civil and political authority have disappeared, along with all those aspects of life that bind human beings to routine.
Already the narrator is aware that this hour of a nothingness that gives access to the infinite will soon come to an end. Therefore he wishes to fix the image of this moment of absolute presence in his mind and in the minds of his readers: The stage-set is missing, the appearance of reality.
But now everyday life has become permanently alienated, and human beings know that it is nothing but a game, without deeper reality. The narrator now finds himself in an alliance with the divine — even if the divinity is death itself. Rather than playing with the attributes of an existence now recognized to be unreal, the narrator plays with his divine friend and ally.
And time 18 sits sadly in a corner, feeling useless. Because of his alliance with a divine presence outside of time, the narrator-writer is able to preserve an element of eternity in the midst of destruction. Although the narrator asks himself why he is writing, he leaves his question unanswered, as if it were purely rhetorical, since a narrator can do nothing but narrate. Although the narrator claims to make himself infinitesimally small, his alliance with a divinity greater than himself enlarges him and makes possible precisely that rainbow bridge over the abyss that he had previously claimed was illusory.
The narrator may have rejected the maternal power of time, of clocks, and of everyday life, but he has become an ally of an even greater masculine power in the face of which everything else seems negligible. Every afternoon he comes through the old gateway. We always ask him 20 to take us home with him. In the face of the catastrophe now lying behind him, he finds that the cares and troubles of everyday life are unimportant: Why and for whom is the narrator telling his story?
When was a voice ever lost? In a sense it made me immune to events, so that I never participated in them completely and they found no point of attack. Yes, it must have functioned as a 24 kind of magic cap. If the narrator of Der Untergang had declared that the only possibility for survival lies in not being loud and not having too much weight, then the narrator of Nekyia has found precisely the means by which he can make himself disappear, thus eliminating all vulnerability to the outside world.
His verse and his singing voice are his talisman. The narrator of Nekyia seems to have survived the unspecified catastrophe as a kind of ghost. When he returns to the unnamed city, which seems to have been emptied of all its inhabitants, he enters a house and looks into a mirror in which he cannot see himself or any of the objects that lie before his eyes, even though he can see all of the objects that lie behind him.
Nor does the narrator have a name. Prior to the catastrophe he had a name, but he has now become separated from that name. He indulges in the Romantic fantasy that his name — like the mirror image bartered away by Erasmus Spikher in E. I had been so loosely connected to my name and my image that they were unable to pull me with them when they were destroyed.
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