Official U. Accessed 25 March National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. Accessed 11 April Vegega, M. Understanding the effects of distracted driving and developing strategies to reduce resulting deaths and injuries: A report to congress Cdc-pdf External. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC: Facts and Statistics. Teen and Distracted Driving Olsen, E. Shults, and D. Texting while driving and other risky motor vehicle behaviors among US high school students External.
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How Americans Use Text Messaging | Pew Research Center
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U Drive. Get Email Updates. To receive email updates about this topic, enter your email address: Email Address. What's this? Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
In Mandarin Chinese , numbers that sound similar to words are used in place of those words. Predictive text software, which attempts to guess words Tegic 's T9 as well as iTap or letters Eatoni's LetterWise reduces the labour of time-consuming input. This makes abbreviations not only less necessary, but slower to type than regular words that are in the software's dictionary.
However, it makes the messages longer, often requiring the text message to be sent in multiple parts and, therefore, costing more to send. The use of text messaging has changed the way that people talk and write essays, some  believing it to be harmful. Children today are receiving cell phones at an age as young as eight years old; more than 35 percent of children in second and third grade have their own mobile phone. Because of this, the texting language is integrated into the way that students think from an earlier age than ever before.
An article in The New Yorker explores how text messaging has anglicized some of the world's languages. The use of diacritic marks is dropped in languages such as French, as well as symbols in Ethiopian languages. In his book, Txtng: the Gr8 Db8 which translates as "Texting: the Great Debate" , David Crystal states that texters in all eleven languages use "lol" "laughing out loud" , "u", "brb" "be right back" , and "gr8" "great" , all English-based shorthands. The use of pictograms and logograms in texts are present in every language. They shorten words by using symbols to represent the word or symbols whose name sounds like a syllable of the word such as in 2day or b4.
This is commonly used in other languages as well. Crystal gives some examples in several languages such as Italian sei , "six", is used for sei , "you are". There is also the use of numeral sequences, substituting for several syllables of a word and creating whole phrases using numerals. An example of using symbols in texting and borrowing from English is the use of. Whenever it is used in texting, its intended use is with the English pronunciation. Crystal gives the example of the Welsh use of in F , pronounced ataf, meaning "to me".
In character-based languages such as Chinese and Japanese, numbers are assigned syllables based on the shortened form of the pronunciation of the number, sometimes the English pronunciation of the number. In this way, numbers alone can be used to communicate whole passages, such as in Chinese, "" can be literally translated as "Hug hug you, kiss kiss you, whole life, whole life I love you. American popular culture is also recognized in shorthand. The feeling of individualism and freedom makes texting more popular and a more efficient way to communicate.
It originally began as a messaging system that would send out emergency information. But it gained immediate popularity with the public. What followed is the SMS we see today, which is a very quick and efficient way of sharing information from person to person.
Work by Richard Ling has shown that texting has a gendered dimension and it plays into the development of teen identity. For most people, half of their texts go to 3 — 5 other people. Research by Rosen et al. However, the exact opposite was true for informal writing. This suggests that perhaps the act of using textisms to shorten communication words leads young adults to produce more informal writing, which may then help them to be better "informal" writers.
Due to text messaging, teens are writing more, and some teachers see that this comfort with language can be harnessed to make better writers. This new form of communication may be encouraging students to put their thoughts and feelings into words and this may be able to be used as a bridge, to get them more interested in formal writing. Joan H. Lee in her thesis What does txting do 2 language: The influences of exposure to messaging and print media on acceptability constraints  associates exposure to text messaging with more rigid acceptability constraints.
The thesis suggests that more exposure to the colloquial, Generation Text language of text messaging contributes to being less accepting of words. In contrast, Lee found that students with more exposure to traditional print media such as books and magazines were more accepting of both real and fictitious words. The thesis, which garnered international media attention, also presents a literature review of academic literature on the effects of text messaging on language.
Texting has also been shown to have had no effect or some positive effects on literacy. According to Plester, Wood and Joshi and their research done on the study of 88 British 10—year-old children and their knowledge of text messages, "textisms are essentially forms of phonetic abbreviation" that show that "to produce and read such abbreviations arguably requires a level of phonological awareness and orthographic awareness in the child concerned. Texting while driving leads to increased distraction behind the wheel and can lead to an increased risk of an accident.
In , Liberty Mutual Insurance Group conducted a survey with more than teens from over 26 high schools nationwide.
One example of distraction behind the wheel is the Chatsworth train collision , which killed 25 passengers. The engineer had sent 45 text messages while operating the train. The experiment found that texting while driving was more dangerous than being drunk. The study concluded that when the drivers were texting, their risk of crashing was 23 times greater than when not texting. Due to the proliferation of smart phone applications performed while walking, "texting while walking" or "wexting" is the increasing practice of people being transfixed to their mobile device without looking in any direction but their personal screen while walking.
First coined reference in in New York from Rentrak's chief client officer  when discussing time spent with media and various media usage metrics. Text messaging among pedestrians leads to increased cognitive distraction and reduced situation awareness, and may lead to increases in unsafe behavior leading to injury and death. It is unclear which processes may be affected by distraction, which types of distraction may affect which cognitive processes, and how individual differences may affect the influence of distraction.
According to them, the addition of texting while walking with vision occluded increases the demands placed on the working memory system resulting in gait disruptions. Texting on a phone distracts participants, even when the texting task used is a relatively simple one. The act of texting itself seems to impair pedestrians' visual awareness. It appears that the distraction produced by texting is a combination of both a cognitive and visual perceptual distraction. However, they also found that the gait pattern texters adopted was slower and more "protective", and consequently did not increase obstacle contact or tripping in a typical pedestrian context.
Sexting is slang for the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive content between mobile devices using SMS. A portmanteau of sex and texting , sexting was reported as early as in The Sunday Telegraph Magazine ,  constituting a trend in the creative use of SMS to excite another with alluring messages throughout the day. Although sexting often takes place consensually between two people, it can also occur against the wishes of a person who is the subject of the content.
One in five teen girls surveyed 22 percent —and 11 percent of teen girls aged 13—16 years old—say they have electronically sent, or posted online, nude or semi-nude images of themselves. One-third 33 percent of teen boys and one-quarter 25 percent of teen girls say they were shown private nude or semi-nude images. According to the survey, sexually suggestive messages text, e-mail, and instant messaging were even more common than images, with 39 percent of teens having sent or posted such messages, and half of teens 50 percent having received them.
A study that has received wide international media attention was conducted at the University of Utah Department of Psychology by Donald S. They surveyed teenagers ages 14—18 and found that nearly 20 percent of the students said they had sent a sexually explicit image of themselves via cell phone, and nearly twice as many said that they had received a sexually explicit picture.
Of those receiving such a picture, over 25 percent indicated that they had forwarded it to others. In addition, of those who had sent a sexually explicit picture, over a third had done so despite believing that there could be serious legal and other consequences if they got caught. Students who had sent a picture by cell phone were more likely than others to find the activity acceptable. The authors conclude: "These results argue for educational efforts such as cell phone safety assemblies, awareness days, integration into class curriculum and teacher training, designed to raise awareness about the potential consequences of sexting among young people.
Text messaging has affected students academically by creating an easier way to cheat on exams. In December , a dozen students were caught cheating on an accounting exam through the use of text messages on their mobile phones. According to Okada , most Japanese mobile phones can send and receive long text messages of between and characters with graphics, video, audio, and Web links. Further, published research has established that students who text during college lectures have impaired memories of the lecture material compared to students who do not.
Spreading rumors and gossip by text message, using text messages to bully individuals, or forwarding texts that contain defamatory content is an issue of great concern for parents and schools. Text "bullying" of this sort can cause distress and damage reputations. In some cases, individuals who are bullied online have committed suicide. Harding and Rosenberg argue that the urge to forward text messages can be difficult to resist, describing text messages as "loaded weapons".
When a student sends an email that contains phonetic abbreviations and acronyms that are common in text messaging e. In a study by Lewandowski and Harrington , participants read a student's email sent to a professor that either contained text-messaging abbreviations gr8, How R U?
Specifically, abbreviation users were seen as less intelligent, responsible, motivated, studious, dependable, and hard-working. These findings suggest that the nature of a student's email communication can influence how others perceive the student and their work. Text messaging has been a subject of interest for police forces around the world. One of the issues of concern to law enforcement agencies is the use of encrypted text messages.
For example, Swedish police retrieved deleted texts from a cult member who claimed she committed a double murder based on forwarded texts she received. Several thieves have been caught and children have been found using the SMS Alerts. The service has been expanding to other cities. The Boston Police Department asks citizens to send texts to make anonymous crime tips. Under some interpretations of sharia law , husbands can divorce their wives by the pronouncement of talaq. In , a court in Malaysia upheld such a divorce pronouncement which was transmitted via SMS.
The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in that under the state constitution, police require a warrant before obtaining access to text messages without consent. Texting has been used on a number of occasions with the result of the gathering of large aggressive crowds. Not only were text messages circulating in the Sydney area, but in other states as well Daily Telegraph. The volume of such text messages and e-mails also increased in the wake of the riot.
Officials say it is an easy way of contacting community or individuals for meetings or events. Between and the U. The service was funded by the U. Agency for International Development through its Office of Transition Initiatives , who utiliized contractors and front companies in the Cayman Islands, Spain and Ireland. A longer term objective was to organize "smart mobs" that might "renegotiate the balance of power between the state and society. At its peak ZunZuneo had 40, Cuban users, but the service closed as financially unsustainable when U. Text messaging has affected the political world.
American campaigns find that text messaging is a much easier, cheaper way of getting to the voters than the door-to-door approach. The popular campaign against him was widely reported to have been co-ordinated with SMS chain letters. During the U.
52 Text Messaging Statistics for Businesses [Source-Checked]
Text messaging has helped politics by promoting campaigns. On 20 January , President Joseph Estrada of the Philippines became the first head of state in history to lose power to a smart mob. These people have organized themselves and coordinated their actions through text messaging. They were able to bring down a government without having to use any weapons or violence. Through text messaging, their plans and ideas were communicated to others and successfully implemented. Also, this move encouraged the military to withdraw their support from the regime, and as a result, the Estrada government fell.
Text messaging is a rapidly growing trend in Healthcare. Where messages could be saved to a phone indefinitely, patient information could be subject to theft or loss, and could be seen by other unauthorized persons.
General Texting Statistics
The excessive use of the thumb for pressing keys on mobile devices has led to a high rate of a form of repetitive strain injury termed "BlackBerry thumb" although this refers to strain developed on older Blackberry devices, which had a scroll wheel on the side of the phone. An inflammation of the tendons in the thumb caused by constant text-messaging is also called text-messager's thumb, or texting tenosynovitis. Increasing cases of Internet addiction are now also being linked to text messaging, as mobile phones are now more likely to have e-mail and Web capabilities to complement the ability to text.
Texting etiquette refers to what is considered appropriate texting behavior. One example from the site is: "Keep your message brief. No one wants to have an entire conversation with you by texting when you could just call him or her instead. Typing a text message in all capital letters will appear as though you are shouting at the recipient, and should be avoided. Expectations for etiquette may differ depending on various factors. For example, expectations for appropriate behavior have been found to differ markedly between the U.
In The M-Factor: How the Millennial Generation Is Rocking the Workplace , Lynne Lancaster and David Stillman note that younger Americans often do not consider it rude to answer their cell or begin texting in the middle of a face-to-face conversation with someone else, while older people, less used to the behavior and the accompanying lack of eye contact or attention, find this to be disruptive and ill-mannered. In , an increasing trend towards spamming mobile phone users through SMS prompted cellular-service carriers to take steps against the practice, before it became a widespread problem.
No major spamming incidents involving SMS had been reported as of March [update] , but the existence of mobile phone spam  has been noted by industry watchdogs including Consumer Reports magazine and the Utility Consumers' Action Network UCAN. In SMiShing, users receive SMS messages posing to be from a company, enticing users to phone premium-rate numbers or reply with personal information.
Similar concerns were reported by PhonepayPlus, a consumer watchdog in the United Kingdom, in Concerns have been voiced  over the excessive cost of off-plan text messaging in the United States. With service providers gaining more customers and expanding their capacity, their overhead costs should be decreasing, not increasing. In , text messaging generated nearly 70 billion dollars in revenue, as reported by Gartner, industry analysts, three times as much as Hollywood box office sales in World figures showed that over a trillion text messages were sent in Although major cellphone providers deny any collusion, fees for out-of-package text messages have increased, doubling from 10 to 20 cents in the United States between and alone.
While text messaging is still a growing market, traditional SMS are becoming increasingly challenged by alternative messaging services which are available on smartphones with data connections. These services are much cheaper and offer more functionality like exchanging of multimedia content e.
Especially in western countries some of these services attract more and more users. Consumer SMS should not be used for confidential communication. The contents of common SMS messages are known to the network operator's systems and personnel. Therefore, consumer SMS is not an appropriate technology for secure communications. The advantage of this international termination model is the ability to route data directly through SS7 , which gives the provider visibility of the complete path of the SMS.
This approach reduces the number of mobile operators that handle the message; however, it should not be considered as an end-to-end secure communication, as the content of the message is exposed to the SMS gateway provider. An alternative approach is to use end-to-end security software that runs on both the sending and receiving device, where the original text message is transmitted in encrypted form as a consumer SMS.
By using key rotation, the encrypted text messages stored under data retention laws at the network operator cannot be decrypted even if one of the devices is compromised. A problem with this approach is that communicating devices needs to run compatible software. Failure rates without backward notification can be high between carriers. International texting can be unreliable depending on the country of origin, destination and respective operators US: "carriers". Differences in the character sets used for coding can cause a text message sent from one country to another to become unreadable.
Kristiansen keyed in the official text message, as established by Guinness, in In reality, they seldom attack a human. His record of Elliot Nicholls of Dunedin, New Zealand, currently holds the world record for the fastest blindfolded text messaging. A record of a letter text in 45 seconds while blindfolded was set on 17 November , beating the old record of 1-minute 26 seconds set by an Italian in September He has been acknowledged by The Universal Records Database for the most text messages in a single month; however, this has since been broken twice and as of was listed as messages by Fred Lindgren.
As of , best time listed on Game Center for that paragraph is A few competitions have been held between expert Morse code operators and expert SMS users. For example, many Nokia mobile phones have an option to beep "S M S" in Morse code when it receives a short message. Some of these phones could also play the Nokia slogan "Connecting people" in Morse code as a message tone.
Many sports arenas now offer a number where patrons can text report security concerns, like drunk or unruly fans, or safety issues like spills.
For instance, the patron doesn't need to leave his seat and miss the event in order to report something important. Also, disruptive fans can be reported with relative anonymity. For instance, a single complaint in one section about an unruly fan can be addressed when convenient, while multiple complaints by several different patrons can be acted upon immediately. In this context, "tattle texting" refers to an automatic text sent by the computer in an automobile, because a preset condition was met.
Employers can also use the service to monitor their corporate vehicles. The technology is still new and currently only available on a few car models. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Microblogging.
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52 Text Messaging Statistics for Businesses [Source-Checked]
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