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Contents

  1. Título original: Conspiración Arcadia II “Codigus Rosa” (El Código de la Rosa).
  2. User talk:Csörföly D/2 - Wikisource, the free online library
  3. Tribute Wall

Es preciso que la historia no calle, porque la historia es la conciencia de la humanidad ; y entiendan los que no 10 la temen, que su justicia es implacable y sus castigos eternos. Nacido en una Corte corrumpida, su conciencia no tuvo un dia sereno. Ocultar con sus liberali- dades las miserias de su cautiverio. Renace en i8zo. Presidia las sociedades secretas del realismo. El libro del Sr. Por el contrario, las afirmaciones y diatribas del Sr.

Se nota adema? Confiese, pues, el Sr. El litxo del Sr. Para ello, antes de empezar con las dudas, es menester dejar sentado aquello en que todos convienen. Sobre las causas de este malestar se disputa mucho. Algo, aunque poco, de la cultura culinaria se infiltra y penetra 15 hasta en los lugares. Esto supone una turba de aspirantes lo menos de cien mil. Ix s que no entran en el grupa exiguo no es por falta He ganas, sino por falta de ao habilidad. Y tercera. Todos me parecen infruc- tuosos.

No digo nada de los literatos. Lo declaro con entera sinceridad; el Sr. El Sr. Se necesitan, pues, arrobas de vino para com- prar el vestido : un verdadero rio de vino. Luego son indispensables ocho fgnegas.

Título original: Conspiración Arcadia II “Codigus Rosa” (El Código de la Rosa).

Como prueba de la perversion, empieza el Sr. Lo ao primero que se necesita para ser patriota, es tener patria, y Pelayo no la tenia. Por eso apenas hay patriotismo en los siglos medios entre la plebe. En lo antiguo, cuando la patria se limitaba por los muros de la ciudad, como 35 en. Pues no digo nada de los de Homburgo, que ha sido un Estado, que ha sido una patria hasta Si se habla, pues, tanto de patriotismo, es porque le hay, y no para encubrir que no le hay. Contra esta burla hay los mismos argumentos ya expuestos.

De esto tampoco tiene la culpa el grupo exiguo. No es asi. Sin embargo, el Sr, de Liniers no se contenta con pintarnos en as caricatura tan crue! Su libro consta de tres partes. Hasta la misma perversion moral, si la hubiese y fuese tan horrible como db. Lo confieso con franqueza. Lo dudo. Lo que ansian es que se afirme la creencia de que todos hacen lo mismo. Digalo sino, el destino de asistente de Sevilla, donde la mayor parte de las plazas concejales llegaron k hacerse hereditarias y aun delegables.

El primer ejemplo que encontramos de este elemento son las Cortes de Burgos de , medio siglo antes que fue- 10 sen llamados al parlamento de Inglaterra los diputados de los Comunes, y cerca de un siglo antes de los Estados Generales de Francia. El D,g,t,.?

User talk:Csörföly D/2 - Wikisource, the free online library

No habia ley electoral ni base para ella. En este periodo hubo. Asi los efectos de aquella hermandad fueron parciales y casi nulos. En nuestros dias se ha querido hacer la apoteosis de los comuneros. El hombre, pues, como ser inteligente es un ser social. En Roma estas dos leyes coexisten; pero coexisten para combatir, y combaten para perecer. Their local governmenl was supported by dulies levied on imparts ; and their excellent highways kept in repair by a tax on passing vehicles, except he post-diligence.

At he close of the last Carlistwar, in , the king, Alfonso XI I, praclically abrogated iheic ancient fueros, which Philip II had spared, and subjected them lo the common burdens of the nation. London, , a vols.. Hence the name CarlisI, generally a synonym for Bosque factions, who Joined his standard 10 oppose the imaginary Invaaon of Iheir fueres, urged on by iho ultramontane clergy.

Render: In France the Sails viere formerly called upon to perform, etc, 4. I think, every- where in coired diction. Of course the post-road ran through it toward Ihe Spanish frontier, as the railway does now. Tlie Puerta de Puencftirftl signifies the gate on Ihe north side of Madrid, where the custom-house formerly stood for travellers coming by the highway, still called the Mala de Fiatuia, or Post Road of France.

The highway enters the town by the Calle de Fuencarral popular Calle Fun- earral , whence the name of the Puerta, continues down the C. Trans- late de, after registr p, by at. Page 3. SB decir, thai is. See also p. Many towns of Spain have, besides their arms, an epithet, such as '" muy fiel," '" muy leal," " D,g,t,.? See Gram. ConiUiffO ea, elc, ajiolher French consiruclion like that in p.

En nombre, etc. The process is veiy long, the text to be used filling fifteen pages in one of the old manuals. See Jansenius : Liier Eiclesia. The brother Charles expected lo succeed Ferdinand, but the liberal portion of the country proclaimed the infant Isabella, under the regency of her mother, Maria Cristina. Hence the seven years' civil war which " Charles the Fiith " sustained chiefly through the Basques, the traditional absolutists and foes of innovation.

Hence, also, the partisans of Carlos were called Catliits, and facciosos, or rebels, who harassed the country in guerrilla Gram, j All this passage is a fling al the exclusiire- nessofSpaniards, over the broad shoulders of tbe Alavese curaj. Page 4. See note to p. So, many verbs in Sjianish lake an infin. The construction in le dijo al Frances is called pleonastic or rt- dundant. In Spanish it adds strength, roundness, to the phrase. See Cram. Sec Gram. For subj.. Gram, J J , c. The adjectives complacido and eatlBtecIto are here used as adverbs ; with a self-complatent and saiisfUd air.

Here is no other qnein hereaboitls than. Pa 1E 6. Pace 7. Page 8. Vualva V. Oran peraona, elc, the first man viko calUii hitiatsi a tnorlal sat nwrf have been a perssnagr. Fur subj. UD tanto cuanto d,, lalhtr amusing. Page 9, See Gram, j Gram, f Un extranjero de estos, etc.

For sobj. See Baiall, p. Page ii. Has jml gent sat. Fot Eubj,, Gram. Botines is Ihe present term in Spain, as well as botoa, i. A quien le, Te. I : what do yon Ihmk of th Page Gram, i 7CQ, i. ISO, entre ml, la myseJf in my sleeve. Betiro, for el Buen Ketiro, a large park or grounds on one side of Madrid, formerly containing a. It is now open to the public, is furnished wtlh a drive, and in the summer evenings concerts and theatrical entertainments make it a fashionable resort unequalled in Europe. Como aoyeld. This is the classic pitillo, the cigarette.

PaGF If it were the other way, we should have had al conejo. Be ha quedado en el aire, is suspended in mid air. See note 10 p. Pace The dimin- utive -ilo is here provocative and piqaant, not possible to render. Bl as que, etc. Page PaOB PaGK iB. Formerly the first was called Jefe politico, but now Gobernador civil. Preciso, si, unavoidably, since. In that way the press is forced to respect the nation and public Bs me ha dado palabra.

Gentltmm, thai toUl not prevent us from throwing down the gauntlet Page No tenifo iDCon.. I hatie no abjection, Deje V. The blasphemous Janguage odlie text here should be evaded ns above. Jrom which the highest bidder takes the o take. Por los anos, about the year. He intimates that in the olden time he was up to the mark of good society when engaged in the " whisi " of that day, and in the fandango, now so vulgar and out of place.

The celebralion was tum-Jold, the aulhor snys. Here the noble and distinguished youlh of Madrid were educated. Since the buildings are occupied by Ihe Hospital Militar. Talayera de la Reina of the Queen was so named after the mother of Alfonso XI , and is an old ruinous town situated on a lovely plain nol far from Toledo.

Ferdinand, king of Cas- tille and Leon , conquered from the Moors Cordova, Seville, and Gram, j , a. Locke, the English metaphysiciaii, ; Bertoldo. An ellipse for IjO que V, guste dar. Page 3a, — These paper strips bound on the corner of a balcony indicate an apartment to lei ; when attached to llie emlre or front of the balcony, they announce a boarding-house with aeconunodations to spare, PaGF,3S. In Southern Spanish houses which usually consist of two floors, the ground floor for summer use. The taguan is terminated by an iron open-work door at the court end. Did the assassin eiperience a feeling of faiatness thai compelled hits to seek the supportof the Toali.

Acaso is merely the oral sign of an interrogation. When any of the Moors or Jews became Christians, they and their descendants were rated as cristianos nuevos, new Christians or proselytes ; and bmilies intermingling wtlh Ihetn were always considered as more or less tainted. The Spaniards of pure pedi- gree were called also el Tizon de Bspafia, the Brand of Spain, from a pamphlet written by Cardinal Francisco de Mendoia y Bobadilla, bishop of Burgos, addressed to Philip 11, to prove that a great part of the Spanish nobility were tainted with infidel or Jewish blood.

Jj , n,- Juiciosa 19 here used in its popular sense of quiet, "proper," "good"; — French, sage; German, arlig. Iba ya picando en historia, -mas aim getting to be a fixed faet. Y si pudo callar, etc.. T VamoB, etc. No quiero decir I Baas teaomOBi That is the case, is iif LiOCa, etc. Facie I'AGE Ija del iixini. The title of "Catholic Sovereigns"' was conferred on Ferdinand and Isabella in See Gerdes.. At this point it will be well lo give a list of the sovereigns of Castile from the Iwginning of the struggle against the Arab invasion in the eighth cenlury lo It day, to illustrate once for all the historic allusions in the pages that D,g,t,.?

Pelayo 7i Favila M! Femando I Casl. Alfonso IX of Leon. Enrique I of Cast. Fernando III of Cast. Femando III. Don Juan II. Henry IV was Isabella's lialf-brothet. The truth b, that the house of Trastamara, which began in a murder and ended in a mad-woman, was the curse and ruin of Spain, made the reigns of Charles and of Philip possible, and the present degradation of the country inevitable.

And of all the members of that house, no reign was so fatal to Spain as that of the so-called Catholic Sovereigns, the projectors and funienters of priestcraft, Ihe Santa Hermandad, he Inquisition, Ihe expulsan of Jews and Moors, and Ihe manipulators of a crushing despotism of creed that condemned the nation to aspiritual death, while its only medium of respiration was f, naticbiu and ils twin sister hypocrisy.

JOTlo; Paolo Giovio , a great Italian writer of the sixteenth century, wrote much on Spain, where his woiks were freely translated. His Grammars and Dictionaries were among he first of the Peninsula and of Europe. See InlroducttBH. Hakim, el Sabio, or the I-e. Venice, 14S3 and , 4".

Montolvo ; Alonso Diaz de Monlalvo, bom , died , an eminent juris! To his works are to be added the Royal Ordinances by Juan Ramirei. AlcalA, , fo!. Philip II caused the whole to be revised and reissued in , under he title of Nueva Becopllacion, or 2Vsw Digest, and Charles IV republished them down to his ime Z", vol.

His writings were collected by his nephew, the tanious Ambrosio de Morales, historian and antiquarian, who published them at Cor- dova in A second edition appeared at Madrid in , a vols. Oliva'a life is found in Reiibal y Ugarte. I will translate his words : " 1 might also add here what Master Oliva wrote in Latin concerning Ihe magnet, in which he discovered ofa truth great secrets. He was very sure that with the magnet be had found a way by which two absent persons might talk lo one another.

I heard him Frequently speak of this ; for, although but a lad, I was fond of listening to his conversation. As for this matter of two absent persons being able to talk together, he explained the method by which it was to be brought about, and it was sublite enough, lo be sure ; but he was always insist- ing that he had it on his mind, although he could never bring it o a satisiactoiy state of perieciion for the lack of a powerful magnet, which seemed not likely lo be found.

Ltlriu de Pulgar. The dales of his birth and death are not known, but he hardly survived the war of Granada more than two or three years, which would bring his death at about Otra dama, Francisca, the daughter of Antonio de Lebrija. Pagu The aait was not the execution, but Ihe preliminary examination. After that, the condemned wero handed over to the Statt, taken without the walls or limits D,g,t,.?

The English have wrongly adopted ihc Portu- guese term "auto da fe," through Llorente's French ed. The latter always calls a burning See all the old Chronicles prior to Pace no, — 5. The In- quisition was established in 14S0, and continued without interruption till Dec. The 5enil, one o the two rivers of Granada, now the witness to the conquered Arabs, is very eloquently contrasted with the site of lie Ciristiaa calatnity nearly Boo years before. Genii is from Siagith, the Roman name of the river. Page iiz. Pagh Owing, lioivever, lo tho intolerable hcatandscaicityofwater.

The children of Ferdinand and Isabella were as follows : — I. Juan, prince of Castile, born in , married MarEaiel of Austria, daughter of the emperor Maximilian, in , but died Ihe same year, al the age of nineteen. Margaret again married, in , Philiberl of Savoy, who died in She was subsequently governess of the Netherlands for the remainder of her life , dying without succession. They became king and queen of Castile on the death ot Jane's mother in ; but her hus- band having lied two years after, in Ijom in , wife of Dom Joao, king of Portugal.

DoBa Maria, bom in , married in to D. Manuel, king of Por- tugal, her late sister's husband, died in child-birth in Her daughter Isabella became the only wife of Charles the Fifth in Their first issue was Philip II, bom in Oatlieriiie ot AJ-aerou. She died in IS35,Spaniards say of poison.

Charles the Fifth succeeded to he throne of Spain by reason of his mother's and thus a foreign house, that of Austria, crowned the fatnily disasters of Ibe last of the Trasiainaras. Hero the court usually spends the summer mon hs, and it was here, in August. Ihe writer of this article, it will be seen, was a Conservative Moderado , though considered a Uberal in Ferdinand's time.

Z30 Modem Spanish Readings. Page ii8. To understand the text here, it must be Iwpl in mind Ihal the Summer Palace is located at the beginning of extensive grounds, with "eaujc" or fountains pla]nng about ii. The premises aie surrounded by a high wiU], except in front toward Ibe village of 5a. Il is this iron gate thai is called Puerta dt Hum in the text.

England was included in Ihe acclaim, because the Pro- grcstsias favored Elnglish ideas for Spain, while the Conservatives inclined to France. He was killed in the insurrection that followed. His reign began in Marcli. On his return, he abrogated the Constitution of Cadii, and imprisoned or banished the members of Ihe Curtes and leading litterals, ignoring the progressive ideas thai had sprung up during the war against Napoleon.

Hence his reign may be divided into periods as follows : — I. Absolute despotism, i8t4-iSao. Revo- luiiou of This is an admonition to Isabella II. Fernando was divorced from his party by his tendency lo a milder regime. Don Carlos was ordered to return from Portugal to Madrid, but he refused. SU sBpOSa ; i. The children were IsaticliaH, bom in , and Maria Luisa, who is the 'vile of the duke of Monlpensiot. They rushed upon the French army, and a scene of carnage followed.

Two Spanish aitiilcry officers. Daoli and Velarde, fumed their cannons on Iha common foe. The second of May has since been observed as the national holiday, for by it the nation was roused to gather and resist Napoleon. The Pantheon is a ciypt or vault in the Escorial, wbcto the kings and queens of Spain are buried, from the body of Charles the Fifth to the present.

Ferdinand and Isabella still lie in the Cathedral at Granada. Vergil, Aemid. See Juvenal, 6, lo. Page 15S. Matid4tvmnu, etc. See Chnmita Gtiural, Zamora, , L ccc. Abandonar, v. Abaratar, v. AbaUdo, a, adj. Abierto, a, adj. Abismado, a, p. Abolir, I. AbominSdo, a, p. Abominar, I', u. Abrazar, v. Absorber, v. Absurdo, a, adj. Spaniard, [l.. Academia, n. Acalorado, a, ailj-, warmed, healed. Aceptar, v. Acomodar, c. Acordar, v. AcoBtarae, nji. Acadir, v. Acnerdo — acordar. COD, in harmony witli. Adqaindo, a, pp.

Id be detected, lo be remarked, to be stated, [ L. Advirtiera — advertir. Afecto, n, m. Agitar, v. Agotar, V. Agriarse, to become bitter ; irae agriando, to become embittered. Agrio, a, adj. Z4f3 AgtiftrdSr, v. Ahuyentar, v. See vida-a. Alarido, H. Cid, auoria, 1. Alentado, a, fi.

The Life and Work of Augusto Roa Bastos

Allbnao or Alonso, Alphonso. Aligerado, a, pp. Alojado, II. Alojar, V. See Alfonso. Altematiramente, adv. Alto, a, ,uij. Alfimno, n. Allende, adv. Amanecer, v. Amenazar, v. South and Central A. Amigo, a, H. Gram, p. Ampliar, v. Anarquista, h. Anatema, n, m. Broad Street. Old Sp. Anomalia, n. Ansiar, v. Anteojo, ti. Antro, n. J D,g,t,.? AnoncUr, ti. Apartar, v. Apearse, lo alight, lo gel oat, to gel down, to dismount; to be dis- charged.

Apetito, n. ApreoiSr, v. Aqui, adv. Tarraco- Arancel, u. Arder, v. Axgel, Algiers. AristocrAtico, a, adj. Armar, v. Arrancar, v. Arrasado, a, p. Arrebatar, v. Arreglar, v. Arrojar, v. Asociar, I', a. Asombrar, v. Capital, Oviedo. Astuto, a, adj. The old Sp. Atajar, v. Bobre, to call a. Atento, a, adj. AtQlo, n. At- lantic. Atraer, v. Atrincherar, v. CTlftndo, even if, although. O novo homem. Departamento de Museologia Cury Cucicanqui e C. Conceitos-chave de Museologia. Armand Colin. ISBN: Neves, PT de 26 maio [1]. Certamente que sim. Para a cidade de Lisboa? E se sim aonde.

Na Baixa Pombalina, a Oriente …. Para os turistas ou para os lisboetas. Para a comunidade local ou para a comunidade visitante. Tal acontece porque os seus protagonistas assim o promovem. Uma cultura que parece ser incapaz de se pensar como um todo. Olhamos para o que os portugueses consideram digno de se conservar. O que se escolhe para preservar. Regista-se portanto. Como se vive a festa. Como se faz a festa. Forma que procuram discursos alternativos de pensar o mundo. Pensamos que sim.

A celle du patrimoine? Mais de quel patrimoine? Tem como concorrente, na TV o caso Alcochete, e nesta lista o tal regulamento europeu sobre dados que ocupa paginas de leitura nesta lista. E com que motivo. Darem uns acoites para jogarem melhor, como se fazia da antigamente???. Quanto aos dados. Por toda a gente a fazer o mesmo. No final pago 5 euros e tenho que assinar um papel onde autorizo a que conste os dados que acabo de dor.

Paguei e fui fazer coisas mais proveitosas. Isto tudo para escrever, que o tal museu da Portugalidade estamos perante um problema semelhante. Muda, reconfigura-se. De criar a nossa identidade europeia. A biblioteca de Alexandria e o Museu. Que sabia fazer contas da tabuada. No somos feitos de tempo e vivemos no tempo. Mas, podemos acrescentar qualquer coisa. As listagens sempre me fascinaram.

Os meus pais falavam comigo em Italiano. Eu nunca falava em dialeto. Apesar disso, vivia num ambiente onde se falava dialeto e eu compreendia bem esse dialeto. Agora, falo bem o dialeto. Quando morrer recordar-me-ei de tudo. Concepts of popular, alternative and community communication revisited, and the re-elaborations in the sector.

Study about the theoretical aspects of popular, alternative and community communication, emphasizing the re-elaborations processed nowadays. The objective is to recover its concepts in the context of social movements and communities, observing their congruence and distinctions. Joana Puntel , p. Muitos autores6 [7] latino-americanos dedicaram-se a estudos nessa linha de pesquisa. Para Festa , p. Ele , p.


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Sem eliminar os formatos mais tradicionais, como o alto-falante e bicicleta ou carro de som. Neste caso, denomina-se imprensa alternativa. Como afirma Raimundo Rodrigues Pereira , pp. Para Bernardo Kucinski , p. Como enfatiza Wanderley , p. Situa-se no universo dos movimentos sociais populares no processo de lutas por direitos de cidadania. Krohling Peruzzo e muitos outros. Segundo Festa , pp. When it became known, the US government stated that live phosphorus was a normal weapon.

If it was normal, why was it not published? Why did nobody know that they were using this weapon that is prohibited by international conventions? Napalm is banned and so is live phosphorus for many more reasons. There is news like this every day, and all of these things are part of life, all of these things are part of our world. Just look at the enormous difference between now and those days when we came to the University brimming with ideals, full of dreams and good will even though we lacked the experience of a profound ideology and the ideas that are accumulated over the passage of years.

Young people entered this University exactly like that. It must be remembered that this University was not for the poor, it was for the middle class, for the rich, although young people tended to rise above class ideas and many of them were capable of struggling, as in fact they did throughout the history of Cuba. Eight students were executed in They were like the seeds of the noblest of sentiments and of the rebellious spirit of our people which showed their indignation at this colossal injustice.

Today we commemorate the deaths of nine students, who were no different from them, murdered by the Nazis in Prague on November 17, , on the eve of the World War II. Our youth always keeps alive the memory of those medical students and of all those students who fought against tyrannical and corrupt governments. Mella was one of them, also coming from the middle class because the children of farmers who could neither read nor write, were unable to attend high school, let alone enter university. As the son of a landowner, I was able to finish sixth grade, and when I graduated from seventh grade, I could enroll in a senior high school.

Of course, that left them without the possibility of graduating from university because, after high school, you had to come to Havana for further studies. I could come to Havana because my father had the means to send me, and so I graduated from high school, and fortune lead me on to university. Did that mean that I was better than any of the hundreds of boys few of which completed the 6th grade and none of which ever graduated from high school or went on to university?

My own case was like that of many others, I mentioned Mella. I could have mentioned Guiteras, or Trejo who died in one of those demonstrations on September 30, fighting against Machado. I could mention names like those that you listed at the opening of this event. Before the Revolution, there were always many noble students opposing the Batista tyranny and willing to make sacrifices, willing to die. And so, when the Batista tyranny returned with a vengeance, many students fought and many students died, and that young man from Cardenas, Manzanita as he was called, always smiling, always jovial, always affectionate with everyone, became well-known for his bravery, his integrity as when he descended the university stairs, facing the water hose of the fire trucks, or the police.

That is how all of them came to be known. You could see how the students were often oblivious of their social or class origins; at that age of so many hopes and dreams. At that university, there was only one medical faculty, and one teaching hospital, yet, many students received prizes and awards, first prize in medicine and even in surgery without ever having operated on anybody. Some made an effort; they were active and made contact with a professor who helped them, taking part in his practice or in some hospital.

We started at that point, until we got to where we are today, standing up almost like the capital of world medicine. Today, our people have at their disposition at least 15 doctors for every one that remained in the country, and they are much better distributed.


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Cuba has thousands of doctors abroad fraternally offering their services, and the number is growing. At this time -and I specifically asked for the exact figure-, we have 25, medical students; in first year there are about 7, and each year there will be at least 7, more; we have more than 70, medical doctors. There are also tens of thousands of students in the other medical sciences. We believe that there are 90, studying in the medical field, if we include nurses majoring, in nursing, and all those in other health sector professions. All of them are part of the large number of students in our universities today.

I wanted to bring up the differences from the year when I entered university; what was our country like then? We should ask ourselves that question and meditate on it. What is our country like today, in all areas? Comparison is impossible. It seems like other men before us undertook something as audacious as that, when they crossed the Atlantic.

They took off and landed in Cuba, then they took off again, but they did not arrive in Mexico alive. I was speaking of a ship that set sail; this was like a ship setting sail a long time ago, a small plane that seemed to be powered by an elastic band. Maybe you have seen those little planes which you wind up an elastic band and then you let go and they take off and land. Now it is different times, quite a few years after we entered the university. We came to the university at the end of and we began the armed struggle in Moncada on July 26th, , only eight years later, and the Revolution triumphed five years, five days and five months after Moncada, after a long journey by way of prison, exile and fighting in the mountains.

It was a relatively short time historically speaking, comparing it to earlier struggles that were so hard and difficult on our people. The stage when we began the struggle is where we will start now. We set off, we attempted to set off, not even being too knowledgeable about the laws of gravity. We headed upwards, struggling against the empire which was already the most powerful one but at a time when another super-power also existed.

And we continued marching upwards, gaining experience, seeing our people and the Revolution gain in strength, until this point where we are today. I wish I had more time to speak to you, but this moment now is without precedent. It is a time that is different from all the others. It is nothing like it was in ; it is nothing like it was in when we graduated, but we had all those ideas that I mentioned that day, when I affirmed with love, respect and the utmost affection, that I came to this University with a rebellious spirit, with some elemental ideas of justice, then here I became a revolutionary, I became a Marxist-Leninist and I acquired the ideas that I have never abandoned, nor have I ever been tempted to do so, not in the least.

For that reason, I dare say that I will never abandon them. In a spirit of confessions, I could say that when I finished studying in this university, I thought I was very revolutionary and basically, I was just starting on a much longer path. If at that time I felt that I was a revolutionary or a socialist, if I had absorbed all the ideas that made me who I am, and I could be nothing other than a revolutionary. I assure you today, in all modesty, that I feel ten times, twenty times, even a hundred times more revolutionary than I was then.

Tens of millions of men died on the battlefields of World War I and in other wars, impassioned by a symbol, by the beauty of a flag, by the emotional strains of an anthem like La Marseillaise was in its revolutionary time although it later became the anthem of the French colonial empire. In the name of that colonial empire and for a new distribution of the world, millions of Frenchmen died en masse in the trenches of World War I.

Man is willing to die, to consciously and voluntarily give up his life; he does not fight out of instinct like so many animals fight instinctively moved by the laws of nature. Man is a complete creature, I mean both men and women, and more often one needs to include women. But the human being is the only one capable of consciously rising above all instincts, even though man is a creature of instincts, of egoism. Man is born egotistical, a result of the conditioning of nature. Nature fills us with instincts; it is education that fills us with virtues. Nature makes us do things instinctively; one of these is the instinct for survival which can lead to infamy, while on the other side, our conscience can lead us to great acts of heroism.

It is amazing that in spite of the differences between human beings, they can become as one in a single instant or they can be millions, and they can be a million strong just through their ideas. Nobody followed the Revolution as a cult to anyone or because they felt personal sympathy with any one person.

It is only by embracing certain values and ideas that an entire people can develop the same willingness to make sacrifices of any one of those who loyally and sincerely try to lead them toward their destiny. You are constantly reading the works of the great thinkers, you are constantly reading history. It is the ideas that bring us together, ideas make us a combatant people on a collective and not just an individual basis; ideas make us a mass of revolutionaries. Then, when all of the forces unite, then the people can never be defeated, and when the number of ideas grows, when the number of ideas and values to be defended grows and multiplies, that is when a people can truly never be defeated.

And so, when we remember our comrades, and we see the youth who are taking on such important tasks; many of the others were leaders in this university and have behind them many years of struggle; some have more than 50, others might have more than 40 and today each one has his responsibility; many of them are students, others come from humble backgrounds, I see them all here today, those who were at Moncada, those that came on the Granma, fought in the Sierra Maestra and participated in all the battles; I see them all here, each one of them, defending a cause, a flag.

I see, for example our dear comrade Alarcon. I remember him because here we have been speaking of the struggle for the five imprisoned heroes, and he has been their indefatigable champion for justice. This was the task given him by the Revolution and he has shouldered the responsibility with his talent and in his capacity as President of the National Assembly.

I see comrade Machadito, a former doctor, but not an old doctor, who was with us in the mountains. Look at this world and see all the changes, all the aims we are pursuing today. Look at the strategies that are being designed, leading us into the strategies of the world. We are a tiny country, 90 miles away from the colossal empire, the most powerful empire ever in the history of the world.

Forty five years have passed and there it is, farther away than ever from the possibility of forcing the Cuban nation to its knees, the same nation they humiliated and offended for some time. Applause Once the US owned everything in Cuba: the mines, hundreds of thousands of the best hectares of land; the ports and its facilities; the electrical system, transportation, banking, commercial activities, etc.

Come and we shall give you everything we have, again, this university too, so that you can put in 5, instead of half a million students; half a million is too much and for your mentality, you would like to see us unemployed and hungry so that filthy capitalism can function because it is only with a reserve corps of unemployed that it can function; come back and make the ranks of our illiterate unemployed grow and stand in lines out by sugarcane fields, with nobody bringing them water to drink, or food to eat, or housing, or transportation.

I saw it with my own eyes, nobody told me about it, I saw it hardly 48 hours ago. I saw it there at the Convention Center, first a group of a few hundred, dressed in their blue T-shirts; I saw it in the young people who graduated as social workers, and today they are al, without exception, university students, from the first to the fifth year of their courses, after a year of intensive study to become social workers, after several years studying for this profession, first there were and now there are 28, If a nation can be made with 12 men, how many times greater than 12 men are we today?

And 12 men, many times multiplied, armed with ideas, knowledge, culture, knowing all about the world, knowing about history, geography, about the struggles, because they possess what we call a revolutionary conscience, which is the sum total of many consciences, it is the sum total of a humanist conscience, the conscience of honor and dignity and the best values that man can grow. This nation is born of love for the homeland and love for the world; and we cannot forget that the homeland is humanity, a statement made more than a hundred years ago.

Homeland is humanity, and we must repeat that every day, when someone forgets those living in Haiti or in Guatemala, suffering from the ravages of a natural disaster, among other things, suffering indescribable pain and indescribable poverty, as it is usually the case in most parts of the world. That is all that the infamous empire and its repugnant system can show as a result of a history where the species set out on a long march for a just society that has not been attained over thousands of years, which is the very short, relatively well-known history of a species in its quest for a just society.

And they have always been as far away from that society as we are close to it today, that is, closer to that just society we want to construct. And I dare say that regardless of the many flaws we still have, of our errors and inefficiencies, this is the society which in all human history comes closer to being described as a just society.

Where is justice that I cannot see it? I cannot see it because that one over their earns twenty, thirty times more than me as a doctor, or more than me as an engineer, or more than me as a university professor. Where is justice? And, why is this happening? What does the other produce? How many does he educate? How many does he heal? How many are made happy with his knowledge, his books and his art? How many does he make happy by building a home? How many does he make happy by growing something to eat?

How many does he make happy by working in factories, in industries, in the electrical system, in the drinking water system, in the streets, on the power grids, looking after communications or printing books? How many? We must to say that there are several dozens of thousands of parasites who produce nothing and just take that individual driving a vintage car from Havana to Guantanamo, buying and stealing fuel all along the way, who charged one of those young students pesos, pesos, when he had to travel just at a time when transportation difficulties were at their greatest. Yes, we have to bear that in mind and not forget it, for we are faced with a great battle, which we must begin to undertake.

We shall undertake it and we will win. Yes, we are very much aware of this, and we think about this more than about anything else: our flaws, our mistakes, our inequalities, our injustice. Never forget those who for years were our working class, going through decades of sacrifice, suffering the attacks of mercenary bands in the mountains, invasions like Giron, thousands of acts of sabotage that killed our sugar cane workers, our industrial and factory workers, those in the merchant marine or in the fishing industry, those who were suddenly attacked with cannons and bazookas, only because they were Cuban, only because they wanted to be independent, only because they wanted to improve the lot of our people; and there were the bandits, doing as they pleased, those bandits recruited and trained by the CIA.

Some are criminals, some are terrorists who blew up planes in mid-air or attempted to blow them up, careless of how many would die, and those over there who organized attacks of every kind and organized acts of terrorism against our country. Did the empire change in any way?

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Posada Carriles, what have you done with that nice gentleman who despite his shameful actions keeps trying to have the empire on a tight rein? When are you going to answer that very simple question which we have asked you so many times? Where and how did Posada Carriles enter the US? What boat did he use and through which port did he enter? Which of the crown princes authorized this? Could it be the fat little brother in Florida? Who welcomed him? Who gave their permission? Why is he strolling the streets of Florida, of Miami, so shamelessly?

How did he pass that academy? Was it sailings or fish breeding? Who was that guy…the guy who was talking on the phone with another terrorist who had some cans of dynamite? Look at how noble these people are, how law-abiding, how respectful of international laws and of human rights. They have a lot of nerve, these people, telling all those lies; and if you ask them one little question, a simple little query, they take months and months and they still have no answer, not one word.

So who are they trying to scare? We were witness to the colossal battle fought in Mar del Plata, in the stadium and in the area where all the presidents were assembled. Speaking of history, never before in the history of this hemisphere did such a battle take place, one that resembled the battle waged by that sad-faced gentleman, not because of any connection with Cervantes, but because that gentleman was grimacing, he was bored.

Some have been asking whether Cuba spoke, whether Cuba took any sides. Cuba speaks whenever it is necessary, and Cuba has much to say; but we are not in a hurry, we are not impatient. We know very well when, where and how to deliver the blows to the empire, its system and its lackeys. Nobody was going to do anything to him physically, really, what they wanted was that someone would throw a rotten egg at him.

The highly civilized Argentineans, together with the increasingly expert and aware citizens of our hemisphere, where the imposed order is not only untenable but beyond salvage, know exactly what they are doing. They said that it would be a peaceful demonstration, that not a blade of grass would be disturbed. Those who do not know what they are doing, are crushed by the people. We shall see who is going to check-mate in this piece chess game. The American people will salvage many of the ethical values, many of the forgotten principles.

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They will adapt to the world we live in, if this world can save itself, and this world must save itself. Everyone should struggle and we should be the first in that struggle for the salvation of the world. Ideas are our invincible weapons. Some speak of the battle of ideas, that battle of ideas which we have been waging for several years now and which is becoming a battle of ideas throughout the world. These ideas will triumph, these ideas must triumph. It is almost certain that there will be no way to move living, solid matter to a distance that is light years away from Earth; the laws of physics are much more rigorous, much more exact than historical or social laws.

In any case, I believe that this humanity and all the great things it is capable of creating must be preserved while it is still possible to do so. I have mentioned the names of a few comrades present here today, some are older, some are not so old, but we never know how long we have left. In no way do I think that any of them wants to save himself without considering the fate of this admirable and marvelous nation. Yesterday, it was but a seed and today it is a mighty tree with deep roots.

Yesterday, it was filled with noble potential and today it is filled with true nobility. Yesterday, it dreamed of knowledge and today that knowledge is real, when we are just beginning in this huge university that today is Cuba. Just look how new cadres are springing up, young cadres. There is Enrique who is leading a small army of 28, social workers, plus the 7, who are still in school perfecting their skills in that noble profession. I am going to say something, just to see if it will raise the sense of honor of the construction workers because when they want to be heroic, they are.

The Special Period aggravated it, because in this period we saw the growth of much inequality and certain people were able to accumulate a lot of money. I recall, we were building an important biotechnological center in Bejucal. There was a little cemetery close by. I was making my rounds, and one day I passed by the cemetery.

There I saw a colossal market where the construction crew, both the foremen and many of the workers, had put up a market selling cement, steel rods, wood, paint, you name it, all kinds of construction materials. You know that construction has always been a very serious problem. We have resources now; sometimes there have been shortages, but now we have the possibility of improving the situation of construction materials.

But this is nothing new. Well then, they should use only around kilograms. See the wastage, the re-routing of resources, see the larceny. In this battle against vice there will be no truce for anyone and we shall be thoroughly scrupulous. We are sure of one thing; every human being possesses a healthy dose of honor. When one looks in the mirror, one is not always the harshest of judges, even though, in my opinion, the first responsibility of a revolutionary is to be extremely severe with oneself.

For example, if an official from Public Health fudges the data documenting the existence of the Aedes Aegypti mosquito, he is summoned, he is criticized. What a laugh! They are actually happy. So, you criticize yourself, and what about all the harm you have caused and all the millions that were lost because you were careless or acted incorrectly? However, if we are going to war we need weapons of greater caliber; we must carry out criticism and self-criticism in the school room, in the party cells and then outside the party cells, in the municipality and finally in the entire country.

The thief deceives, and the person who deserves to be criticized for some lapse and he is deceitful, he is also a liar. The Revolution has to use these weapons, and we shall use them whenever necessary! The Revolution will establish the necessary controls. Judge for yourselves whether what I am saying describes the reality of today; the general state of disorder, not just in this, but in other things as well, with losses of millions of dollars, maybe 80 —listen, 80 is a huge bunch of millions!

Can you even conceive of what million dollars mean? Yes or no? You are university leaders, and all the students have their rights, in some form or another, all kinds: regular day students, night students, students of this or of that. Do you know how many university students there are today? Yes, , as a result of the universalization of higher education. No doubt Vecino knows. How many regular day students are there in all the schools of higher education in the country, including the military?

Enrique explains that the figure includes associate professors, adding up to 75,, together with 25, university professors, coming up with the sum of , Are these the same ones, or not? Are they included in the ,? They are included in the , of the universalization program. Is that correct, or not? You mean the regular day group?

It is explained that this is the figure they are talking about. There are courses for workers who already attend university; when they enter university I think they add to the figure of , Then, there are 32, students in distance education. What category are those in? Are they in the ,? This educational group exists.

In addition, you know that we already have university campuses. This is new, too: university campuses in the prisons. We also have municipal university campuses for public health, 1, campuses in the polyclinics, health units and blood banks, in all these places they are studying various public health related courses. There are almost , professors, full professors and associates. Many who were part of the bureaucracy in the sugar mills and in other areas are today teaching courses as associate professors; thus, the number of professors at the higher level has grown.

The two groups —and I am not even mentioning the other university workers— students and professors combined, add up to a total of about , Among the students, more than 90, were young people who were neither attending school nor employed, many of them from poor backgrounds, and today they are showing excellent results in their university studies.

Carlitos handed me a figure, I believe it said Vecino should know, because he is up on this data. Do you recall that one, Vecino? Look here, this is our Ministry of Finance. That was and I was asking about , there has been an enormous growth. How many do you think answered me? Just guess, use your logic. What do you think? You just spoke here. How many do you think answered my question, among those university professionals? He tells him: Do you know how much electricity you use? Tell me in pesos and in kilowatt. Laughter No, wait, even more; can you tell me how many incandescent bulbs you have, what brand is your refrigerator, what is your TV set black and white or in color and how old it is, what kind of fan you have, how much water you boil each day, what do you boil it in, do you have liquefied gas supplied by pipes, kerosene or liquefied gas supplied in small containers.

Do you know how many of the were able to answer? You know how many? Can I ask you a question? Why did that happen? Come on, we need to think about this. That could happen when you are all younger than I am now. I am speaking for all of you, for your children, your siblings, whether they are younger or older. You need to think.


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What kind of university leaders are you? How long do you need to meditate on this? How about a minute? Would that be long enough? One comrade explains that the reason is because the Cuban family can afford their electrical bill, unlike in other places where people have to be more vigilant about energy consumption. And you, what do you think? He suggests that no university professor ever has to worry about paying the electrical bill. Another believes that the revolution subsidizes a large portion of our expenses and that saving is a concern.

There are several questions that could complicate the matter some more, but we must make the people think. Simply stated, electricity is practically a gift, and I can prove it to you. Afterwards, we might have other questions. How much are we earning? And if the question deals with how much we are earning, we might begin to understand the dream of everyone being able to live on their salary or on their adequate pension.

One of them was a teacher and now the two are living together, having some problems, difficulties, earning a pension of 80 pesos because years ago, the salaries were much lower. None of this touched on the basic salary. Many of these laws were outdated and we have to begin to get rid of them. I can assure you that we have become aware of this. The entire life is a learning process, right up to our last breath. Many things become clear at a certain time, and thinking of a million different subjects, one can become distracted and not notice a certain phenomenon, such as the raises in personal salaries at the outset of the Special Period: these were implemented following these norms and not following a basic salary guideline.

The lady was earning 80 pesos, 50 was the minimum in a category, in another it would be and in yet another it would be Because everyone knows very well that the farmer does go there to sell three pounds of rice. The farmer is not a merchant, he is a producer. The other one will have a truck because he stole it, or because he bought it, or because he bought it with stolen money, or because he put the motor in, for many reasons. This is not speaking badly about the Revolution, this is in fact speaking very well of the Revolution, because we speak of a Revolution that can discuss all this and can grab the bull by the horns, even better than the Spanish bull-fighter.

At the end, you get the prize: a good torero gets the tail or an ear. They give two ears and a tail to the one who did a perfect job, along with a glorious reputation and a celebration. We were somewhat ignorant about the subject, because we had seen it done in Mexico and thought it was a great tourist attraction. Look how much we knew, or who we were, or what we thought we were very revolutionary. It seemed to be a sure fact, as well-known as the electrical system conceived by those who thought they were experts in electrical systems.

Just as if someone is a physician.