There were no reports of injuries. The arson attacks caused significant damage to area farmland.
In return, Israel expanded the fishing zone and agreed to enable United Nations cash-for-work programs, allow medicine and other civil aid to enter the Strip, and open negotiations on matters relating to electricity, crossings, healthcare, and funds. The balloon-borne bomb Wednesday was the first armed attack from the Strip since that round of fighting ended on May 5.
Also Wednesday, an unexploded rocket exploded in a cemetery in a town outside Ashdod. A picture taken on May 5, from the Israel-Gaza border shows a barrage of rockets being fired from the Hamas-run Palestinian enclave. The stakes are very high to get models for geo-enabled data right. The mission of the Open Geospatial Consortium OGC has been since to promote data standards that allow geo-enabled data to be created, shared, and integrated seamlessly for many different domains and applications.
OGC standards cover a wide variety of geodata types including natural features above and below ground as well as surficial components and infrastructure of the built environment. Up until recently, OGC standards had not yet begun to address data associated with underground utilities such as water, sewer, gas, electricity or telecommunications. Neither had the standards really encompassed aspects of the urban underground environment such soil characteristics, bedrock geology, near-surface hydrology, and built components such as foundations and pilings.
Data of these types, if collected at all, is characterized in most jurisdictions by isolated silos of incompatible information with different levels of accuracy and formats, making it challenging if not impossible to integrate data across the various utility networks typically entangled under most city streets. The need to improve this situation is clear. This report documents the progress made to date by OGC and its members to build a complete picture of the present situation and develop a conceptual framework for action to improve underground infrastructure data interoperability.
The report also identifies the most important steps to be taken next in order to develop the necessary data standards and foster their adoption. An OGC-assembled UICDS project team of sponsors, contributors, and staff solicited and assembled information on the state of underground infrastructure information and supporting systems. The project team developed a request for information that sought input from companies, jurisdictions, and nations around the world about current information challenges and how to solve them. Twenty-nine organizations responded to the RFI and delivered extremely valuable information that is summarized in the following report.
The project team then organized a workshop at the offices of the Fund for the City of New York, which brought together selected RFI responders for a two-day conference that explored the challenges and options associated with developing standardized infrastructure information.
This report, the outcome of steps 1 — 3 above, presents the information gathered in those activities and points the way towards the development of eventual data standards for underground infrastructure through a series of activities including research, pilot projects, and demonstrations. Use cases and case studies : Through the input of RFI responders and Workshop participants, six major categories of use cases were identified:.
Smart cities programs. The report details how underground infrastructure standards can provide improved options for each of these and cites relevant case studies where improved data yielded significant benefits, many of which can be quantified. Flanders KLIP case study : The Flanders region in Belgium presented encouraging information about their now well-established utility data integration program. Motivated by the Ghislenghien gas explosion in which killed 24 people and badly burned dozens more, Flanders now requires all of its utilities to create and provide access to digital representations of their infrastructures conforming to a common data model based on INSPIRE standards, enhancing data interoperability and integration.
As a result, excavation timelines have been significantly shortened and the frequency of utility strikes has been reduced.
OGC Underground Infrastructure Concept Study Engineering Report
The gas company is now including 3-D survey, modeling, and design of buried infrastructure as a routine practice with their project development and delivery program. Underground Environment : RFI responders and Workshop presenters made strong arguments to add the underground environment to consideration of underground infrastructure data models. Because the soils, moisture content and other characteristics of material surrounding and supporting utility lines play a significant role in their integrity and longevity, both the infrastructure and its environment need to be considered together.
Governance and Policy Environment : developing data models to enable the integration of underground data will not by itself ensure that this data is actually brought together and benefits realized. The development of accurate and comprehensive underground data is expensive, and because many private and public organizations control portions of this data, getting them to work together is a challenge because of security, liability, competition, and cost concerns.
Research a series of governance and policy challenges in order to frame and guide outreach efforts. Plan and conduct a series of pilot projects to test prototype standards for different data sharing and integration use cases across multiple jurisdictions. Beyond their own intrinsic value, common underground geodata standards may also serve to connect many existing data models and datasets associated with urban environments, making it possible to analyze and model them in ways never before possible. This holds enormous promise for the advancement of our society and achievement of smarter, more livable cities.
As a concept development study result, this report is intended to form the basis for future standards prototyping, development, implementation, and outreach activities. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. The Open Geospatial Consortium shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
Recipients of this document are requested to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent claims or other intellectual property rights of which they may be aware that might be infringed by any implementation of the standard set forth in this document, and to provide supporting documentation.
Most Recent Articles
Buried assets. In addition, the following terms and definitions apply. Material forming the ground in which underground infrastructure is embedded, and its aspects such as geology, hydrology, chemistry, and engineering properties. It is used here in a more general sense to refer to all overburden earth materials in the underground environment, including soils, sediments, and construction fill, that might surround and support underground infrastructure components. Stands for Underground Infrastructure Information.
Stands for Underground Infrastructure Information System. Computing system or platform that manages information pertaining to Underground Infrastructure. Information collected about or pertaining to Underground Infrastructure. Over the past decades, Geospatial Information Systems and Technologies GIST have gained recognition as valuable tools that support a wide variety of essential operations and functions.
Much of the power of GIST systems is based on their exceptional ability to integrate, visualize and analyze multiple data sets, by correlating them in space and time through the use of common location fields such as addresses and GPS positions. A significant part of the large-scale success of GIST is due to efforts, led by the Open Geospatial Consortium OGC , to establish standards for geo-enabled information that facilitate data interchange and integration. Such standards make it possible for spatially enabled data to be accurately superimposed from many sources within a single area and connected across many adjoining areas.
Within any metropolitan area there may be as many as eight or more different utility infrastructure and networks including: water supply wells, potable and treated water, sanitary sewer, storm drainage, irrigation, natural gas, steam, traffic management and control systems, raw and refined petroleum and chemical product pipelines as well as electric power and telecommunications lines. These networks often include or are part of an array of transmission, distribution and service lines. In addition, there are all of the tracks, tunnels, bridges, conduits, and other structures that make up transit systems.
Each utility network or system is often independently owned and operated by a distinct public or private organization which has unique engineering and technical characteristics and practices, along with particular data management needs, that have become established over many years. Unique manual record keeping systems have evolved over time into disparate, isolated digital systems with incompatible software and data formats, and schematic level spatial representation. Even different areas or systems within a single utility franchise may use distinct and incompatible ways of recording, managing, and depicting information.
These incompatibilities make efficient and timely data integration across different utilities difficult and imprecise. Even when it is technically possible, utilities have often been reluctant to share their information for security, competitive and cultural reasons. Above-ground infrastructure is at least straightforward to re-survey and validate.
When infrastructure networks run underground, the problem of data incompatibilities is compounded further, because the structures themselves are invisible, covered over by street pavement and sidewalks, encased in different soil and sediment units, and entwined with other utility infrastructure. For many features, especially older sewers and water mains, the exact locations are not even known, having been referenced to curb lines and sidewalks long since vanished.
Even less well known is the underground context of such structures, including soil conductivity, buried conductors causing distorting or misleading electromagnetic fields , chemicals, moisture, heat, cold, geological faults, subsidence, vibration, and so on. The presence and effect of water, whether as groundwater, seepage, or infiltration, is not only significant, but dynamic and can follow a complexity of permeable paths which are difficult to identify and monitor.
Most problematic of all, interactions between utility systems are often unknown; for example, the failure of one item, such as a transformer, can cause a dewatering pump to fail, which may cause a telecom vault to flood, etc. The potential for such cascading failures need to be understood in advance to develop appropriate counter measures to safeguard the resiliency of our utility infrastructure systems. The problem would be more tractable if underground infrastructure networks never needed repair, maintenance, or replacement but in fact the exact opposite is the case.
Log In to GameFAQs
Across major cities like New York and London, hundreds of thousands of street excavations are done each year to fix, replace, or update infrastructure, as well as add new services where older infrastructure already exists. Ordnance Survey has collated existing research that indicates that approximately 4 million holes are dug each year by the United Kingdom UK utilities industry to repair, upgrade or provide new connections to their assets.
At the present time, few if any cities have been able to comprehensively collect and integrate data about the underground infrastructure networks that serve their citizens. Drawings of underground utilities projected onto the street surface are regularly created on a piecemeal basis, from a broad range of data sources, nearly all of which is non-standardized. The resulting composite drawings present depictions of infrastructure which vary greatly in reliability. Often the excavation limits are marked on the street itself , and each utility owner must send a representative or their contract locating service to visit the location and physically mark the location of their own lines on the same street surface.
Call was established as a damage prevention service, and essentially provides a utility owner a last resort for protection; the process is reactive in nature, performed 24 to 48 hours prior to excavation, and not timely enough to allow proactive and predictive utility engineering measures such as advanced utility coordination, conflict analytics, and conflict resolution engineering as promoted by the American Society of Civil Engineers and Federal Highway Administration.
Manually intensive methods, such as utilizing Call to acquire and integrate utility information, add time and uncertainty to the construction process, especially given the highly variable quality of utility records, which are commonly a mixture of old, spatially inaccurate, incomplete, and non-standardized information. Fatalities are a severe consequence, with for example, approximately 12 deaths and serious injuries per year from contact with electricity cables. Furthermore, In emergency situations, the inability to quickly and accurately integrate quality data from multiple utilities can result in greater damage, larger outages and unnecessary injuries and deaths.
Currently, the different utilities in most jurisdictions keep their infrastructure records surface as well as underground in a variety of formats that are not easily integrated. Moreover, utilities are reluctant to share with each other anything more that the barest information because of security and competitive concerns. This is an appropriate task for the OGC because the most effective way of representing utility networks is through geospatial visualization and analysis, and the best way of integrating different geospatial networks — and unlocking the power of data combinations - is through the adoption of compatible geo-data models that allow utilities operating in the same area to bring their data together- with utility feature location as a primary organizing and integrating principal - in ways that maximize functionality and collaboration.
Accurate three-dimensional geospatial information about the location, nature, condition and relationships of these assets would reduce the expense for the asset manager and other stakeholders. Holistic understanding of the relationships between underground assets and with above ground infrastructure would help minimize service breakdowns and mitigate the impact of disasters. Comprehensive, exchangeable and up-to-date datasets could benefit the following business and societal activities:.
Improved conflict analytics, engineered resolutions, and advance coordination between stakeholders that result in better relocation designs, implementation of joint trenches, and innovative contracting methods, leading to fewer wholesale utility relocations, lower construction risk, shorter project schedules, and decreased costs for all stakeholders;.
Numerous studies around the world have shown that these are common challenges in an increasingly urban and technical world. Through the Underground Infrastructure initiative, OGC and its members seek to lower the barriers to interchange and integration of infrastructure data in a number of critical applications.
By means of a common, extensible data model and interchange standards, OGC expects to create a favorable environment that encourages uniform, high quality data development and enables straightforward, timely data integration. Subsurface and below ground utility networks : A common data model for underground infrastructure will need to represent all the components necessary to characterize that infrastructure as a whole in order to enable infrastructure data interoperability and standards formation.
Such components will at a minimum include or cover the following.
THE BOOK OF PROVERBS: Chapter 5 The Pitfalls of Immorality
Surface and above-ground utility networks : The primary purpose of this project is to develop interoperability standards for underground infrastructure data in urban environments. In doing this OGC recognizes the need to look towards developing interoperability standards as well for infrastructure networks and features that run on or above the ground. Such above-ground utility networks are present even in dense urban areas but are more often found in suburban and rural areas. Rural and suburban areas: It is the hope that this project will initiate and facilitate a process by which infrastructure interoperability standards are developed that encompass the characteristics of all kinds of utility networks located in all types of areas.
From the standpoint of urban infrastructure, this is important because the supply chains of many types of utilities involve the transmission of resources from generation plants, wells and reservoirs located outside urban areas. Additionally, having infrastructure interoperability standards that cover every kind of community will enable regional planning efforts that examine infrastructure not as isolated islands of urban use, but as interdependent parts of a regional whole.
The OGC Innovation Program utilizes a multi-step collaborative methodology for interoperability initiatives that seeks to uncover geospatial interoperability challenges and then develop ways to address them. The methodology begins with a Concept Development Study CDS in order to understand and frame the current state of information technology in a target knowledge domain. A critical step in a CDS involves gathering insights from domain experts and other stakeholders about productive future directions that can then be explored in subsequent initiative activities such as testbeds, experiments, and pilots.
- THE NAKED MAN?
- International Taxation in America for the CPA and Attorney.
- Mama Dont Like Ugly.
- Prego! An Invitation to Italian.
- IAF strikes underground Hamas target after Palestinians fire rocket into Israel.
Ultimately the initiative methodology leads to development and adoption of consensus reference architectures and information standards that increase both the value and the utility of geospatial information. The study examines opportunities for—and barriers to—establishing functional three-dimensional repositories of underground infrastructure and other relevant sub-surface information. The study will consider, among other issues, how different infrastructure data providers, consumers, and software vendors can best achieve:.
Sustainable collection of geo-enabled data fit for purpose on all relevant underground infrastructure;. Exchange of data between platforms, systems, and organizations without loss of detail, attribution, or significance;. Enforcement of data security sufficient to protect appropriate public, private, and personal interests;.
Integration of inputs from current and new generations of sensors and other intelligent infrastructure components;. The CDS will also outline the scope of a multi-phase underground infrastructure interoperability initiative. Subsequent phases will seek to develop a deeper understanding of implementation and policy issues, as well as test standards-based components for enabling infrastructure data interoperability in realistic application scenarios.
Scenarios will initially focus on urban landscapes but will take suburban and regional environments into consideration as well. Summaries of responses to a Request for Information ;. Results of a workshop attended by key experts, stakeholders, and study sponsors;. Twenty eight 28 responses were received. Identify methods for exchanging data between disparate information models, emphasizing comparison of information models to identify common concepts that enable integration.
Review existing underground information systems that aim to support significant applications and provide valuable benefits. Plan for the next phases of the project including a pilot implementation that advances best practices and open standards to meet the application and benefits. Utilities And The Built Environment: The economic life of communities of all kinds, and especially in developed and developing countries, depends to a significant extent upon the quality and efficiency of the built environment.
This includes the structures where people live and work and the infrastructure that connects every structure — and serves all who use those structures - with essential resources such as water, energy, communications services. If buildings and their occupants can be compared to the cells in a human body then infrastructure networks are like the human circulatory and nervous systems without which life would not be possible. Utilities Go Underground: In developed countries, most jurisdictions have made the decision, sometimes hundreds of years ago, that some or all of the infrastructure serving the populace should be placed underground, running along the street network and branching off to connect with buildings and other structures and street elements.
The reasons for this decision are obvious: water and sewer networks cannot be efficiently engineered at the street level and other types of utilities are protected by being buried in the earth, where they do not clutter the streets and sidewalk which are needed to support safe public mobility.
For example: the decision by New York City to put utility lines underground was made after the blizzard of when heavy snows caused the widespread collapse of utility poles and lines, resulting in widespread outages, and a major threat to public safety especially from severed electric wires. Invisible Infrastructure Yet once infrastructure was placed underground, utilities were forced to deal with another set of problems arising from the fact that pipes, conduits and connections could not be seen at street level nor physically reached when work on them needed to be done — except for small segments of the network that could be accessed via manholes and vaults, and street accessible valve shafts.
When new service connections needed to be made, when utility lines brake and needed to be repaired or replaced, when new kinds of services needed to be provided, when higher capacity services needed to be installed to deal with increased demand, it is almost always necessary for there to be an excavation below street level where there might be five, six, seven or more different kinds of utility pipe and conduit lying close to one another and often, on top of one other.
Workmen were obliged to proceed with great caution because they could not see what might be hit, damaged or severed by their next blind shovel thrust. One miscalculation could lead to a flood from a punctured water line, a gas line explosion or even a lethal shock from severed electric conduit. But such excavation coordination efforts were only as good as their records were easily accessible, complete, accurate and understandable.
All too often data flaws and incompatibility led to misinterpretation and mistakes which resulted in delays and in damages. This might only have been a minor annoyance if it were not for the fact that utility excavations are quite frequent. Looking at information from older cities like New York, Chicago and London; and regions like Flanders, Belgium; for every street mile there may be as many as 30 to 40 or more excavations annually, or more than , excavations on an annual basis.
When dealing with the large scale of these transactions, inefficiencies in bringing data together, can be costly, annoying and even dangerous. This information supports utility business and field operations including customer service, utility hookup and repair; utility replacement and modernization, and customer billing and collecting. Because the infrastructures of many utilities were designed and created many decades ago, their records reflect the information technology — or absence of technology - available at the time.
OGC Underground Infrastructure Concept Study Engineering Report
Even to this day, many records are still kept on manually drafted drawing sheets and service connection cards, more recently record keeping has progressed to include scanned drawings, CAD electronic designs, and databases to store attribute data. For utilities, as with almost every other form of business, the efficiency with which information is handled, determines how effectively the business is run. For underground utilities, this challenge is complicated by the fact that safe and efficient utility operations require a knowledge of the location of other nearby utilities.
Since different utilities have different methods for storing and formatting their data, and have a natural reluctance to share based on security concerns, the bringing together of data, even with excavation coordination programs, has always been problematic. As computer visualization and analytic capabilities have grown, opportunities to take full advantage of new information tools have foundered because compatible data capable of being quickly shared, integrated and analyzed just simply does not exist.
For any hope of having an impact on how infrastructure information is captured, structured, stored, shared and used, it is essential to have an understanding of the various organizations that play important roles in owning, managing, and regulating underground assets. The parties responsible for collecting and curating data about the underground environment can be grouped into some general categories.