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What Are Bipolar Disorders?
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About bipolar disorder and different types
Bipolar I disorder , bipolar II disorder , others . Environmental and genetic . Family history, childhood abuse , long-term stress . Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , personality disorders , schizophrenia , substance use disorder . Psychotherapy , medications .
Lithium , antipsychotics , anticonvulsants . Library resources about Bipolar disorder. Resources in your library Resources in other libraries. In fact, percent of individuals with bipolar disorder have a relative with either depression or bipolar disorder. However, environmental factors can also contribute to bipolar disorder — extreme stress, sleep disruption and drugs and alcohol may trigger episodes in vulnerable patients.
Bipolar disorder is very treatable. Medication alone or a combination of talk therapy psychotherapy and medication are often used to manage the disorder over time. Each person is different and each treatment is individualized. Different people respond to treatment in different ways. People with bipolar disorder may need to try different medications and therapy before finding what works for them. Anticonvulsant medications are also sometimes used. In psychotherapy, the individual can work with a psychiatrist or other mental health professional to work out problems, better understand the illness and rebuild relationships.
A psychiatrist is also able to prescribe medications as part of a treatment plan. Because bipolar disorder is a recurrent illness, meaning that it can come back, ongoing preventive treatment is recommended. In most cases, bipolar disorder is much better controlled if treatment is continuous. In some cases, when medication and psychotherapy have not helped, a treatment known as electroconvulsive therapy ECT may be used. ECT uses a brief electrical current applied to the scalp while the patient is under anesthesia.
What is bipolar disorder?
The procedure takes about minutes and patients typically receive ECT two to three times a week for a total of six to 12 treatments. Since bipolar disorder can cause serious disruptions and create an intensely stressful family situation, family members may also benefit from professional resources, particularly mental health advocacy and support groups. From these sources, families can learn strategies to help them cope, to be an active part of the treatment and to gain support for themselves.
Bipolar II disorder involves a person having at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode see above. People return to usual function between episodes. People with bipolar II often first seek treatment because of depressive symptoms, which can be severe. People with bipolar II often have other co-occurring mental illnesses such as an anxiety disorder or substance use disorder. Treatments for bipolar II are similar to those for bipolar I — medication and psychotherapy.
Medications most commonly used are mood stabilizers and antidepressants, depending on the specific symptoms. If depression symptoms are severe and medication is not working, ECT see above may be used. Cyclothymic disorder is a milder form of bipolar disorder involving many mood swings, with hypomania and depressive symptoms that occur often and fairly constantly. People with cyclothymia experience emotional ups and downs, but with less severe symptoms than bipolar I or II. Treatment for cyclothymic disorder can involve medication and talk therapy. For many people, talk therapy can help with the stresses of ongoing high and low moods.