Many thanks to contributing photographer Colin Price for his inspiring photographs of the viaduct! At the end of the month, JB completed a series about G. Bodley's important early church, All Saints, Selsley , Gloucestershire. She also added Baron Marochetti's Angel of the Last Judgement on the church of Saint Germain l'Auxerrois, Paris, and, with photographs from contributing photographer Colin Price, another viaduct, the Loughor Viaduct near Swansea, with its preserved section of Brunel's original structure.
Finally, at the very end of the month, she reviewed an unusual and moving exhibition at the Watts Gallery, Compton, about James Henry Pullen: Inmate — Inventor — Genius. Thanks also to Caroline Hedengren-Dillon, who sent in a marvellous four-part essay, fully illustrated with some hard-to-acquire photographs, on "Polychromy in the work of Baron Carlo Marochetti. John Rennie, Esq. The site now has 60 cartoons with commentary on the Irish Question.
She also added G. A recent visit to the Guildhall Art Gallery then inspired a new look at the Scottish artist, Thomas Faed, with a biography and several new paintings, including one of his best-loved works, Highland Mary. This was followed by a review of Sublime Symmetry , an exhibition at the Guildhall of William De Morgan's ceramics, focusing most revealingly on the mathematical side of his designs. Thanks to the Fine Art Society for sharing images and information about works in the gallery, including William Joseph J.
In addition, a photograph of E. Philip Allingham has created the first sixty! Cassell illustrations of Robinson Crusoe with substantial commentaries, and as part of his project to create material on Victorian illustrations of canonical works, he has just created sections on Henry Fielding and Oliver Goldsmith. Thanks to Adrian Powter, a new contributor who sent in about two hundred photographs of G.
Bodley's All Saints, Jesus Lane , Cambridge, Jacqueline Banerjee was able to put online new work by Bodley, who designed the church and many of its fittings , and William Morris and Charles Eamer Kempe, who were responsible for much of the interior decoration. The east window alone was a project, with figures by Edward Burne-Jones and Ford Madox Brown including his St Peter , which looks rather like him , as well as Morris himself. Then there were Kempe's windows, such as one featuring a splendid dragon , and Ward and Hughes's windows, including some Good Shepherd lights, and Douglas Strachan's later Womanhood window.
Among much else is a magnificent chancel-arch mural by Wyndham Hope Hughes, and last but not least came the eye-catching sanctuary tiles by the Godwin firm in Herefordshire. In the sculpture section, she wrote a short piece about a typical piece of street furniture, a cattle trough and drinking fountain , now a raised flower-bed! A collector who wishes to remain anonymous has contributed photographs of medals and sculpture.
The same collector shared photographs of six medals by Frank Bowcher plus C. Ortner's Thomas Gainsborough , Edward W. This month, Jacqueline Banerjee added a short biography of artist William Holman Hunt, and some works by George Wittet , one of the last architects of the Raj in India — whose most famous work is the Gateway of India in Mumbai.
She then wrote about Charles Barry's remodelling of Kingston Lacy , with its listed stable and coach house block by Thomas Henry Wyatt. These were the expiatory monuments which preceded the one discussed at length by Caroline Hedengren-Dillon see below.
Amusingly, there are also images of the bronze tortoises that Marochetti modelled for the terrace at Kingston Lacy! At the end of the month, JB added two previously published reviews, both now illustrated and slightly extended. Felix Henry Santos e-mailed from Spain with an engraving of an English naval officer leading an army regiment in battle in what seems to be India.
Thanks to Ruth Richardson for sharing a delightful Victorian parody of sensation fiction and to Dr. Derry of Edinburgh for correcting some typos. Together they cobbled together a brief biography of Stothard and a section on Defoe, emphasizing the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century editions and illustrations of his famous novel. Continuing with the Crusoe project, Allingham then added a dozen images from adaptations of the novel for children plus seven illustrations of the novel by Phiz and nine by Sir John Gilbert.
Both of these were in the exhibition. On her return, she opened a new section on Eyre Crowe , the artist who accompanied Thackeray on his tour of America. This includes some of his paintings, such as his A Slave Market, Richmond, Va , and several of his sketches, including one of Thackeray lecturing in New York. Another new painting for the website was William Dyce's David in the Wilderness. Lastly, she put online the Watts Gallery's press release about an upcoming exciting!
Pre-Raphaelite exhibition. Colette Keaveny contributed a biography and bibliography for Talwin Morris , the Glasgow School designer. Your webmaster had in fact photographed a series of such panels but had not known who designed them. As the month ended, he began to add the work of the Sandhurst drawing-master Alfred Delamotte , who provided almost line-drawings of the castle and grounds as they appeared years ago.
The partnerships entered into by James Matthews also produced some striking works, like the former Caledonian Bank in Inverness. William Burn was another important architect, who designed the Sheriff Court in Inverness, part of the castle there. Landow has also continued to add interesting political and other cartoons from Punch and Fun.
This month Jacqueline Banerjee added short photo-essays on Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight, which Philip Hardwick worked on in the Victorian period, and the St Nicholas chapel , which was rebuilt by the prolific and aptly named Isle of Wight architect, Percy Stone.
She also added a brief comment on Tennyson at Freshwater, and a dedicatory poem he wrote there. She then turned to Scotland, starting new sections on the Highlands and Islands , and the prolific Scottish architect, Alexander Ross — which so far includes only a few of his hundreds of buildings. The most important is Inverness Cathedral , which has a fine tympanum by Thomas Earp, and also some work by the Scottish sculptor Andrew Davidson.
But the new section on Davidson starts outside the cathedral, with his well-known statue of Flora Macdonald on Castle Hill opposite. Once the or so titles were available on the Victorian Web , Landow then created a dozen bibliographies of titles of works set in specific periods, such as the Ancient World: Egypt, Greece, and Rome , British India and South Asia , and Pirates, Buccaneers, and Privateers. James, a once widely popular writer of historical novels, is so unappealing to twenty-first century readers.
The trip has provided interesting comparative examples of Romanesque Revival , Gothic Revival architecture in Germany as well as photographs of windmills , such as those used to drain the fens, and examples of some of the inspirations for Pont Street Dutch. Returning to the Isle of Wight again, she wrote about three historic piers: Yarmouth , Ryde and Sandown. Watts's statue of Tennyson outside the latter. Special thanks to Simon's son Laurence for his contribution here. She also put in Prince Frederick's Barge at the same museum; the Town Church , Guernsey to help bring some memorial sculpture together ; St James's Church, Yarmouth ; and some other interesting buildings on the Isle of Wight, such as the old pumping station in Ventnor.
Another contribution was a new section on the stained glass firm of Ward and Hughes , which is already filling up thanks to some batches of lovely photos from contributing photographer Colin Price — lots more to come here! Still looking without success for examples of work by the sculptor Crook, encountered enough material to create sections on the painter Anna Airy of whom Crook did a portrait bust , James McBey , and Arthur J. After idly pulling H. After Landow returns from cruising down the Rhine and Moselle, the project will continue.
Still on the Isle of Wight in mind, at least , Jacqueline Banerjee wrote about the unique royal church of St Mildred's — the estate church for Osborne, which Prince Albert played a large part in designing. Its interior is full of memories of the royal family. She also wrote about the stained glass in its transepts by John Hardman, and realising we hadn't included it yet Sir Alfred Gilbert's statue of Queen Victoria in Winchester Castle — as well as Harry Furniss's irreverent cartoon about it!
Looking up Queen Victoria's life, she included some new episodes from it, such as the laying of the foundation stone of the Royal Albert Hall. She also added Millais's well-known painting, Hearts are Trumps , before moving on to Scotland, where her autumn trip provided material for the Glenfinnan Viaduct , and for a new section bringing together older as well as fresh work on Scottish railways not yet complete. Recently we included Viveka Hansen's interesting piece, "Jet and Dressed in Black," about the use of jet beads for mourning costumes.
Thanks to Wayne Kavanagh, an undergraduate at the Open University, for notifying us about a typo. Still drawing on wonderful internet resources provided by the Internet Archive and the Hathi Digital Library Trust , Landow created a section of more than twenty cartoons from Punch and commentary about the campaign for the Second Reform Bill of Le Caleau, , and The Last of Dee. In addition, he added two drawings of Claude W.
Then she went back to Osborne, writing about the interiors of the Pavilion , Main Wing and Durbar wing , and the house's magnificent terraces , its walled garden , the royal children's Swiss Cottage , museum and Victoria Fort and Albert Barracks there, as well as the Queen's bathing machine at Osborne beach. It is great to see this author getting her due at last. Henley's version of the same subject.
Landow next added fifteen works by Leonard Raven-Hill that demonstrate the wide range of his Punch illustrations, after which he created a section on the fairy and fantasy illustrations of Thomas Maybank. Allingham contributed a biography of the humorist Douglas Jerrold , and Landow added four portraits of the author from the collection of the National Portrait Gallery. Beginning with the first plate. The Bottle is brought out for the first time: The husband induces his wife "Just to take a drop".
Early in the month, Jacqueline Banerjee went to the Isle of Wight. It was a kind of busman's holiday, as there is so much of Victorian interest there. On returning, she first wrote about its railways , including their history , the notable nineteenth-century locomotives still running on the island's heritage line, like the Freshwater , their coaching stock and so forth.
Taking a break from the IOW she added a local historic passenger boat, the Yarmouth Belle , and Richard Dadd's portrait of one of his physicians, Sir Alexander Morison , together with another unusual pastoral scene, Wandering Musicians. Later she looked at a new for us sculptor, John Francis , who worked with Prince Albert on a couple of projects, one of which was a sculpture of his favourite greyhound, Eos. Then she wrote about Guglielmo Marconi , and the beginning of wireless telegraphy at the very end of the Victorian period. Dominic Crawford Collins has contributed an introduction to My Secret Life plus other materials, including bibliographies of its publishing history and recent criticism.
July s the month began, your webmaster created new sections for two illustrators — Bernard Partridge and Georgina Bowers. The next two weeks were devoted to the writings and drawing of J. Battling the unusual heat in the London area and with your webmaster's encouragement , Jacqueline Banerjee wrote about three North Wales train companies with Victorian beginnings: the Ffestiniog Railway , the Llangollen Railway and the Welsh Highland Railway , all now running "Heritage" train services. Then, after receiving some new batches of photographs from contributing photographer John Salmon, she introduced the architect Edward Monson an ardent Freemason , and two of his firm's churches: St Martin's, West Acton , and St Alban's, Acton Green.
Both of these have an array of stained glass windows, including a whole series in St Martin's by C. Hamilton Jackson — so these needed to be introduced as well. As usual, John's photograph does it full justice. Another welcome contribution was Mary Shannon's piece about Wellington Street in London, where Dickens, Reynolds and Mayhew all rubbed shoulders in Victorian times — the subject of her award-winning book.
We also brought in and wrote about more paintings from the Tate and Manchester City Art Gallery, now released on the Creative Commons license. George Robinson writes from Edinburgh to invite readers of this site to inform our readers that Dr Bruce Vickery will deliver an illustrated talk on the history of the Royal Observatory on the Calton Hill between the years and Thanks also to Dvora Negbi for correcting an error about Eliot's funderal. Punch expectedly provided both respectful tributes to the new King-Emperor and allegorical celebrations of empire as well as more characteristically humorous glances at the sea voyage to India and the Durbar , to which it gave fairly short shrift, making an interesting contrast to the work of Menpes.
Too late to include for last month, Jacqueline Banerjee completed a piece about the features of later-Victorian Queen Anne Revival domestic architecture, added a commentary on Kate Greenaway's house in this style , and wrote about quite a different kind of building, Canada House on Trafalgar Square.
After that she formatted a biography of the sculptor Charles Sargeant Jagger, and included many pictures of his work, which she wrote about separately. These ranged from his symbolic figures on Nobel House at Millbank, like Chemistry , to his spontaneous likeness of a Maker of Modelling Tools. She went on to write a fuller account of St. Saviour's Church, Knightsbridge , which your webmaster had visited a year or two ago, because John Salmon kindly sent in many new photographs of it, including its stained glass.
Simon Cooke created a new section for the book illustrator s and designer s Alfred Crowquill — the name under which the Forrester brothers, Charles Robert —50 and Alfred Henry —72 published. Tim Willasey-Wilsey contributed to the materials on the Durbar by providing photographs of Maiden's Metropolitan Hotel in Delhi, perhaps the only remaining building associated with that event. Jacqueline Banerjee then wrote text to accompany the images. Landow also created a new section for David Cox, adding a chronology , A. During the remainder of the month two projects occupied your webmaster.
First, he created a typical Victorian Web network of interlinked documents and images on the Afghanistan crisis from online materials found in The Illustrated London News , Punch , and Fun. Each of these dozens of substantial essays consists of scanned images, the passages illustrated, and comparative material, and bibliographical information.
The chapel also has a drawing of St Philip by Edward Burne-Jones, all that is left of a window lost in war. She then added a four-part essay on Matthew Arnold , adapted and extended from previously published material. This now includes his portrait by G. Watts and a teasing caricature by Tissot. Later, she discussed the collaboration between Sir Charles Barry and Pugin over the Palace of Westminster, and added a brief biography of Barry.
Many thanks to Robert Galea-Naudi, great-great-grandson of the Maltese architect Emanuele Galizia, who prepared a short biography of him accompanied by a list of his works and a number of photographs, which were added throughout our section on him, and included some new works like his philanthropic Istituto Tecnico Bugeja. Haynes, R. Bob Muscutt contributed an introduction to G. Stephen Foster sent in a biography of the pioneering geologist and fossil hunter Hugh Miller.
On the 29th, Dr. Re-reading G. With this new material on hand, Landow next created a new homepage for the French Revolution. JB also reviewed Kimberly J. This involved adding two etchings by Daniel Maclise, depicting contrasting groups of male and female writers for Fraser's Magazine. One of our longtime contributors, a collector who wishes to remain anonymous, sent in photographs and caption material for two works of sculpture, S. Oh Rapture! The Enduring Phenomenon of Gilbert and Sullivan.
Fortunately, the internet quickly provided the information about the new code required, and after a bit of tedious copying and pasting, all works again! Now to fix the problem with some of our rotating and rotatable images of sculpture! The March wind blew in Jackie Banerjee's new section on genre painting , which includes Sir Frederick Wedmore's introduction to it, published in This was mainly inspired by getting to know the work of Thomas Benjamin Kennington , who painted the well-known Orphans — although he also painted a fine portrait of Queen Victoria.
Others will be added as galleries give us permission to reproduce them. She also wrote a short piece on Brinsley Headstocks , Nottinghamshire, in the technology section. A new set of lovely photographs by John Salmon enabled her to write about William Butterfield's St Matthews, Ashford in Surrey, and its full complement of Victorian and early twentieth-century stained glass by important firms. In particular, she opened a new section on William Aikman , who designed eight of the windows here. She also formatted, illustrated and commented on Paul Waterhouse's life of Butterfield Catherine J.
Peter J. Lucy Paquette improved our materials on James Tissot, adding a biography and detailed chronology. Next due: her essay on Tissot during the Commune. Working his way through xeroxed pages of The Studio and the Architectural Review , Landow used the resources of the Internet Archive online versions of periodicals to improve older documents on sculpture and add some new works and even artists to the site.
Examples of newly added works include C. Pownall Madame Fromet. He now has new sections in sculpture , design , and illustration , with many examples of his work. She also reviewed the exhibition and its accompanying book edited by Julius Bryant and Susan Weber. Another review which was written originally for the journal Cercles followed, of Patrick C.
Lamin O. Sanneh-Disciples of All Nations-Pillars of World Christianity
By the end of the month, we had over followers on Twitter. It has proved to be a great way of sharing information about the Victorian period! Alan Doyle, who has shared an photograph of Victorian policeman taken by A. Chambers of Clapham, writes to ask if anyone can provide information about the uniform and the likely date of the photograph.
If you have information contact the webmaster. Philip Allingham extensive contributions included revising the list of illustrators into British and American artists. Tim Willasey-Wilsey's contributions on the sculptor Edward Richardson see below then inspired her to write about several more pieces of his work, including his memorial to the 16th Queen's Lancers in Canterbury Cathedral, and his restoration of the Arundel Tomb in Chichester Cathedral.
These were followed by a piece on Lewis Carroll in Guildford. Thanks also to Michael Critchlow, for sending in photographs of a naturalistic stone lioness with her cubs at Thornbridge Hall, Derbyshire, sculpted by John Thomas; and Colin Price for his brilliant long-distance shot of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct.
He followed this with a series of essays on Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, which includes discussions of Lamarck and evolutionary theory , the political imnplications of his works, and his legacy. Many thanks to Neil Holland, curator at the University of Aberystwyth's School of Art, for giving us permission, at the end of last month, to use an image of their portrait of architect and designer John Pollard Seddon for a new section on him, starting with his very special Byzantine-Revival church, St Catherine's Hoarwithy.
Simon Cooke and John Salmon both helped by contributing photographs of this. This month, Jacqueline Banerjee contributed entries on the City Churches in Dundee, especially St Mary's , the Parish Church, which has some lovely Burne-Jones windows, including the great east window. Another window here, depicting the Resurrection , led her to open a new section on the important Scottish stained glass designer Daniel Cottier. Later she looked at a shop nearer home, which still has its original Victorian Doulton tiling.
Later in the month, she opened another new section, this time on the ornithologist, naturalist and anti-Darwinist Francis Orpen Morris , with material about his life, and excerpts from some of his writings, most importantly and entertainingly his attack on the theory of evolution. Highly recommended for those in need of some sunshine! Ray Dyer contributed a long, detailed bacteriology timeline and he and your webmaster have thus far created twenty-two brief biographies of the pioneering scientists, such as Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg , mentioned in the chronology.
Ray has also begun a section on major diseases, thus far contributing ones for anthrax and typhus. Stephen Foster created our new section on Erasmus Darwin, beginning with a biography , introduction to his poetry, ideas of evolution , and his radical politics , after which he added a series of characteristic excerpts from the scientific poems and Darwin's extensive explanatory notes on such topics as the adaptations of plants and their insect polinators , the sensitivity of plants , and their medical uses.
On the twenty-sixth the site had 91, documents and images. Philip B. Allingham created a section for William Sharp's illustrations for The Moonstone , which consists of 51 images and detailed discussions! A Romance. The summer holidays seem far away now, but Jacqueline Banerjee finally found time to write about the McManus, Dundee , with its fabulous Albert Hall and Victoria Gallery , which she so much enjoyed visiting.
A special favourite was William McTaggart , on whom she opened a new section, with several paintings, including his lyrically impressionist And All the Choral Waters Sang. Many thanks to the McManus for their permission to use photographs, also to the librarian of the Royal College of Physicians Edinburgh, and photographer Andrew Lee, for supplementing them.
Lionel Gossman kindly sent in some more photographs of Karl Friedrich Schinkel's work in Berlin and Potsdam , showing more about his career and his links with English architects. Thanks also to Joe Pilling, for a review of David Cesarani's new book, Disraeli: The Novel Politician , and to John Salmon for another series of splendid church photographs, this time of George Gilbert Scott's St Matthias, Richmond, both its exterior and its interior , and its many fine stained glass windows by major Victorian firms, including William Wailes's beautiful west wheel window. Sir Arthur Blomfield's chancel screen here led JB to look at this architect's work at Eton College , which in turn caused her to write an introduction to the architect Henry Woodyer , an Old Etonian whose "burning bush" lamp standard there is a well-known landmark.
A Brief Introduction. Verity Burke from the University of Reading, who is Associate Editor of the Wilkie Collins Journal , kindly shared a description of this new online journal. Mark Bernstein tells us that eventually we'll be able to have both the more interesting one intended for those reading on large tablets and computers and the list needed for reading on smart phones.
Thus far only the homepages for John Ruskin and George W. Reynolds have the diamond-shaped design. More will come as time permits. He and Dickens despised each other. Reynolds, a radical through and through, attacked capital punishment , imprisonment for debt , government spying on private letters, child labor in Lancashire coal mines, prostituting twelve-year old girls , adulteration and contamination of food, and the three "Laws" by which he argued the rich kept down the poor — the Game, Corn, and Poor Laws. He makes Queen Victoria a character in the novel, and he also explains the fine points of bodysnatching.
Landow also added more than 70 illustrations of the novel by the unfortunately named Stiff. After Jackie Banerjee introduced him to a special issue of The Studio devoted to bookplates, GPL created a folder for them in the decorative arts and design section of the site and added more than seventy-five examples.
Early in the month, Jacqueline Banerjee opened two new sections, one on the artist H. Lathangue , which includes his controversial Leaving Home , and the other on the stained glass designer E. Prest , whose windows can be seen in St Augustine of Canterbury Church, Highgate — John Salmon sent in many splendid photographs of this church, which also has a fine window by Nathaniel Westlake , amongst others. Colin Price also sent in a beautiful war memorial window in St John's, Cardiff. In connection with the first of these the Ark of the Covenant JB wrote an introduction to the unusual and notorious Agapemonite sect , and added some work on the brilliant windows there, by Walter Crane.
We now have well over followers on Twitter, many of whom interact with us and make us feel a useful part of the academic community! Simon Cooke contributed material on book illustration, cover design, and photography, one Glaswegian working in all these areas — William Ralston for whom Simon wrote introductions for his work as a photographer , illustrator , and book cover designer.
Arriving on the Scottish mainland allowed your webmaster to return to old haunts and obtain photographs of some new buildings and sculpture and additional views of ones already on the site. Glasgow, for example, featured a lovely department store interior in a Grade A British Listed Building and the Argyll Arcade to go with all out London arcades.
Glasgow Cathedral contained a memorial to the men of the Seventh Highland Light Infantry lost in a battle on the North-west frontier of India — a battle that, as Tim Willasey-Wilsey helpfully pointed out, had been discussed in one of his recent essays. Edinburgh, where the trip ended, produced additional images, including a detail of the Scott Monument and a new pictures of the Wellington equestrian monument on Princes Street.
Apart from an important meeting at the beginning of the month with your webmaster! Jackie Banerjee enjoyed spending a week looking at a single Arts and Crafts church, St Martin's, Low Marple , working with over fifty photographs kindly sent in by Michael Critchlow. This lovely church has work by Henry Wilson and Christopher Whall as well as Sedding, and stained glass by William Morris, Christopher Whall, Herbert Bryans and others, all linked from the the bottom of the three main webpages about it. This project involved saying more about Sedding himself, and opening new sections on Whall and the stained glass designer, Herbert Bryans.
Another addition was Michael Faraday's home at Hampton Court. Phillip V. Fraser and John French Sloan. Jackie Banerjee started the month by working with Colin Price's new photographs of the lovely Rossetti triptych at Llandaff Cathedral. Then she completed a long overdue piece about London's Tube , before turning to sculpture, with an account of Sir John Steell's statue of Robert Burns in Dundee, and several new sculptures and drawings by Henri de Triqueti, such as his splendid statue of Pierre Lescot on the Louvre, his finely detailed drawing of an angel at a church in Padua, and his preparatory study for the Marmor Homericum at University College London.
Many thanks to Cercles for sharing with us Marianne Drugeon's review of Emily Eells's recent edition of Wilde in Earnest , which is now illustrated with some photographs of the production of the play. At the end of the month, JB added an introduction to the distinguished Scottish portrait-painter Sir Francis Grant , and some beautiful photographs of stained glass in Winchester Cathedral sent in by Colin Price, including the Jane Austen memorial window there and the windows by Edward Burne-Jones and John Dearle in the Epiphany Chapel, starting with Burne-Jones's Annunciation window.
These last were formatted with the new style sheet, on which so much work is currently being done! King contributed. The brutal death of Sir William Macnaghten. Adrian S. The site challenges reigning iconic representations of Livingstone by restoring one of the British Empire's most important figures to the many global contexts in which he worked, traveled, and is remembered. Thus far we have of his illustrations, many of which have commentaries and are interlinked. Braddon, Frances Power Cobbe , Mrs. Before going off on holiday, Jackie Banerjee continued working with Ramachandran Venkatesh on Mumbai's great heritage of "Bombay Gothic" buildings, with F.
Special thanks to Venkatesh for his piece on Stevens's Standard Chartered Bank , including information about banking history in Mumbai, and sculpture here by Roscoe Mullins. Thanks also to Martin Cook, for sending in some useful information about the cost of E. Prior's Voewood House.
JB also opened two new sections. Thanks to Colin Price for all these pictures! On returning home, JB started adding various new items from her travels, such as a "Liverpool Special" postbox , the recently restored and magnificent Liverpool Lime Street Station , and Peter Ellis's extraordinarily advanced Oriel Chambers , also in Liverpool. Rendering our site in Spanish continues at universities in Madrid. A fourth thanks to Gail Frampton, who kindly sent us photographs of her great-great grandfather, whose Crimean War letter she found on our site.
It's wonderful to receive material from readers! Many thanks to D. Rose for letting us know that some of the Wilde websites he recommended some years back have blinked out of existence. Thanks, too, to Diane L. Ritter for pointing out some embarassing typos and fixing a link and to Mark Graham for pointing out the Greek letters on a Pugin tile. Allingham continues his vast Little Dorrit illustration project by adding more than a dozen of James Mahoney's visual interpretations of Dickens — and then comparing his to those of other illustrators. At the end of last month, Ramachandran Venkatesh had sent in photographs and a helpful commentary on Elphinstone College in Mumbai, and Jackie Banerjee added commentaries to several other photographs of his, for example of statues by Matthew Noble including one of Mountstuart Elphinstone himself and Thomas Woolner a characterful one of David Sassoon , in the same city.
She also added a notice of the new exhibition at the Courtauld of Georgiana Houghton's "Spirit paintings," along with several of the paintings on show there. Special thanks to Antoine Capet of Cercles for letting her reproduce on our website her new review of Malcolm Shifrin's splendid Victorian Turkish Baths. Particularly welcome was a batch of photographs from Ramachandran Venkatesh, with commentary, for a new entry on one of the greatest buildings of the Gothic Revival, the Victoria now Chhatrapti Shivaji Terminus in Mumbai.
JB added a life of the architect, F. Stevens and two of his other works, the Royal Alfred Sailors' Home and the much-praised Municipal Buildings , as well several more to follow. She also added an introduction to the artist, Richard Redgrave. Thanks to Marie and Ray Ella for sharing photographs of their Lincolnshire home, part of which was formerly a Victorian Primitive Methodist chapel. Thanks to Tony Schwab, who most recently contributed his essay on the sublime , for sending in corrections about materials found throughout the site; thanks to Natalina Aloisi who writes from Italy to helpfully point out a missing letter that broke a link; and thanks to Dr.
Cammy Thomas who notified us about an obsolete document. One of the largest recent projects on the site involved reducing rather than adding to it, as we removed syllabi of courses that formerly used the Victorian Web at universities in the United States, Canada, and Singapore and student contributions not particularly relevant to the site, such as those on twentieth-century American non-fiction and modern fantasy.
The site added an obituary for Linda H. Peterson , who contributed her pioneering book on Victorian autobiography and other materials some years ago. We hope to add more of her books and articles. Jacqueline Banerjee got a warm welcome at the Ragged School Museum on its open weekend this month, afterwards adding a long overdue introduction to Dr Barnardo. Working with more pictures from Ramachandran Venkatesh, she continued filling out our Mumbai section with its well-known Flora Fountain , co-designed by Richard Norman Shaw. Much time was spent revising and updating a number of earlier pieces by various people, such as Paul Mersh's account of General Gordon's charitable works , first added in Looking for relocated illustrations, and incorporating links to new material, for example in the biography of Brunel , also took time.
She also images and commentaries for his cenotaph for Prince Albert and the Yates Memorial. Yet, on the basis of his newfound faith, Peter felt it was a challenge he should meet head-on in order to justify and validate his mission to the Gentile Cornelius. Under Christendom, however, this idea of religion as civilized imperial prerogative resurfaced with clamorous force, and non-Christian populations at home and abroad, including Jews, were corralled as subject people, with native lands fair game. The outstanding exceptions to such prerogatives were Muslim lands, but that was by force of circumstance, not from any intrinsic respect.
From the apostolic mandate to practice mission and from the pressure to expand in the Roman Empire, the Christian movement spread beyond Jerusalem and Palestine and penetrated predominantly Greek-speaking areas. Personal conversion to God as redeemer and judge, rather than kinship or cultural qualication, became the new rule for membership in the church. Christianity was an old religion insofar as its ethical foundations were grounded in prophetic Judaismand Jesus was a striking embodiment of the Jewishness of Christianity.
But its conception of faith as grounded in the sovereign consci-. The faith it preached was derived from moral conviction, not from genealogy or social custom. Collingwood pointed out, The whole of Christianity depends for its value on the assurance that God is revealed in us; and that implies on our part some faculty capable of accepting revelation. That is the primitive Christian conception of faith. The last barrier had collapsed. If we marvel at the greatness of Paul, we should not marvel less at [that of ] the primitive apostles, who for the gospels sake entered on a career which the Lord and Master, with whom they had eaten and drunk, had never taught them.
By adopting an intercourse with Gentile Christians, this Jewish Christianity did away with itself, and in the second period of his labours Peter ceased to be a Jewish Christian. He became a Greek. Pauline Watershed Many writers claim that Paul expanded the subtle yet momentous shift in the understanding of faith that Peter taught. The subject is well trodden, but for our purposes consideration of a few works should sufce. The Oxford theologian C. Dodd drew attention to the shattering of Pauls old condence in the religion he inherited from his ancestors.
Whether as Jew or as Christian, Paul believed that the Law of Moses was absolute, impeccable law, and within the sphere of law there was nothing higher or more perfect. Paul saw an identical principle at work among the pagans. The pagan sense of right and wrong was Gods law written on the heartthe same law as that delivered on Sinai, Paul would have said. Stoic philosophers developed a stream of pagan thought in which we encounter this problem of the search for perfect wisdom by the most relentless and pious of seekers, as shown by Diogenes, so that many Stoic passages come to us tinged with a melancholy evoking the moving transcript from Pauls experience.
In the end, for the age-old longing for perfect wisdom Christ became the fulllment, he being the ageless wisdom of God who is now made manifest. Jewish one. Yet Pauls own bitter experience in Pharisaic Judaism lent a cutting edge to his awakened conscience. His theological studies had told him that God was loving and merciful; but he had thought this love and mercy were expressed once and for all in the arrangements through the law that God made for Israels blessedness.
That was what he and his own people understood as the plan of salvation. It was a new thing now to be assured by an inward experience admitting of no further question that without qualication God loved him and others, and that the eternal mercy was Gods free forgiveness of sinners without regard to their moral record, spotty as that is. From his encounter with the Jesus of Calvary and Easter Paul arrived at the personal idea that the center of Christianity was in the heart and life of the believer, whoever and wherever the believer is. In Pauls view, one need not conform to one cultural ideal or standard to be saved.
He brooded long and hard on how he knew no way of dealing with religion except as a question of inheritance and birthright until he was shown another way. He testied how that change came to him unsolicited with wrenching force, though in retrospect it seemed too obvious to miss. How did he miss it? Paul was once constrained to defend himself in Jerusalem in the face of a hostile crowd who accused him of deling religion by bringing Gentiles into the temple. Surprising them with his impeccable Hebrew, Paul responded by stressing that he was himself of proud Jewish stock, who not so long ago and in the company of many who were present on this occasion tried to beat back the new Christian movement, believing it to be a blasphemy against God.
I am a Jew, born at Tarsus in Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, educated according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God as you all are this day. I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering to prison both men and women, as the high priest and the whole council of elders bear me witness. From them I received letters to the brethren, and I journeyed to Damascus to take those also who were there and bring them in bonds to Jerusalem to be punished.
The God of our fathers, Ananias assured him, appointed you to know his will, to see the Just One and to hear a voice from his mouth; for you will be a witness for him to all men of what you have seen and heard. And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on his name. For Paul himself, however, his Jewish ties were indissoluble, and they allowed him to range far and wide across the new Christian terrain. When he offered an account of his new experience of religion he drew on his Jewish background: not simply on the covenant in the light of which the Way of the followers of Jesus was, Paul once thought a grave heresy, but particularly on the temple, Gods hallowed sanctuary.
Paul was now able to extend that idea of sanctuary by afrming that the temple was not an immutable building centered in Jerusalem or anywhere else, but the believers themselves whose redeemed bodies, as such, are Gods temple. The offer of salvation was premised on the honest and sincere conviction of persons as free agents, not on possessing a promised land. Territoriality ceased to be a requirement of faith. Several writers have assessed Pauls signicance for world Christianity, and it would repay us to consider their work in the broad context of our study. Pauls Epistle to the Galatians shows that Greek believers expected that they would serve a cultural apprenticeship under the Torah and conform to the idea of religion set out therein.
As Greek converts, the new Christians acknowledged Jesus to be Israels Messiah, and would gladly submit to be cut in the esh to assume an indelible and a venerable mark of the covenant, since that was how they understood participation in the covenanted faith of Israel. Religion for the rst Christians was religion as known and lived by committed, observant Jews, and the argument that Jesus was Israels Messiah who had come to save his people was authoritative and binding for Gentile Christians, too.
For those Gentiles who had followed the path of devotion to the synagogue and kept what parts of the Torah they could manage, but who, nevertheless, had stopped short of the nal step of circumcision, this might be the time of victory and favor they were waiting for when Jesus appeared as Israels hope and consolation. Left to themselves, the early Christians would have been thus content to seek shelter under the safe, consecrated shadow of the synagogue and to abide as sincere followers of Christ. But they were not left to themselves, thanks in large part to the intervention of Paul and his company of fellow apostles.
Pauls emotions are so strong as to strain his syntax, and his language becomes so robust that some English versions translate rather coyly. In that reasoning, the new Christians are not just followers of Jesus; they are a new creation in the sense of their being baptized in him, of their being partakers in the redeeming life of Christ. They are, in fact, converts rather than just proselytes. The gospel was not just about religion as the Way, or as ethnic dressing so that followers and adherents could parade in borrowed garb though that was how it all appeared to the rst Christians ,22 but about religion as a personal, faith-lled fellowship with God.
Peter had come to Antioch, a center of Christian Gentiles, and was quite happy socializing with the Gentilesuntil, that is, Jamess party showed up, at which point Peter withdrew from the company of Gentiles so as not to offend pious Jewish sensibilities. Paul was livid. I opposed him to his face. Although it was understandable against the force of inherited national custom, Peters prevarication still threatened to undercut the whole basis of Christianitys unique mission.
Paul rebuked Peter not because Peters conception of the gospel conicted with Pauls, but because Peters conduct on that occasion seemed to violate the consensus that both of them shared and which the Jerusalem church duly ratied. Salvation was by faith, not by national custom and social afliation, Paul asserted. Yet neither would Paul disagree that it was only through the Jewishness of Jesus that the whole world could be incorporated into the people of God. The very issue of universality, Jaroslav Pelikan contends, which has been taken to be the distinction between the message of Paul and Jewish particularism, was for Paul what made it necessary that Jesus be a Jew.
For only through the Jewishness of Jesus could the covenant of God with Israel, the gracious gifts of God and his irrevocable calling, become available to all people in the world Rom The Jewish church has rights against Gentile believers by virtue of spiritual election and also has a moral right of material support from them. The name of Israel in translation, as tribe, nation, and vocation, would adorn the lips of Gentile peoples with glad songs of peaceful Zion. From the outset, Marx observed with real insight, the Christian was the theorizing Jew.
Christianity overcame real Judaism only in appearance. It was too noble, too spiritual, to eliminate the crudeness of practical need except by elevating it into the blue. Christianity is the sublime thought of Judaism, and Judaism is the common practical application of Christianity. This would effect a radical change where necessary, but only from within, with Christians engaging the implications of their faith in closest proximity to the ideas and institutions of their society. It was their responsibility to make Christianity feel at home rather than to implant someone elses national custom in their midst.
The early Greek Christians felt empowered to embark on a wholly different way of practicing religion that became the primary intellectual mission of Hellenistic society in the Roman East Mediterranean world. As a consequence, Hellenistic social and family life bore the imprint of the Christian impact. Christian Greeks had now to renegotiate with their own culture, not with someone elses, and what emerged revealed surprising possibilities. Inuences from Greek philosophy, Roman law, Eastern mysticism and spirituality, and astral science gave rise to questions that believers had before never encountered.
That intellectual setting fostered the development of a distinctly Christian religious thought that culminated in the great theological systems of the church. All of this must have struck the old-style Jewish believers as dangerous deviation from the established pillars of the received code. What assurance was there that harmful innovation might not follow from the decision to embrace untested, extraneous ideas?
In their view, Christians were stepping into uncharted territory and courting grave error thereby. As a religious community the early church was striking out on a radically new path wholly without precedent. As Andrew Walls noted, Had the Jesus community retained the proselyte model, Christians would almost inevitably have been taken out of the intellectual mainstream and shut up to their own sacred books. But as converts, believers in Jesus were required to turn their processes of thought toward Christ, to think Christ into the intellectual framework of their time and place. The eventual result was Christian theology as we know it.
It was an intellectual shift that offered a way forward for other cultures and societies, and a break from the obligation to follow precedent and imitate past examples. As honorary members of the faith community, proselytes were hampered in the religious life because it was not their natural inheritance. As outsiders, proselytes were not held accountable for the tradition; their status was not that of a freehold, and could change with circumstances.
Proselytes followed where others led, while converts led and went beyond what proselytes were permitted. Converts were deemed to have permanent tenure. That distinction dened the characteristic missionary task of Christianity: the church was in the world as moral light and leaven, not as a cultural implant trailing short-term establishment ideas. The prevailing cultural practice of regarding religion as a matter of birth and social connection would have been much easier for the church to adopt than the radical choice involved in conversion.
Judaizing forces for that reason contended seriously with the call for spiritual conversion, and only bold apostolic leadership enabled it to withstand the forces of hallowed custom. The issue was dear to Pauls heart, as he was at pains to drive home to the Galatians, saying that their instinct to remain tied to the synagogue in the belief that religion was a matter of birthright was fatal to their faith in Christ. In the new faith the idea of a birthright was superseded by the call to a second.
Consequently, a demanding task of inculturation was now required of them because a radically new historical epoch was inaugurated with the coming of Jesus. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a custodian; for in Christ you are all sons of God, through faith. For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
And if you are Christs, then you are Abrahams offspring, heirs according to promise. Natural religions that proliferated at the time, by contrast, identied themselves with a cultural system and with the mores of social convention. To these religions the idea of revelation, of a truth and a power outside and above the natural sphere, was anathema, since it implied that the lives of men and women could be regulated by laws and norms that had their source outside society and above human power.
In contrast, the mystery cults were counter-currents in which initiates moved away from the social assumptions of natural religion about membership as a matter of kin and nature to the idea of transcendent religion as a matter of divine-human relationship. The mystery cults were a real praeparatio evangelica for Christianity, and their recognition that the human being was capax dietatis, a soul in the making, resonated with the Christian idea of faith as a spiritual journey of understanding and obedience.
In its ritual of formation of new members, for example, the church of Antioch conrmed the notion of the Christian fellowship as the community of revealed teaching by describing neophytes as Christianoinot as followers of Christ simply, but as Christinitiated, in fact, as God-indwelled men and women who were incorporated into him.
Trimingham expanded on the Christian teaching about the indwelling nature of faith by setting it against the natural religions of Syria and Mesopotamia. Those religions represented the idea of divinity within the human spirit, whereas Christianity taught of a transcendent God whose action in history required assimilation and transformation in society. Consequently, where the Gospel was adopted it had to be assimilated into social life. Such a process of assimilation would inevitably change society, and the process could well be painful. For this reason, society took ways to neutralize the Gospel.
The basic Christian Gospel was as exclusive as Judaism. Anyone who. Total rejection of the old was as unfeasible as complete surrender to the new. Converts were not cultural orphans or undiscriminating neophytes; rather, by virtue of the choice they made, converts were involved in judgment and discernment at the same time that they were involved in appropriation and assimilation.
By a process of fresh combinations and permutations new believers expanded Christianitys multicultural horizon. Materials that so recently dened the world of non-Christians were retrieved to serve a new function. Prayer and sacrice sanctioned at the old shrines and altars were reconstituted to serve a new purpose rather than abandoned. The old vocabulary was lled with a new theme and burden. The imperial context and cultural demands failed to constrain Christian motives; its the churchs background in a Pharisaic legalism and existence under Roman subjugation, for example, that armed it with a sense of reawakened religious resolve as well as political realism.
The Christian movement expanded from intrinsic as well as extrinsic pressure, so that the religion acquired its peculiar temper from both temple and the empire: to serve and witness to the one sovereign God in a world organized, instructed, and administered by others. Pillar of Empire In the footloose and protean milieu of the Christian diaspora, it suited the disciples to recall the assurance of Jesus: For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them. The idea of holy place was not an immutable, timeless place or dwelling; it was wherever believers found God.
Dispensing with maps and pictures, academic theology gave little credence to the importance of geography; Jerusalem and Bethlehem quickly became abstract timeless symbols. As such, Bethlehem was emptied of cultural content and elided to a universal incarnation and Jerusalem to a gurative heavenly city, a practice at variance with apostolic teaching concerning the kerygmatic importance of Palestine as the historical home of Jesus. Jerusalem was a city of unique religious signicance, and the disciples felt vindicated when Pentecost occurred there, an event that constituted the birth of the Christian movement.
The idea of a promised land survived in the church but only in a radically transformed sense, as a concept of open multiple locations rather than of a xed axis mundi. Jerusalem was a prototype of a Christian particularity without borders. Both Peter and Paul saw conrmation in the Scriptures and compelling meaning in the short lifespan of Jesus between Bethlehem and Jerusalem.
They drew the conclusion that Christianity had no. Jesus might have been born in Bethlehem, but he was now bred in the hearts and minds of believers anywhere and everywhere. There were as many birthplaces of the religion as there had come to be new communities of faithful people, and as many visitations of Pentecost as there had been hearts and minds set aame and occasions of bold witness. Christianity was a religion for all seasons, t for all humanity.
Whatever its core was, it was not in any one time, in any one place, or in any one language. The prophets had dreamed and spoken well. From accounts written by the members themselves we get a sense of how this new conception of religion accounted for the birth of new communities of faith and new forms of social life, independent of ofcial endorsement and without the necessity of a promised land or the advantage of cultural privilege. Lactantius ca. Lactantius was determined to defend Christianity against the charge that it was peddling visions and other delusory teachings, claiming there was more to the religion than that.
Of particular note, he says, is its concept of equality, which implies not equity, the virtue of giving judgment, but the sense of justice, of treating others as ones equalswhat Cicero calls equability. Yet Plutarch noted how Cicero viewed justice as part of rhetoric. Cicero contended, how invincible justice is, if it be well spoken. He gave equality a specic religious underpinning, intending to set it above simply a political or legal understanding. Lactantius stressed that the God who gave being and life to all was the same who wished us all to be equal, and to be alike in our status as moral agents.
God laid down the same terms of life for us all, giving us the capacity of wisdom and a longing for eternal fellowship. God excluded no one from the benets of heaven just as in our earthly lives God gave everyone a place in the daylight, nurtured the earth for the benet of all, and provided nourishment and precious, relaxing sleep. With God there was no slave or master: our freedom derived from our status as freeborn children of God. No one was poor in Gods eyes, except where one lacked justice; no one was rich except in moral qualities.
All human beings were placed under the. And that, explains Lactantius, was why neither the Romans nor the Greeks were able to sustain justice, since they had so many levels of disparity in their societies, separating poorest from richest, powerless from powerful, the obscure from the most elevated dignities of royal state. Where all are not alike, there is no equality; and inequality is enough to rule out justice, the very point of which is to afford like treatment to those who have entered this life on like terms.
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Tertullian was an erudite educated Roman citizen brought up in Carthage, North Africa. He is considered the father of Latin as the language of the church, a claim that would resonate with St. Boniface , a later fastidious promoter of ecclesiastical Latin. Tertullian denes the social characteristics of a faith community, declaring that they entail a new and radical vision of citizenship and civil society. In their radical obedience to God rather than in their compliance with prevailing mores, Tertullian challenges, Christians became responsible and productive members of society, an argument Augustine of Hippo d.
A running theme in Tertullians discussion, as well as Augustines, is the idea that Christians are not a secret society, that their beliefs and rituals are open to public scrutiny, that membership and duties in the fellowship are voluntary, that religious ofce is not for sale, that believers practice mutual aid, and a common fund existed to help the poor and needy.
Since the world had not seen anything like that, Tertullian argued, it was imperativeequally for the safety of Christians and for the peace and wellbeing of societythat Christians, like everyone else, be allowed to represent themselves rather than being condemned by slanderous analogy with disreputable cults. Give the congregation of Christians its due, he pleaded, and judge the church by the same standards by which others judged and were judged.
Tertullian wrote under a sense of siege, yet still went on the offensive to defy the prevailing permissive code of society. In an imaginary speech he put into the mouth of Maecenas, Dio has advice for Octavian in 29 bc : not only must Octavian worship the divine everywhere and in every way according to ancestral custom, and force everyone else to honour it; but you must also reject and punish those who make foreign innovation in its worship, not only for the sake of the gods since anyone despising them will not honour anyone else , but also because such people who introduce new deities persuade many people to change their ways, leading to conspiracies, revolts and factions, which are most unsuitable for a monarchy.
So you must not allow anyone to be godless or [to be] a sorcerer. A state monopoly neutralizes religions potential to be a faction, and thus renders it amenable to control. It is a view claiming that Gods injunction will be allowed only by Caesars edict, not in spite of it. The career of Herod, son of Antipater and a Nabataean Arab on both sides of his family, demonstrates this. Described by Josephus AD 37ca.
He subsequently changed allegiance to Octavian, who defeated Antony in 31 BC. Herod professed Judaism and fostered it with the building of the temple in Jerusalem associated with his name. But, true to his imperial political role, if also to the unmitigated scandal of his fellow Jews, he built temples for the gods to please Augustus, his new master.
The year of his death in 4 BC is believed to be contemporaneous with the birth of Jesus, an event that immortalized Herod for history. For the Greeks, by contrast, religion belonged with the experiences of the body. As people of antiquity were urged by Pindar ca. That view survived, so that when Greeks of a later age encountered Christianity as a religion, they made it necessary to deal with Christianitys truth claims about God.
The Romans were different; they saw Christianity as a structural anomaly, and dealt with it as a political problem. In the words of Tacitus AD 55ca. Christianity was placed under penal surveillance as the empire adopted a robust and uncompromising posture toward Christian converts, determined to use the full force of the law and the supporting cultural prejudice to drive Christians into the ground and eradicate the faith.
It was an environment rife with charges of treason, imputations of violence, cannibalism, irrational and dissolute conduct, terrorist plots, dishonesty, corruption, and extremism, and it led to horrendous sanctions. Minucius Felix bears witness to such charges, saying Christians were accused of immorality, blasphemy, sedition and general moral turpitude. Even allowing for a converts pious gloss, Justin Martyr testied about how it was well known that, before they became Christians, people like him took pleasure in debauchery, practiced magic and sorcery, valued above all money and possessions, turned away strangers, and generally were inhospitable.
In July , for example, Carthage was the site of a deadly outbreak of anti-Christian persecution with believers being charged with treason for following an illegal religion. Rejecting the offer of a thirty day grace period to recant, the Christians stood their ground, and invoked in self-defense their moral and ethical way of life: they paid the tax; abhorred murder, theft, and bearing false witness; and although they yielded their hearts only to God, they gave honor to Caesar as Caesar. Responding to their deance, the proconsul Saturninus read out a sentence of death, and twelve of them, seven men and ve women, were immediately beheaded, creating the Scillian martyrs.
Even in their death the Christians were made an object of mockery: covered with animal skins, they were torn to pieces by dogs; or nailed to crosses, [and,] when daylight failed, they were set alight as torches to lighten the darkness, Tacitus commented wryly.
The ominous clouds that hung over the heads of Christians nally burst after in the form of ruthless persecution under the emperor Decius d. In under Diocletian d. Decius adopted a policy of reinstating the state cults with which Christianity was in open contention, while Diocletian adopted a policy of not exempting the provinces from the full force of Roman imperial jurisdiction, a policy that gave him the range he needed to crush Christianity.
Dating from the persecution of Decius, the Christian legend of the Seven Sleepers has survived; it describes how after escaping to a cave near Ephesus and sleeping there for years the Sleepers awoke to nd that their country had converted to Christianity. Endowed naturally with generous gifts in that regard, Tertullian was not shy about responding, and so he grasped the nettle of anti-Christian prejudice. His statement here has all the force of a prosecutors mind, and belongs appropriately in the context of the evolving values of a new faith community struggling to save itself in the face of a hostile establishment.
Borrowing his critics method of rational discourse, Tertullian offered a model of ironic reasoning in response to critics who might glimpse in his rhetorical tour de force ashes of the brilliance they associated with a fading golden age. We may today take such values for granted, but in Tertullians day Christians were allowed no such luxury.
His statement has an instructive resonance with the straitened circumstances of the Christian movement among threatened marginal and minority populations across the centuries, and for that reason alone it bears citing at some length. I have added paragraphs for ease of reading. We are a body knit together as such by a common religious profession, by unity of discipline, and by the bond of a common hope.
We meet together as an assembly and congregation, that, offering up prayer to God as with united force, we may wrestle with Him in our supplications. This violence God delights in. We pray, too, for the emperors, for their ministers and for all in authority, for the welfare of the world, for the prevalence of peace, for the delay of the nal consummation. We assemble to read our sacred writings, if any peculiarity of the times makes either forewarning or reminiscence needful. However it be in that respect, with the sacred words we nourish our faith, we animate our hope, we make our condence more stedfast [sic]; and no less by inculcations of Gods precepts we conrm good habits.
In the same place also exhortations are made, rebukes and sacred censures are administered. There is no buying and selling of any sort in the things of God. Though we have our treasure-chest, it is not made up of purchasemoney, as of a religion that has its price. On the monthly day, if he likes, each puts in a small donation; but only if it be his pleasure, and only if he is able, for there is no compulsion; all is voluntary. These gifts are, as it were, pietys deposit fund.
For they are not taken thence and spent on feasts, and drinking-bouts, and eating-houses, but to support and bury poor people, to supply the wants of boys and girls destitute of means and parents, and of old persons conned now to the house; such, too, as have suffered shipwreck; and if there happen to be any in the mines, or banished to the islands, or shut up.
For you abuse also our humble feasts, on the ground that they are extravagant as well as infamously wicked. To us, it seems, applies the saying of Diogenes: The people of Megara feast as though they were going to die on the morrow; they build as though they were never to die! The Salii cannot have their feast without going into debt; you must get the accountants to tell you what the tenths of Hercules and the sacricial banquets cost; the choicest cook is appointed for the Apaturia, the Dionysia, the Attic mysteries; the smoke from the banquet of Serapis will call out the remen.
Yet about the modest supper-room of the Christians alone a great ado is made. Our feast explains itself by its name. Whatever it costs, our outlay in the name of piety is gain, since with the good things of the feast we benet the needy. As the feast commenced with prayer, so with prayer it is closed.
We go from it, not like troops of mischief-doers, nor bands of vagabonds, nor to break out into licentious acts, but to have as much care of our modesty and chastity as if we had been at a school of virtue rather than [at] a banquet. Tertullian has set out the social and historical demands of the Christian movement. We pray, too, for the emperors, for their ministers and for all in authority, for the welfare of the world, for the prevalence of peace, he writes, indicating a necessary relationship of moral responsibility between Christianity and the social order.
Christians had a vested interest in the stability of the empire because, afrms Tertullian, we know that mighty shock impending over the whole earthin fact, the very end of all things threatening dreadful woesis only retarded by the continued existence of the Roman empire. We have no desire, then, to be overtaken by these dire events; and in praying that their coming may be delayed, we are lending our aid to Romes duration.
Solely on the grounds of Christian integrity, believers could claim that Caesar is more ours than yours, for our God has appointed him. Never will I call the emperor God, and either because it is not in me to be guilty of falsehood; or that I dare not turn him into ridicule. To call him God is to rob him of his title. If he is not a man, emperor he cannot be. Christianity is at home in the empire, argues Tertullian, for the same reason that it would be at home anywhere else. It is perhaps quite understandable, Tertullian suggests ironically, for a beleaguered pagan world, in crisis from its betrayal of its own ideals, to pin the blame on Christians, since harm could only come from those already marked for illtreatment, but that was doubly unfair.
The smoke from the banquet of Serapis was so great that it set off re alarms, and yet, says Tertullian, the modest supper-room of the Christians alone caused a great fuss. By pursuing Christians as enemies, Tertullian charges, the empire had chosen to overlook a much greater menace from its own excesses.
As the saying has it, the darkest place is under the candlestick, and a society threatened by the organized call to heed the voice of conscience was likely to trample on those powerless to defend themselves in spite of holding the key to societys tranquility and welfare. It is a harmful and reckless policy, Pius XII would declare from bitter experience, to do battle with Christianity, for the props used to replace the religion are not strong enough to support the edice of human worth, freedom, and wellbeing.
Instead of harassing the Christians, the authorities could have reected with prot on how Christians prayed and worked for nothing more sinister than the delay of the end time and the elimination of moral apathy. Yet by acting thus, Christians placed themselves in jeopardy from the actions of hostile authorities. With the fraternal bonds forged in the celebration of their feasts, the Christians went out thence to benet the needy. This year, on account of having peace and good order, quick transit being provided by the many auto roads, we have been able to hold a number of special evangelistic efforts.
Most of the public evening preaching was done by Brother Hansen. The others assisted in giving Bible readings, visiting homes, and in otherwise helping generally in order to make the effort a success.
At the close of this effort fifteen were baptized. This fruitage was the result of the combined efforts of workers in past years, and of this special time of preaching services, when several were at last brought to the point of decision. Among those who were baptized was one lady just one hundred years old. Truly, after serving other gods for a century, then turning to the true God, she must have met with something worth while in her newfound hope. Lo Hui is the largest market town in the province.
Over 30, people come to buy, sell, and barter on the days market is held. Moreover, it is very centrally located, and on the auto cross-roads. From the first the meeting was a success, the attendance averaging about two hundred a night. The speakers put enthusiasm into their preaching. Soon a Sabbath school was organized with a membership of fourteen. Of this number, some have been baptized. The surrounding country is dotted with villages, so we shall continue to work in and around here for some time. The government is building a model town close by, and we hope to have permanent quarters in this central location.
The third effort was held in the city of Lung Chow, the military headquarters for the defense of China's southern frontier, The city is located in a beautiful valley in the extreme southwest corner of the province. It is an old city, hoary with tradition and historical incidents. Brother Hansen did all the public speaking, the others assisting in giving Bible readings and house-to-house visitation.
As a direct result of this effort five men and two women were baptized on January One of those baptized is now attending the school at Canton. Another one has considerable talent as an artist and has assisted very materially in making up the charts used during the meeting. Good attendance is reported. This is the most cultured city of the province; so surely we ought to make certain of having light shining out from it. In all of these efforts a very systematic tract distribution has been carried out.
Much house-to-house visitation has been done. Charts and Bible verses were written out in large characters and hung up so all could see and read. Some of the charts used displayed considerable ingenuity in their make-up. Simple devices gotten up in an original way add much to the interest, and are ofttimes a great help in holding fhe audience. There are ninety-three hsiens in Kwangsi, of which nine have been entered. Besides, we have a few hsiens in Kwangtung, in which we are operating three out-stations.
At the rate of five new hsiens per year it would take us seventeen more years before we could cover them all; hence we feel that we must devise ways and means for speeding up on this part of our program. It may be that if we were to plan wisely and live close to the Lord, we could enter ten places per year.
Surely this is a major problem; to its solution we wish to see consecrated all the energy and skill of our workers and lay members. Our Nanning hospital continues to have a good patronage, and is prospering. It could not be otherwise, with the care and devotion that Dr. Coffin and their co-workers give the patients. Truly God has blessed this institution.
We shall push with all our energy our evangelistic work, hoping, praying, relying on God's promise that the seed sown for His kingdom will eventually spring up and bear fruit, some thirty, some sixty, some an hundred-told, WORSHIP the Lord in the beauty of holiness fear before Him, all the earth. Say among the heathen that the Lord reigneth the world also shall be established that it shall not be moved He shall judge the people righteously.
Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad ; let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof. Let the field be joyful, and all that is therein then shall all the trees of the wood rejoice before the Lord for He cometh, for He cometh to judge the earth He shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with His truth.
Conventions E. The attendance ranged from about on week days to nearly double that number on Sabbath. All of the South Chekiang workers, with the exception of two detained by sickness, were present. Our hearts rejoiced to know that since all the 24 hsiens in the South Chekiang mission have been entered, plans are being carried into effect looking toward our occupying every township, Another goal is,one hundred Seventh-day Adventists in every hsien. The baptized membership has shown a steady growth, from in to 1, at the close of A map of South Chekiang was beautifully lighted by 95 small electric light bulbs, vividly setting forth the location of the 95 churches and companies in the field.
All hearts responded to the theme presented by Pastor Stevens, and represented by these shining points of light on the map, Surely "the earth shall be full of the glory of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea. The Sabbath schools have a membership of 2,, or more than of the church membership. Offerings of all kinds show a substantial gain over previous years. Fourteen new outstations or companies were added in One more township was reported "open" during the meeting, and another black spot was removed from the map.
Three hsiens now have believers in every township. Sixty-nine townships in South Chekiang are still to be entered, but the workers are looking forward to claiming at least one township each during this year. If they can carry out this program, another two years will see Seventh-day Adventists in every township in South Chekiang. There are only two more townships to be claimed in the whole Wenchow prefecture The home missionary department has been busy. The ratio of reporting membership has climbed from 5 to 52 during the past fifteen months. Many interests spring up as a result of this work.
One church member gave a tract to a certain man, and now five families are keep- ing the Sabbath and calling for further instruction. The literature sales for the past two years showed a very marked increase. The colporters have set a goal of work in every township, and a Signs goal of 2, annual subscribers to be reached before the end of this year. The Shepherd was promoted one evening, and a goal of subscribers was set. Another item of interest was the , Mex Sabbath school offering raised on Sabbath, April 8.
The peoplechildren, old ladies, one and alltook an active interest to see that we did not fall short of the goal. We have a fine nine-grade school in Wenchow, with a staff of six teachers. The enrolment this year is Ten are to be graduated from the ninth grade at the close of the school year. This school is a great factor in the success of our work in South Chekiang. Recently three mow of land were purchased to provide space for the erection of a much needed boys' dormitory.
A "Big Week" field day was held the last afternoon of the convention, and nearly three hundred books were sold. Goals were set for every church and every worker, and we look forward to a real harvest from the " Big Week" work in South Chekiang. April 8. Brethren A. Fossey, Liu Hsiao-tien, and Pan Tzichang were ordained to the gospel ministry. The brethren greatly appreciated the cheering messages and good ininstruction given by Pastor J. Stevens and others. Let us pray for the workers and believers in South Chekiang as they press on into "every township" in South Chekiang this year.
Harris, director of the Shantung Provincial Mission, we learn that during the year the colporteurs entered 96 of the total of hsiens in the Mission. Brother Harris himself has planned on getting into every hsien 5 as soon as possible, with the aid of his motorcycle. He has already entered during the present year more than 30, and had planned on spending the latter part of April and early May on a trip into the southern and western portions of the province. Shantung is a tremendous field, and while crossed north and south and part way east and west by a railway, it is nevertheless mostly beyond the touch of modern facilities for transit, and much labor is required to get into the various districts.
Last year, in Kansu, two-thirds of the hsiens were entered by our colporteurs. During , many hsiens in the province of Sinkiang also were entered by our colporteurs. It has been estimated that throughout China during the past two years upward of eighty per cent. Surely we may well pray that the distribution of literature throughout the China field may be accompanied by the deep movings of the Holy Spirit, and that light may shine brightly from that which is left in the homes of multitudes.
White, director of the East Szechuan Mission, writes under date of April 26, , of a trip he has made up the Ga Ling Giang, "taking in the greater share of the territory between Chungking and the city of Hochow. Last Sabbath I had the privilege of baptizing six in a nice pool at Wen Tang. The weather was fair; a ad with the warm water gushing out from the mountain side and the birds singing all about, it seemed a beautiful Sabbath to celebrate this holy ordinance. As we were some distance from our lodging pare, we took a boat back a od enjoyed a happy song service with everyone joining in.
We have two chapels in this section. One of them is a new and large bailding which we have just gotten instead of the old and small one in the village of Tsai Djia Chang, We shall open a five-weak series of meetings in this chapel, beginning May 5. This quarter will see several short and teio large efforts. We have taken three of our workers from older places and are opening new work. We shall do all we can in the way of helping these places with visits from our departrr e tal secretaries and by correspondence; but we feet it is time for development of local talent in leadership, leaving workers free to do evangelistic work in new places.
We sincerely believe that this is going to mean an advance step. Our healthiest work is in places of this kind. The report that is given in the following general survey of activities in the Cantonese Mission. When carefully p anncd advances cne undertaken in faith yecr by year. Each year we look both to he past and to the future. We recount blessings enjoyed, experiences passed through, and progress made; then we lift our eyes and look on the fields, white for the harvest, and seek to plan wisely to advance along all lines and on all fronts. It is fitting that we pause and render to our Heavenly Father thanksgiving for His protecting care, and for opening providences so plainly manifested.
We thank Him for growth spiritually among our membership, and for the addition of 47 through baptism during the year, making a total on June 3o, , of 6to members, besides approximately enrolled in regular Bible classes. The past year has been the best in our history. Starting early, at the time of the Chinese New-year 'festival, a group of teachers from 'the Junior Training School elected to spend their vacation by holding an evangelistic effort in our rented sc. A surprising interest was manifested, there being as many as attending the night meetings, with from too to attending the mid-day meetings.
The mid-day meetings were in the interest of health and home education. Later on in the year an effort was conducted in im Po, where we secured a theater which would seat a thousand or more. Here we had ,in attendance of from six to eight hundred people for the night meetings and from two to three hundred at the mid-day meetings. Many names of interested ones were handed in, and about thirty were enrolled in the Bible class.
Pastor Frederick Lee's effort in Canton in connection with the Union Ministerial Institute was well attended, though the place of meeting, our little church, was small, and the location not the best. Very good results are coming from that effort. Much followup work from these efforts has been carried on, resulting in over 40 being baptized.
The teachers of our schools have shown a spirit of earnestness in these special efforts. Special labor has been put forth also by many of our field workers to win souls to the Master. Mention should be made of the work in Hongkong by Pastor and Sister L. Shaw, and of the faithful lay members of the church there. We thank God for the precious fruit from their labors in this great port city. We all regret that failing health has compelled Brother and Sister Shaw to return to America, and we pray God's blessing upon them there. The increasing support and labor of our lay-members in missionary endeavor constitutes a very encouraging development in our work.
The future success of the work as a whole depends, under God, very largely upon the lay-members' doing their best to carry on the local church activities, so the workers under salary can be free to go to the unentered sections. The workers and constituency of this mission are pledged to the program of "greater evangelism," and to occupying as fast as possible the. We are happy to be able to. The work in Taipo is nor more than two years old. Our five regular and twelve student colporteurs, led by Brother Lo Pals Tsim, last year sold 14, At present the status of our literature work is the best in its history.
Now Brother Leung Wa Yau is our literature leader. We have so church schools, with an enrollment of , in charge of Brother Leung I-fing San. The work of these schools is carried on just as it is in other lands; great good has come to our ch;ldren therefrom. Closely connected with these schools is the work of the Junior Y. The youth of the Junior school society received Ingathering funds and They are giving their, offerings each quarter for opening work in Hainan Island.
Brother Lo Pak Tsim has succeeded , wonderfully in keeping up interest in the Sabbath schools of the mission. He also has encouraged greater effort on the part of our membership in home missionary work, and our people have done well- in the various campaigns fostered. With the arrival of Dr. Bates and family, our medical work took on new life. In less than a year, and under quite perplexing circumstances, the doctor and his associates here have made exceptional progress in getting our medical work established in Canton.
God has given our doctors and nurses favor with influential men and women who approve. Hung and his staff at Fatshan are doing good work, and just this year it seems that the tide has turned, and the income is now sufficient to meet the expenses and provide some needed equipment. In no other phase of our endeavor is shown such marked progress as in our financial showings.
The books for the school have not been audited; but I am confident they will show a gain for the year's operations. Our tithe increased about 2, dollars Mex. There was a general increase in all offerings. It took all these increases in income to balance our cut budget at the beginning of the present year. Now with an additional 12 cut for the last eight months of it will be necessary to increase our income from tithes and local, offerings, or else reduce operating expense.
We trust this meeting may be blessed and directed in planning for advance into many unentered regions of our field. We need much of the Holy Spirit's poser for service. We need vision for the work before us. Let us unitedly seal; God for His guidance and blessing, and ip the power of His might press forward, that His work may soon be finished, and our Saviour come to claim His own.
A history of the rise and development of the Seventh-day Adventist denomination, showing the growth of its various departments, and its rapid expansion into all the world. Paper cover Price 1. Cloth cover. A series of questions on the purpose, scope, and plan of Christian education, with answers chiefly from the writings of Mrs. Should be in the hands of all our educational workers.
Paper cover. Price, 20 cents. Davis, Director, during the Hankozv general meeting h Id April , THE biennial term just closed has been filled with outstanding calamities and events that lead us to realize that the Lord's work is rapidly closing in the earth. It has been the lot of the people of Hupeh to witness and to suffer from several of the terrible tragedies that have fallen upon the world. The largest of these was the flood of , bringing tremendous loss and suffering, and heart-breaking scenes of distress.
This tragic flood was followed in large sections of the province by drouth and famine, and the sufferings of the people have been further aided to by organized banditry on a scale unprecedented. All sections of the province, to within a few miles of Hankow and this city has itself been in imminent danger a few tones, have sullered. Tne bandits have gone through the country in hordes of tens of thousands.
It does seem that the " little time of peace" for this world has about closed, and that the "time of trouble such as never was" is beginning. Following the flood, Djang Hsun Djen, our Hankow evangelist, while chinglamine relief work, was taken by the bandits and held for a few days. A number of others captured at the same- time were later taken out and shot. Djang, himself was led out with them to the execution ginnind ; but there one of the leaders said that a mistake had been made, and Djang was sent back to his prison and later released. We thank the Lord for hig deliverance in answer to the prayers of the church.
Evangelist Chen Yu Beh also was captured, with others, and marched away from his to ne. All excepting Brother Chen were bound roughly with ropes, but no attempt was made to bind him. When they had gone about twenty li, they unexpectedly met a - company of soldiers,' who opened fire; and the bandits fled, leaving their captives; and thus Brother Chen was released He said that he had spent the time in prayer while walking.
Our workers have often been ed upon to face danger, and have been protected by God. In every emergency our Heayenly Father has ways and means to care for His people according to His own plan. Our staff of workers has been depleted somewhat because of the 7 decrease in appronriations; never- anything that we have done or left theleSs, Iast year was a banner year undone that is not fully in harmony for baptisms in the Hupeh Mission.
We pray that by His The following figures will give an grace there may in future be abunidea of what is being accomplished in soul-winning through the years dant blessings poured out upon the Hupeh' church and upon all the Members workers in this province. During the past two years we have opened up new work in Siaokan, Kinchow, and Puchi.
We are urging our workers to train the membership to the point where local talent can be used, thus releasing evangelists for advance, work. With this in view, we have been a'le to secure bu ldings and meetinghalls in the following places Hsienrang, Hsientaodjen, Liukungho, Kinkow, Siankan, and Puchi. Brother and Sister C. Carter and Brother Li Kuen Ren have had to meet many problems in.
Opening school out there after the thud was like opening school in a wilderness,there was so much to be done in clearing up and building; yet a good school has been conducted, in grades five to nine, with about shay students attending. There has been plenty of work for the students. The place has now quite a different appearance from what it had before the opening of school, and there has also be..
The attendance at the Ging Shih Tang in Hankow City had dropped down to about thirty or forty on Sabbaths following the flood, but through special efforts held, and the earnest wsrk of Brethren Clark and Djang Hsun Djen and Miss Dunn, the attendance has been growing, until now we have more than a hundred attending the Sabbath services.
This report does not touch the publishing,. For whatever has been accomplished in Hupeh, we give God the thanks and the glory, and trust that in His mercy He will forgive us for Into. New Hsiens in Hunan H. Graham, director of the Hunan Mission, written. AT our annual meeting in Changsha held during April, , the workers covenanted to advance into adjacent hsiens, while at the same time continuing to uphold the work' in the fourteen hsiens where we already had churches or companies.
Since that time, beginnings have been made in the following places. Kiting This represents work in eight hsiens counties where we had nothing in In two of these places several have already been baptized. In six, chapels 'have already been purchased, or quarterg definitely donated for meeting purposes, or funds ralsed for the purchase of property. The first-Mentioned station Chenchow is near the Kwantung border, and the last place Yuan Chow is on the Kweichow border. The Lord has blessed in enabling us to advance into these places in the face of a budget cut of more than We believe the Lord has been blessing our Meager resourceb even as He blessed the widow's cruse of oil.
From Miss Holmes date of December 17, Miss Josephine Holmes writes from Chengchow, Honan, where she has been spending upwards of half a year already in intensive Bible work, following the evangelistic effort held last autumn by Pastor W. Strickland and associates "The work is going nicely here.
The yearly offering was taken, and about 17 Mex. Chang's and mine. There was one 5, one 3, one 2, and seven 1 offerings. The rest was given in coppers. We felt encouraged, since as yet we have no baptized churchmembers here. They are in some ways more easy to work with than are the women of the country districts. Two women have already begun paying their tithes, and all but one of the women in regular attendance at our services, have taken off their jewelry, and that one is a member of another church.
At best we have issued only a makeshift, to serve us until some one else does better and supplies us with a series of easy Bible studies in printed form for these women. It is in a Chinese house, but my bedroom has a board floor and glass windows; and I have two little stoves in which I can burn coal.
I am really very comfortable. I am engaged in just the common round of keeping up the interest developed during the evangelistic meetings, and helping the inquirers to grow in things spiritual. Our literature sales are already in advance of last year's record for this period.
We are endeavoring to spread out into adjoining hsiens. This, as you know, has been our plan for the past two years. Some progress has been made. At our recent workers' council, new emphasis was given this, and more concrete plans were laid than have hitherto been followed. We have passed an action designating the month of April as "New Work Month. We have therefore aligned our spring work in a way that leaves April open to spend chiefly on new work. During our workers' meeting every one of our laborers pledged not only to enter new territory in April, but actually to get something permanently under way whether a "home" Sabbath school, or a regular Bible class organized in some home or homes, or other work as may be arranged for in at least two hsiens hitherto unentered.
Every one of our workers is now planning his individual itinerary for April. We are expecting to see great things undertaken during that month. How this movement may develop by the close of the present year, I cannot foretell. I personally have a heavy line-up for " we "for my motorcycle and myself to pattern after the phraseology of Colonel Lindberg when referring to his aeroplane and himself. Brother Duan, formerly an evangelist, but now provincial home missionary secretary since the release of Pastor Chiao Wen Li for the directorship of Shansi, will accompany me on the motorcycle, and we hope to connect with every worker during this month when they are in " new territory.
Six months from now, perhaps, we may be able to report more definitely concerning actual results ; but we can say now our laborers have a mind to work, and we are going forth in faith, even before knowing just how to work out some of our problems. This getting about, and entering new territory, necessitates considerable travel, and we are already extremely limited for travel funds. But there will surely be found some way of financing that which seems so essential ; and so we have planned in faith on this April advance.
Hainan at the beginning; but there are nearly twenty in attendance at the Sabbath meetings, and some are anxiously inquiring after Bible truth. Pastor A. Ham, in company with Pastor 0. Hall and others, spent some time in Hainan early in , and reports finding the self-supporting colporteur doing very well indeed, with an encouraging interest developing.
Brother Hall writes March 2, " We came into contact with some very nice people. Hoinow and the eastern section seem progressive, and the people rank well with those of South China. The prospects are good for considerable sales of literature. Dairen, Manchuria N. I have been here for nearly a month, and we have had meetings every night, also on Sabbath forenoons. A number are in attendance at our Sabbath services, and some have already taken their stand for this truth.
In Chinchow we understand about twenty are already interested, and have prepared a meeting place for us, and are now beseeching us to go to their place to hold an effort. One of the inquirers there received the S ibbath truth by reading a tract written against Seventh-day Adventists; and he is now keeping the Sabbath.
We have no one to fill the Chinchow call, as yet. Like calls are coming in from other parts of the field, also. We are very short of workers; and this a pity ; for this field is really ready for a spiritual harvest. Blanford, who was formerly stationed here in Dairen for some months, and did excellent work, is now unfortunately in ill health, and must spend some time at our Shenyang Sanitarium. Brother C.
Smith, our book leader, as you have already learned, is also sick at present in the hospital at Mukden, It is difficult to continue work in a Opening Work in Hainan strong way while these workers are incapacitated for a time by serious A. HAM illness, We are praying for their Extracts from a personal letter written to early recovery ; and we trust earnthe Division Office, under date of December estly, also, that yet other workers 18, may be raised up to unite with us. WE sent a colporteur and family Dairen is a large city of much imto locate in the island of Hainan, as portance ; now seems to be an you know.
He has had a place for opportune time to labor for the holding meetings, and writes me of spiritual interests of men and women in this place and vicinity. This a very good interest there. Because is a fine city, well-built, with excelof lack of funds and workers with lent communications by motor-road which to man so many evangelistic with near-by places. Advance we must into the John Oss farthest and most difficult sections; and already our pioneer laborers are doing this, in almost every province in the In company with Pastors S.
Frost China field. God is blessing them, and and E. Longway, the writer left Chunggiving them the same support. He gave king, the headquarters of the West China to others who entered this land prior to Union, for Chengtu, where the annual the corning of our workers into China. What an inspiration the labors of those meeting of the West Szechwan Mission who have gone before, is to us How was to be held, Sept.
In this it is declared, " very great and rich " city. Its wide, among other things, that straight streets have a modern aspect, We recognize every agency that and it is an important educational and lifts up Christ before men as a part of trade center. We are fortunate in having the divine plan for the evangelization our own property inside the north gate of of the world, and we hold in high esteem the city. This building has a ground floor, C. Crisler "2. Wherever the prosecution of the used for mission offices and for class"THE first missionary to come to this gospel work brings us into touch with rooms for the higher primary school.
Excel- looking a lovely old hsien city of Kansu , ing with mission problems. As to the matter of territorial lent reports were given. The colporteurs Province. We have a faithful group of about three if away.
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Brother Looking away from the city walls, I ment of His work for men, denominaChang Djen Kuo, formerly of the North saw a great stretch of hills beyond the tional bodies and religious movements hsien capital is situat- have arisen to give special einphasis to West China Mission, is now field mis sion valley inthe which d; and hillsthe were honeycombed with different phases of gospel truth, so we ary secretary for West Szechwan, and has entrances to caves, wherein dwell many, find in the origin and rise of the Seventhmany men, women, and childrena viii- day Adventist people, the burden laid entered encouragingly upon his work.
One of the most heartening reports by age of some thousands. It was in that upon us to emphasize the gospel of the evangelists was given by Pastor Yu village hewn out of the interior of the Christ's second coming as an event 'even os a a fgoor othe piclaiat i oonf door,' pooia lcalling o t the the a ilthal cotdhe a fidrst missionary h and a Tsei M'n, who had recently spent some his family preparation tere that r r the way of the Lord as revealed in Holy time working among the tribes-people the first instructed m yconverts weret was Scripture.
Brother Yu's story paratory to baptism. In one of the cave"b As this advent proclamation is of the customs and the life of the people, dwellings the first church was organized, was listened to with interest; but the thing the first communion held. But eventual- described in scripture prophecy, parthat brought most joy and encouragement ly the prejudices of those living in the titularly as the Revelation of Christ sets forth in the terms of Revelation 14 to all was the fact that many of the tribes- proud city in those days a "chow" city itt At the conclusion of Pastor within the workers have continued their ministra- shall be preached to every nation, and Yu's report, a vote was taken to send a tions.
Thinking back to beginnings it seems this commission makes it impossible for At the close of the annual meeting the indeed Most providential that ' the way us to restrict our witness to this phase mission mission committee took action that Broy of the gospel to any limited area, and been so wond rously pioneered by ther Lin Han Ching accompany Pastor men and women of resolute purpose and impels us to call it to the attention of The West Szechwan Mission Annual Meeting they were planning on returning to their home, Tatsienlu, at the close of the meeting.
Brother Chen Tseh Chiao, formerly field missionary secretary of the West Szechwan Mission, will return with them as their Chinese teacher and to assist with the work for the Chinese people. We found Brother and Sister Bartholomew of good courage. Their station is furthest west of anywhere we heve sent foreigners to reside. A deep Christian experience, more emphasis on evangelism and on pushing the work into new territory, and greater faithfulness in personal work, were made the keynotes of the meeting. On the last Sabbath a baptismal service was held.
Seven were baptized. Following the annual conference, a short Harvest Ingathering institute and field-day was held. And later, as we bade one another Godspeed and left Chengtu for Kweichow and Yunnan, the workers took Ingathering papers. Forty Years Ago in Kansu Yu on another visit, and plan to locate amazing fortitude and deep Christian ex- all people eerywhere, our policy is to r permanently among these tribes-people, perience. While in some instances thereour make the him great of the people special inmasses evangelistic work.
The beginnings we are making their sacrifices, large numbers of the among them are in the southeastern sec- converts having lapsed into heathenism, tion of their territory. We are told that there is nevertheless a vast difference to the far west there is an interested between conditions of to-day, and those ofthe forty years ago,in provinces tribesman who speaks the Tibetan lag- like Kansu.
All honor Co those of other guage, and who has visited our station at faiths who have given their lives in noble E. Let us re- Christian service, with no thought save member this new work among these that of bringing to men and women in Wh-- ask the question, "Shall We tribes-peo6le in a special way in our pray- darkness the light of gospel truth.
Bartholo- by Heaven to sound the last solemn gos- this danger involve What is its signimew, of the Tibetan Mission, were in Del message of warning and invitation ficance to the individual, to society, and attendance at the West Szechwan annual to all, in every land and in every hsien, the state What is to be the home of us not forget, as we pause to sound the future meeting. They had been in Chengtu for let the warning in these places already ocThe book is 96 pages, well illustrated, some time on account of Brother Earth- cupied by others who have not yet united and sells for 30 cents Mex.
We were glad to find with us in giving this special call to the Mandarin only. Order from tract society that he had regained his health and that Lord's children,let us not forget that "Shall We Save the Home" Note. Gold on the basis of 21 for 1. EW 7-iiT g 1 ,. A T tta WM Ft -'41c r This material includes the following "Successfnl Sabbath Schools. Price, 10 cents. White, concerning the conduct of our Sabbath schools. An abridged translation of the English.
Price, 15 cents. It should be in the hands of every Sabbath school officer and teacher who reads the Mandarin. Subscription price, 25 cents per year. The prices quoted above are in Chinese dollars Mex, and apply to the Cnina field. The first three mentioned publications may be obtained in English in mimeograph form from the China Division Sabbath School Department, at 10 cents per copy.
We bespeak your co-operation in placing these publi cations in the hands of those who are carrying responsibilities in the Sabbath school work throughout the China Division field, to the end that our Sabbath schools may win, instruct. Contains articles on circle of their influence. Made up of selections from " Sunshine Songs," "Christ in Song," and other sources.
Much more complete than "Successful Sabbath Schools," and a book that will, under the blessing of God, enable the Sabbath schools that adhere to its ideals and carry out its instruction truly to become soul winning Sabbath schools. This book will be ready a tew weeks hence and will contain approximately pages. Price will be announced later. Thiele Why ask the question, " Shall we save the home " Is the home actually in danger If so, why What does this danger involve What is its significance to the individual, to society, and to the state What is to be the home of the future Here is a book dealing with one of the most vital issues of our age.
It deals largely with outstanding signs of the times and their bearing upon the institution of the home. The book has 96 pages, is well illustrated, and sells for 30 cts. Usual discounts. The Chapter Headings are as follows 1. Is the Home Imperiled 2. Undermining the Foundation 3.