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  1. Regional History-St. Tammany Parish
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That results in more oxygen below the surface and more bacteria that potentially could consume — and therefore combat — toxins. Their hard work and dedication to the team and Berchmans Academy is an outstanding example to their teammates as well as their classmates.

I am excited to see what the future holds for these young men and the entire Saints team. Sheriff Mark Garber and Superintendent Dr. Donald Aguillard were on hand today to unveil and explain the many benefits this App will provide for students, teachers and faculty members throughout Lafayette Parish. Students, parents, and faculty are encouraged to download the app as soon as possible. The article continues to credit Youngsville for its affordable prices for goods and services and investment into community assets such as the Youngsville Sports Complex.

Their articles are republished by many of the largest news sites and portals in the U. Finance, MarketWatch, Time. Scott Volunteer Firefighters also assist and participate with special events and fire prevention details in the community. Chief Chad P. Sonnier stated that applicants with firefighting experience is preferred, but not necessary and that the department is always looking for good men and women to join their team.

The date is yet to be announced. Lafayette Regional Airport passenger counts for dramatically exceeded numbers from the previous year. The addition of 39, people departing and arriving in was like adding an additional month of passengers choosing Lafayette Regional Airport. Beginning in February , the number of plane seats occupied by passengers each month was greater than the same month from the previous year. In terms of load factors, the. American, Delta and United all had year to year load factor increases. Frontier Airlines began service to Lafayette on October 24, , so their passenger numbers only impacted November and December activity at the Lafayette airport.

Curtis H. UL Lafayette was No. Its master of science in nursing and doctor of nursing practice programs placed 65th. Melinda G. Nathan Roberts, dean of the College of Education. The U. The B. News ranked it No. Students enrolled in the online MBA program earn the same degree as they would in a traditional, face-toface classroom setting, said Dr. Claire Arabie, interim director of the Office of Distance Learning. Learn more about University online programs at online.

As Chief Education Officer, Dr. Aguillard explains that the decision to retire was difficult and that he will cherish the many personal relationships formed in both St. Mary and Lafayette parishes among the Stakeholders sharing his vision of providing increasing opportunities for all students.

He thanked the students, parents, teachers, support staff, administrators, civic organizations, and government, business and community leaders who championed the idea that our future success depends on the quality. Major accomplishments during Dr. It will be used to implement a multi-year federal project known as the Louisiana Child Trafficking Collaborative. In Louisiana alone, over the last several years thousands of victims have been identified as either confirmed or prospective victims of human sex or labor trafficking.

This must end. Thankfully, we have already begun to see major progress as we work closely with law enforcement and our state lawmakers to support laws and policies to enact harsher penalties on the perpetrators of human trafficking and help to restore the lives of those directly impacted by this terrible tragedy.

The grant will be implemented over a three year period. In , Shared Hope International ranked Louisiana 1 in the nation for its anti-trafficking laws.

Regional History-St. Tammany Parish

The saddest piece of data given was that 72 of those sex trafficking juvenile victims were ages 12 and under. Dana Hunter. As part of the Get Out and Fish! According to the LDWF, now is the only time of year these sites will be stocked with Rainbow Trout, so do not miss this unique opportunity to land one, right here in Louisiana. When license to try their hand at catching water temperatures are cool during this tricky species. Anglers 16 and older must possess a valid Louisiana fishing. Jardin Street. Military personnel from Fort Polk were immediately dispatched to the scene where they safely detonated the explosive.

There was no danger to the public during this incident. An investigation remains ongoing. With a St. Raborn, who is currently on administrative leave pending results of the investigation is an Extracurricular. Moderator at St. Thomas More High School. Raborn is accused of having an inappropriate off-campus relationship with a female student.

A court date has not been set. Alzheimer sufferers potentially have some great news out of LSU Health New Orleans: A patient who underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy showed a big improvement in their mental and physical faculties. Director of Hyperbaric Medicine Dr. Paul Harch says the patient reported increased quality of life, and a brain scan showed a 38 percent increase in brain metabolism after undergoing the restorative therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has caught on in sports medicine and other healing focused fields, but this is one of the first looks at its benefits in relation to.

Harch says patient undergos 40 sessions at 50 minutes each. You then elevate the pressure and oxygen levels for a period of time. Harch cautioned that this was not a formal study or clinical trial, but the limited sample size does give reason to be optimistic. Magistrate Judge Carol B. Whitehurst to one count of illegal re-entry of a removed alien. The plea will become final when accepted by U. District Judge S. Maurice Hicks Jr. According to the guilty plea,. Martinez was previously removed from the United States in after serving time for a conviction in North Carolina for indecent liberties with a child.

At the time of his arrest in October, U. The court set sentencing for June 6, Continued from Front Page Symptoms of Zombie Raccoon Distemper may include discharge from the nose and eyes, a rough coat of hair, seizures, coughing, emaciated appearance and unusual behavior such as disorientation or wandering aimlessly. Distemper is not the same disease as rabies although some symptoms are similar.

LDWF advises that children and pets be kept away from sick raccoons and other wildlife. Even though the animal may appear calm, they can. BBB Serving Acadiana is a private non-profit organization that strives for a trustworthy marketplace by maintaining standards for truthful advertising, investigating and exposing fraud against consumers and businesses. Contact Better Business Bureau at or bbb.

Martin, St. Landry, and Vermilion. To discourage raccoons from your surroundings, LDWF recommends that you remove attractants from your yard and feed pets indoors. If you feed outdoors, bring in feeding bowls right after pets have eaten. Do not feed raccoons. Providing artificial food sources may lead to unnaturally large concentrations of animals and increase the spread of disease. There is no charge to attend the Robideaux Report or the Showcase. Both free events will take place on. I look forward to another great event where we can celebrate our successes, and honestly address our challenges ahead.

The address will begin at 6 p. The complete report will be made available at www. They are located at St. Photo Source: Broussard Chamber of Commerce. The All-Day Experience includes a guided tour of the Historic Vermilionville village, a swamp boat, a perfect meal, a Cajun dance lesson, and more. The All-Day Cajun Experience. Tours are currently offered on Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays from am to 5pm. For more information on all of their tours, visit www. After months of anticipation, the newest location of Smoothie King in Acadiana has officially opened in Youngsville.

The Populist movement, which succeeded in effecting some change in other southern states, was crushed in Louisiana. Not until , with the election of Huey P. Long as governor, did the winds of change strike Louisiana; having been so long delayed, they blew with gale force. The years from through could well be called the Long Era: three Longs — Huey, who was assassinated in ; his brother Earl, who served as governor three times; and Huey's son Russell, who became a powerful US senator — dominated state politics for most of the period.

From a backward agricultural state, Louisiana evolved into one of the world's major petrochemical-manufacturing centers. Offshore drilling sent clusters of oil wells 60 mi 97 km out into the Gulf. The pine lands were reforested, and soybeans provided a new source of income. What had been one of the most parsimonious states became one of the most liberal in welfare spending, care for the aged, highway building, and education.

The state could afford these expanding programs because of ever-increasing revenues from oil and gas. For most of the s, in spite of an increase in service-sector and high-tech jobs, Louisiana had more people living in poverty than any other state.


Louisiana had for decades been among the nation's poorest; the percentage of residents living in poverty in was In it was reported that Louisiana also ranked second-lowest in the nation for its care of children; the report took into account such factors as infant mortality rates, teen pregnancy rates, and children who lived in poverty or lacked health care. Other problems confronting the state at the turn of the century included racial tensions, disposing of toxic wastes from the petrochemical industry, depletion of oil and gas resources, and the ongoing struggle to institute good government.

The announcement in February by Russell B. Long, senator since , that he would not seek reelection, and the indictment of former Governor Edwin W. Edwards by a federal grand jury on conspiracy charges during the same month, caused turmoil in Louisiana's political arena. Edwards was defeated in by Buddy Roemer, a young, well-educated Republican who promised to clean up government. In , racial tensions surfaced when white supremacist David Duke, running as a Republican, narrowly won a seat in the Louisiana state legislature.

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Duke later ran unsuccessfully for the US Senate and for governor, but his runs for office had raised concerns about the level of frustration of many white voters. As he faced reelection four years later, some analysts said the Bayou State had made progress in building a trustworthy and responsive government. Nevertheless, Foster was criticized for favoring the oil industry and being soft on big gambling.

Foster maintained the football team had a salutary effect on Louisiana's economy. On 29 August , Hurricane Katrina landed on the state, in what was one of the worst natural disasters in US history. New Orleans had been evacuated, but some , people were unable to leave before the storm hit. A day after the storm appeared to have bypassed the city's center, levees were breached by the storm surge and water submerged the metropolis.

Those unable to leave the city were sheltered in the Louisiana Superdome and New Orleans Convention Center; air conditioning , electricity, and running water failed, making for unsanitary and uncomfortable conditions. They were later transferred to other shelters, including the Houston Astrodome. Katrina had global economic consequences, as imports, exports, and oil supplies — including production, importation, and refining — were disrupted. Bush were criticized in varying degrees for their lack of adequate response to the disaster.

Race and class issues also came to the fore, as the majority of New Orleans residents unable to evacuate the city and affected by the catastrophe were poor and black. Louisiana has had 11 constitutions more than any other state , the latest, as of , was enacted in By January it had been amended times.

The state legislature consists of a 39 — member Senate and a member House of Representatives. The legislature meets annually, beginning the last Monday in March in even-numbered years and on the last Monday in April in odd-numbered years. The even-numbered year session is limited to 60 legislative days in 85 calendar days; the odd-numbered year session is limited to 45 legislative days in 60 calendar days.

Special sessions may be called by a majority petition of each house, with length limited to 30 calendar days. All legislators are elected for concurrent four-year terms; they must be at least 18 years old, qualified voters, and have resided in the state for two years and in their districts for at least one year preceding election. Statewide elected executive officials include the governor and lieutenant governor separately elected , secretary of state, attorney general, treasurer, commissioner of agriculture, commissioner of insurance, and commissioner of elections.

All are elected for four-year terms. The governor must be a qualified elector, be at least 25 years old, and a US and Louisiana citizen for five years preceding election; after two full consecutive terms, a governor may not run for reelection. The same eligibility requirements apply to the lieutenant governor, except that there is no limit on succession to the latter office. Other executive agencies are the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, whose eight elected members and three appointed members serve four-year terms, and the Public Service Commission, whose five members serve for six years.

To become law, a bill must receive majority votes in both the Senate and the House and be signed by the governor, be left unsigned for 10 days when the legislature is in session or for 20 days following the legislature's adjournment but not vetoed by the governor, or be passed again by two-thirds votes of elected members of both houses over the governor's veto.

Appropriation bills must originate in the House but may be amended by the Senate. The governor has an item veto on appropriation bills. Constitutional amendments require approval by two-thirds of the elected members of each house and ratification by a majority of the people voting on it at the next general election. Voters in Louisiana must be US citizens, 18 years old, and state residents. Restrictions apply to convicted felons and those declared mentally incompetent by the court.

The major political organizations are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, each affiliated with the national party. However, differences in culture and economic interests have made Louisiana's politics extremely complex. Immediately following statehood, the primary political alignment was according to ethnic background, Anglo or Latin. By the s, however, Louisiana politics reflected the national division of Jacksonian Democrats and National Republicans, who were by mid-decade replaced by the Whigs.

By and large, the Whigs were favored by the Anglo-Americans while the Democrats were favored by those of French and Spanish descent. Louisiana was one of the three southern states whose disputed electoral votes put Republican Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House in , in return for his agreement to withdraw federal troops from the South, thus putting an end to Reconstruction. The ensuing period of Bourbon Democratic dominance in Louisiana, a time of reaction and racism in politics though a few blacks continued to hold office , lasted until the early s, when worsening economic conditions inspired Populists and Republicans to challenge Democratic rule.

The attempt failed largely because Democratic landowners were able to control the ballots of their black sharecroppers and "vote" them Democrats. The recognition that it was the black vote, however well-controlled, that held the balance in Louisiana politics impelled the Democrats to seek its elimination as an electoral factor. The constitution of imposed a poll tax , a property requirement, a literacy test, and other measures that succeeded in reducing the number of registered black voters from , at the beginning of to 5, in March and 1, by White registration also declined, from , in to 92, in , because the new constitutional requirements tended to disfranchise poor whites as well as blacks.

Between and , the New Orleans Ring, or Choctaw Club, was the dominant power in state politics. Growing political discontent led 5, Louisianians 6. A few Socialists won local office that year in Winn Parish, a center of Populist activity in the s and the birthplace of Huey Long in During his relatively brief career as a member of the Railroad Commission, governor, and US senator, Long committed government resources to public service to an extent without precedent in the state.

He also succeeded in substituting for the traditional Democratic Party organization a state machine geared primarily toward loyalty to himself and, after his assassination in , to the Long family name, which kept its hold on the voters despite a series of scandals that publicized the corruption of his associates. When blacks began voting in increasing numbers during the s, they tended to favor Democratic candidates from the Long camp. The Longs repaid their loyalty: when race became a bitterly divisive issue in the late s and s — Louisiana gave its presidential vote to the States' Rights "Dixiecrat" candidate in — the Longs supported the national Democratic ticket.

The s and s saw a resurgence of the Republican Party and the election in of David C. Treen, the state's first Republican governor since Reconstruction. In , Louisiana elected another Republican governor — Murphy J. Foster was unable to run for reelection in November , due to term limits. In , Democrat Kathleen Babineaux Blanco won the governor's election, and became Louisiana's first female governor. In there were 2,, registered voters. Landrieu elected to replaced retiring Senator J. Bennett Johnston Jr. Landrieu is the daughter of former New Orleans mayor Moon Landrieu.

Following the elections Louisiana's delegation of US representatives consisted of two Democrats and five Republicans. In mid, 24 of the state senators were Democrats and 15 were Republicans; 67 of the state representatives were Democrats and 37 were Republicans. In and , Louisianians gave Republican George W. The state had nine electoral votes in the presidential election. The ecclesiastical districts, called parishes, into which Louisiana was divided in the late 17th century remain the primary political divisions in the state, serving functions similar to those of counties in other states.

In , there were 64 parishes, most of them governed by police jury governing board. Juries range from 3 to 15 elected members. Other parish officials are the sheriff, clerk of court, assessor, and coroner. Each parish elects a school board whose members generally serve six-year terms; all other officers serve four-year terms. In , there were 78 public school districts in the state. As of , Louisiana also had municipal governments. Municipalities are classed by the state based on population as village, town, or city. Municipal officials include the mayor, chief of police, and council or board of aldermen.

In , Louisiana had 45 special districts established by the legislature. In , local government accounted for about , full-time or equivalent employment positions. To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Louisiana operates under the authority of state statute and executive order; the adjutant general is designated as the state homeland security advisor. Louisiana's ethics laws are administered by the Board of Ethics under the Department of Civil Service.

Departments focus on labor, natural resources, revenue, environmental quality, social services, state civil service , wildlife and fisheries, and youth services. Educational services are provided through the Department of Education, which has jurisdiction over elementary, secondary, higher, and vocational-technical instruction, as well as the state schools for the visually impaired, hearing-impaired, and other handicapped children. Highways, waterways, airports, and mass transit are the province of the Department of Transportation and Development.

Environmental affairs, conservation, forestry, and mineral resources are the responsibility of the Department of Natural Resources. Health services are administered mainly through the Department of Health and Hospitals DHH , including Medicare, Medicaid, mental health services, services for citizens with developmental disabilities, and public health services. Such programs as supplemental food stamps, child welfare services, and services for the disabled, blind, and deaf, are administered by the Department of Social Services. Under Louisiana state law, cases may be decided by judicial interpretation of the statutes, without reference to prior court cases, whereas in other states and in the federal courts the common law prevails, and decisions are generally based on previous judicial interpretations and findings.

In actual practice, Louisiana laws no longer differ radically from US common law , and most Louisiana lawyers and judges now cite previous cases in their arguments and rulings. The highest court in Louisiana is the Supreme Court, with appellate jurisdiction. It consists of a chief justice who is chosen by seniority of service, and seven associate justices, all of them elected from six supreme court districts the first district has two judges for staggered year terms. There are five appellate circuits in the state, each divided into three districts; the five circuits are served by 54 judges, all of them elected for overlapping year terms.

Each of the state's district courts serves at least one parish and has at least one district judge, elected for a six-year term; there are district judges. District courts have original jurisdiction in criminal and civil cases. City courts are the principal courts of limited jurisdiction. Louisiana may have been the first state to institute a system of leasing convict labor. Large numbers of convicts were leased, especially after the Civil War, until the practice was discontinued in the early s.

The abuses entailed in this system may be suggested by the fact that, of convicts leased in , died in service. As of 31 December , a total of 36, prisoners were held in Louisiana's state and federal prisons, an increase from 36, of 2. As of year-end , a total of 2, inmates were female, down from 2, or 0. Among sentenced prisoners one year or more , Louisiana had an incarceration rate of people per , population in , the highest in the United States. Louisiana has a death penalty, of which lethal injection is the sole method of execution. From through 5 May , the state has executed 27 persons, although there were no executions in , or in as of 5 May.

As of 1 January , Louisiana had 85 inmates on death row. In , the US Department of Defense had 33, personnel in Louisiana including 22, active-duty military and 3, civilians. There was one major army installation in the state, Ft. There were , veterans of US military service in Louisiana as of , of whom 48, served in World War II ; 37, in the Korean conflict; , during the Vietnam era; and 66, dur-ing the Persian Gulf War. Louisiana was settled by an unusually diverse assortment of immigrants. The Company of the Indies, which administered Louisiana from until , at first began importing French convicts, vagrants, and prostitutes because of the difficulty of finding willing colonists.

Next the company turned to struggling farmers in Germany and Switzerland, who proved to be more suitable and productive settlers. The importation of slaves from Africa and the West Indies began early in the 18th century. Attracted by generous land grants, perhaps 10, Acadians, or Cajuns — people of French descent who had been exiled from Nova Scotia Acadia during the s — migrated to Louisiana after the French and Indian War. Probably the second-largest group to migrate in the late 18th century came from the British colonies and, after the Revolution, from the United States.

Between and , Americans settled the area north of the Red River. Small groups of Canary Islanders and Spaniards from Malaga also settled in the south, and in l, a number of French people fled to Louisiana during the slave insurrection on Hispaniola. During the s and s, masses of Irish and German immigrants came to New Orleans. In the late s, a large number of Midwestern farmers migrated to the prairies of southwestern Louisiana to become rice farmers. Louisiana did not immediately begin losing much of its black population after the Civil War.

In fact, the number of blacks who migrated to Louisiana from the poorer southeastern states during the postwar years may have equaled the number of blacks who migrated before the war or were brought into the state as slaves. In , however, " Kansas fever" struck blacks from the cotton country of Louisiana and Mississippi, and many of them migrated to the Wheat State; however, many later returned to their home states.

Beginning in World War II , large numbers of both black and white farm workers left Louisiana and migrated north and west. Recent migration within the state has been from north to south, and from rural to urban areas, especially to Shreveport, Baton Rouge, and the suburbs of New Orleans. From to , however, the state's urban population fell from Between and , the state had a net loss of , in domestic migration and a net gain of 25, in international migration.

In , 2, foreign immigrants arrived in Louisiana. Between and , the state's overall population increased 3. Before the Civil War, when Louisiana was one of the most prosperous of southern states, its economy depended primarily on two then-profitable crops — cotton and sugar — and on its position as the anchor of the nation's principal north-south trade route. But the upheaval and destruction wrought by the war, combined with severe flood damage to cotton crops, falling cotton prices, and the removal of the federal bounty on sugar, left the economy stagnant through the end of the 19th century, although New Orleans retained its commercial importance as an exporter of cotton and grain.

With the addition of two major crops, rice and soybeans, the rebirth of the timber industry as a result of reforestation, the demand for pine for paper pulp, and most dramatically, the rise of the petrochemical industry, Louisiana's economy has regained much of its former vitality. Today, Louisiana ranks second only to Texas in the value of its mineral products. Louisiana is primarily an industrial state, but its industries are to a large degree based on its natural resources, principally oil, natural gas , water, and timber.

This reliance on a natural resource-based industrial sector has come at a price. These industries, and the state's economy, are subject to sharp commodity price swings, leading to a boom and bust cycle, particularly in the oil and natural gas sectors, as well as in those industries that are heavily reliant upon the price of oil and natural gas. Employment in oil and gas extraction consequently dropped from , to 55, At the same time that oil prices dropped, natural gas prices rose, forcing a contraction in the chemical industry which uses large quantities of natural gas.

Chemicals were also hurt by a leap in the exchange value of the dollar in the mids, as Louisiana exports a large part of its chemical production. A subsequent drop in the dollar's exchange value in the late s and early s enabled the chemical industry not only to rebound, but to expand. A higher dollar in the late s once again reversed the chemical industry's growth. In an attempt to offset losses in employment, Louisiana built several riverboat casinos and a land-based casino in which added about 7, jobs. The oil and gas extraction sector, however, continued to grow in both absolute and relative terms.

While Louisiana has also seen growth in the state's various service sectors, output from manufacturing as a percent of gross state product has decreased from During the national recession in , employment gains contin-ued in health services, lodging establishments, state services, and in the transportation and public utilities sector. In August , the state, along with the city and port of New Orleans, and the oil and natural gas industries were severely affected by Hurricane Katrina, and it was expected to take years for the state to recover from the damage inflicted.

In that same year, there were an estimated , small businesses in Louisiana. Of the 96, businesses that had employees, a total of 93, or An estimated 9, new businesses were established in the state in , up 6. Business terminations that same year came to 9,, down There were business bankruptcies in , up In , the state's personal bankruptcy Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 filing rate was filings per , people, ranking Louisiana as the 17th-highest in the nation.

The — average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4. The — average annual growth rate of TPI was 4. The — 04 national change was 6. During the same period an estimated According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS , in April the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Louisiana was 1,,, with approximately 90, workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 4. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 1,, Since the beginning of the BLS data series in , the highest unemployment rate recorded in Louisiana was The historical low was 4.

During the antebellum period, Louisiana had both the largest slave market in the United States — New Orleans — and the largest slave revolt in the nation's history, in St. Charles and St. John the Baptist parishes in January New Orleans also had a relatively large free black population, and many of the slaves in the city were skilled workers, some of whom were able to earn their freedom by outside employment. Major efforts to organize Louisiana workers began after the Civil War. There were strikes in the cane fields in the early s, and in the mids, the Knights of Labor began to organize the cane workers.

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The strike they called in was ended by hired strikebreakers, who killed at least 30 blacks. Back in New Orleans, the Knights of Labor led a general strike in The Brotherhood of Timber Workers began organizing in but had little to show for their efforts except the scars of violent conflict with the lumber-mill owners.

A right-to-work law was passed in , partly as a result of violent conflict between an AFL-CIO building trades union and an independent union over whose workers would build a petrochemical plant near Lake Charles. In , a police strike began in New Orleans on the eve of Mardi Gras , causing the cancellation of most of the parades, but it collapsed the following month. The BLS reported that in , a total of , of Louisiana's 1,, employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union.

Envronmental Inventory of 23 Parishes With Known Coal Resources in Louisiana

This represented 6. Overall in , a total of , workers 7. Louisiana is one of 22 states with a right-to-work law. As of 1 March , Louisiana did not have a state-mandated minimum wage law. Employees in that state however, were covered under federal minimum wage statutes. In , women in the state accounted for Nearly every crop grown in North America can be raised somewhere in Louisiana. In the south are strawberries, oranges, sweet potatoes, and truck crops; in the southeast, sugarcane; and in the southwest, rice and soybeans.

Soybeans — which were introduced into Louisiana after World War I — are also raised in the cotton-growing area of the northeast and in a diagonal belt running east-northwest along the Red River. Oats, alfalfa, corn, potatoes, and peaches are among the other crops grown in the north.

As of , there were an estimated 27, farms covering 7. Louisiana ranked second in the United States in sugar cane production. In the midth century, before rice production began there, southwestern Louisiana was a major cattle-raising area. Today, cattle are raised mainly in the southeast between the Mississippi and Pearl rivers , in the north-central region, and in the west.

Dairy farmers had an estimated 43, milk cows, which produced million lb million kg of milk in Also during , poultry farmers produced an estimated 7. In , Louisiana was second behind only Alaska in the size and value of its commercial landings, with nearly 1. The most important species caught in Louisiana are shrimp, hard blue crab , and oysters. In , shrimp landings in Louisiana amounted to In , the state commercial fleet had 8, boats and 2, vessels. In , there were 90 processing and wholesale plants in the state.

Louisiana produces most of the US crawfish harvest. With demand far exceeding the natural supply, crawfish farming began about In , 1, crawfish farms covered some , acres 47, hectares , producing Spring water levels of the state's Atchafalaya Basin cause the wild crawfish harvest to vary from year to year.

Catfish are also cultivated in Louisiana, on 38 farms covering some 7, acres 3, hectares in , with a inventory of about The Natchitoches National Fish Hatchery focuses on paddlefish, striped bass, and pallid sturgeon, but also raises largemouth bass, bluegill, and catfish in limited quantities. The principal forest types are loblolly and shortleaf pine in the northwest, longleaf and slash pine in the south, and hardwood in a wide area along the Mississippi River.

Lumber production totaled 1. Louisiana has one national forest, Kisatchie, with a gross area of 1,, acres , hectares within its boundaries; gross acreage of National Forest System lands in the state was 2,, acres , hectares in According to preliminary data, the production of salt in totaled Louisiana in was the largest salt producing state in the United States.

As of , Louisiana had 43 electrical power service providers, of which 22 were publicly owned and 13 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, five were investor owned, and three were owners of independent generators that sold directly to customers. As of that same year there were 2,, retail customers. Of that total, 1,, received their power from investor-owned service providers.

Cooperatives accounted for , customers, while publicly owned providers had , customers. There were independent generator or "facility" customers. Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in stood at Of the total amount generated, The largest portion of all electric power generated, Other renewable power sources accounted for 3. Charles Parish. Oil and gas production has expanded greatly since World War II, but production reached its peak in the early s and proven reserves are declining.

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Including federal offshore domains, the state that year ranked eighth seventh excluding federal offshore in proven reserves and fifth fourth excluding federal offshore in production among the 31 producing states. As of , the state's 17 refineries had a combined crude oil distillation capacity of 2,, barrels per day. In , Louisiana had 20, producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In that same year, marketed gas production all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed totaled 1, As of 31 December , proven reserves of dry or consumer-grade natural gas totaled 9, billion cu ft Louisiana in , had two producing coal mines, both of which were surface operations.

Coal production that year totaled 3,, short tons, down from 4,, short tons in One short ton equals 2, lb 0. In , a total of , people in Louisiana were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM.

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Of that total, , were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the chemical manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 22, with 14, actual production workers. It was followed by fabricated metal product manufacturing at 19, employees 15, actual production workers ; transportation equipment manufacturing at 19, employees 14, actual production workers ; food manufacturing at 17, employees 12, actual production workers ; and paper manufacturing with 8, employees 6, actual production workers.

The Standard Oil Refinery now owned by Exxon that is today the largest in North America began operations in Louisiana in , the same year construction started on the state's first long-distance oil pipeline. Since then, a huge and still-growing petrochemical industry has become a dominant force in the state's economy. Other expanding industries are wood products and, especially since World War II, shipbuilding.

Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 3, establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 1, and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for establishments. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: gasoline stations 2, ; food and beverage stores 2, ; clothing and clothing accessories stores 2, ; and motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers 1, A total of , people were employed by the retail sector in Louisiana that year.

Consumer protection is the responsibility of the Consumer Protection Section, which is under the state's Office of the Attorney General. The section investigates and mediates consumer complaints, takes action against companies allegedly engaging in unfair business practices, distributes consumer publications, and registers multi-level marketing, telemarketing, and charitable organizations, as authorized by the state's Unfair and Deceptive Trade Practices Act. However, the section does not handle the areas of insurance, banking, or utilities. When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General 's Office can initiate civil and criminal proceedings; represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; administer consumer protection and education programs; handle formal consumer complaints; and exercise broad subpoena powers.

However, the Attorney General's office cannot represent individual consumers. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; and represent counties, cities, and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law. However, the Office cannot file for criminal proceedings for antitrust actions. A county government office is also located in the city of Gretna. As of June , Louisiana had insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 53 state-chartered and federally chartered credit unions CUs.

As of June , CUs accounted for 8. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining Louisiana state-chartered banks are regulated by the Office of Financial Institutions under the Department of Economic Development. Federally chartered banks are regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. As of fourth quarter , the median net interest margin the difference between the lower rates offered to savers and the higher rates charged on loans , was 4. Prior to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, was on track to be a record year for earnings by the financial institutions based in Louisiana.

However, those insured institutions located in the most heavily impacted parishes, as of early continued to report significant decreases in profits. In fourth quarter , median return on assets for those parishes was 0. In there were over 4. There were 58 life and health and 33 property and casualty insurance companies domiciled in the state at the end of Louisiana tied with four other states as having the fourth-highest percentage of uninsured residents in the nation. The state offers a month health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act COBRA, , a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In , there were over 2. There are no securities or commodities exchanges in Louisiana. In , there were personal financial advisers employed in the state and 1, securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. New Orleans at th in the nation. The budget is prepared by the state executive budget director and submitted annually by the governor to the legislature for amendment and approval.

The fiscal year FY runs from 1 July through 30 June. Property taxes accounted for 0. The per capita amount ranks the state fifth-lowest nationally. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 6. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is exempt from state tax, but subject to local taxes. The tax on cigarettes is 36 cents per pack, which ranks 42nd among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Louisiana taxes gasoline at 20 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the The Office of Commerce and Industry in the Department of Economic Development seeks to encourage investment and create jobs in the state and to expand the markets for Louisiana products.

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Financial assistance services for industrial development include state and local tax incentives and state "Enterprise Zone" legislation. Beginning in , the Louisiana Economic Development Council prepared annual reports and action plans with a view to the implementation of the state's Master Plan for Economic Development dubbed Vision The three main goals of Vision were to, by , recreate Louisiana as a place where all citizens are engaged in the pursuit of knowledge; create an economy driven by technology-intensive industries, and rank among the top 10 states in standard of living indicators.

Successes in were reported in providing economic development incentives, and developing infrastructure for biosciences, information technology, research and development, and education. With the devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina and the breaching of the levees in New Orleans in , Louisiana was faced with an entirely new economic development scenario. In September , President George W.

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Congress passed the Gulf Opportunity Zone Act in December , which provides a number of tax incentives to encourage the rebuilding of areas ravaged by Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. The infant mortality rate in October was estimated at 9.

The birth rate in was The abortion rate stood at 13 per 1, women in In , about The crude death rate in was 9. As of , the death rates for major causes of death per , resident population were: heart disease , Louisiana had the second-highest diabetes death rate in the nation, following West Virginia. The state also had the second-highest homicide death rate at The mortality rate from HIV infection was 8. While mechanization was gradually introduced, blacks left Tensas Parish before its full effects had taken place, to escape the violence of lynchings and executions, and social oppression by the white minority.

Whites numbered 15 percent. Twenty years later, by , the number of blacks in the parish had risen only to 11, 70 percent while the whites had increased markedly to 4, 30 percent. These differences likely reflected a continuing outmigration by blacks, as well as in-migration of whites from other areas, who settled in the hill country during the ss. O'Hearn Senate against powerful incumbent Democrat Russell B. Long overwhelmingly defeated O'Hearn statewide. Prior to January , when fifteen African Americans were permitted to register, there had been no black voters on the Tensas Parish rolls since the state passed a constitution in to disenfranchise blacks.

In the parish consisted of 7, blacks and 4, whites. Whites had controlled the political system since the late 19th century and excluded blacks from the political system for more than 60 years. Tensas was the last of Louisiana's parishes in the 20th century to allow African Americans to register to vote. In the fall of O'Hearn was elected to an at-large seat from Caddo Parish as a state representative from Shreveport. Another white Republican was also elected from Caddo Parish, as were three Democrats, all running for at-large seats. In Tensas Parish, with mostly only conservative whites voting, supported Republican presidential nominee Barry M.

Goldwater rather than incumbent Democrat President Lyndon B. Johnson , who was supporting civil rights. Few of the parish's thousands of black residents were yet enabled to vote. After the passage of the Voting Rights Act of , large numbers of Tensas Parish blacks began registering to vote. These new black voters were staunchly Democratic, as the national party had supported their drive for civil rights.

Since then, the black majority of the parish has made it a Democratic stronghold. Some white Democrats have been elected to public offices in the parish, including Sheriff Rickey A. Jones and several school board members. Tensas Parish was de jure desegregated until the fall of Although the state officially desegregated, the schools are largely de facto segregated, as many white parents have sent their children to private academies founded at that time. The majority of white students attend the private Tensas Academy in St.

Nearly all African-American pupils attend the public schools, where few whites are registered. Enrollment in the public system, now based in St. Joseph, has declined in recent years as parish population has declined. Tensas High School in St. Joseph, as well as Newellton and Waterproof high schools. In May , the graduating class of forty students at Tensas High School included three whites. Ten white students graduated from Tensas Academy, and four whites from the private Newellton Christian Academy. Historically, Tensas Parish has been heavily Democratic in orientation, although the make-up of the party has changed markedly in terms of demographics.

In the presidential election, the parish supported by plurality the Constitutional Union Party candidate, U. Senator John Bell of Tennessee , who pledged to support the Constitution of the United States , the Union of states, and the "enforcement of the laws. Breckinridge of Kentucky. Regular Democratic nominee Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois ran poorly in Louisiana, and the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln , also of Illinois, was not even listed on the state ballot. The end of the war was followed by emancipation of millions of enslaved African Americans in the South. After gaining the franchise, most black men joined the Republican Party , electing candidates who made up a biracial legislature in Louisiana during Reconstruction.

White Democratic groups worked through intimidation and fraud to suppress black and white Republican voting during and after the Reconstruction era. In Louisiana passed a new state constitution with provisions that created barriers to voter registration in order to disenfranchise African-American voters and cripple the Republican Party. Louisiana was effectively a one-party state and part of the Solid South for the next several decades.

In , Vice President George H. Bush , the Republican presidential nominee, prevailed in Tensas Parish with 1, votes 50 percent. Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts trailed with 1, In , native son of the South U. President Bill Clinton obtained 1, votes The Democratic electors polled 1, votes that year to 1, for the George W. Bush - Dick Cheney ticket. Senators John F. In the U. Senate primary election, Tensas Parish gave a plurality to the Republican candidate, U. Representative David Vitter of St. Tammany Parish , who polled 1, votes 41 percent compared to ballots 32 percent for his chief Democratic rival, Congressman Chris John of Crowley.

He won statewide. There was no general election in Tensas Parish to determine if Vitter would have surpassed 50 percent plus one vote to obtain an outright majority in this traditionally Democratic parish. In , the successful Republican gubernatorial candidate, U. Representative Bobby Jindal , polled 40 percent in Tensas Parish. Adams, Jr. Under the state constitution, prior to , each parish -regardless of population- elected at least one member to the Louisiana House of Representatives.

That year the US Supreme Court ruled that states had to develop legislative districts that were based on roughly equal populations and had to be redistricted after each decennial census, based on the principle of " one man, one vote ". It said there was no constitutional basis for state legislatures to be based on geographical districts such as one representative per parish , as that system had resulted in inequities: particularly marked under-representation of more populated, urbanized areas and an unequal dominance of state legislatures by rural areas.

Louisiana and numerous other states had not regularly conducted redistricting, although there had been dramatic population shifts since the turn of the 20th century. The last member to represent only Tensas Parish was Democrat S. DeWitt of Newellton and later St. DeWitt won the legislative post in by unseating year incumbent J. Seaman of Waterproof. Because of Tensas Parish's small population, the state house district was made to include part of Franklin Parish. According to the U. The parish seat of St. Joseph is located adjacent to the Mississippi River levee system, which protects the eastern border of the parish along the river.

Lake Bruin is an oxbow lake created by the meandering of the Mississippi River ; there are two other oxbow lakes in the parish. The largely rural parish has three communities: Newellton , St. Joseph, and Waterproof. Newell , a native of North Carolina. Tensas Parish has one principal cemetery, Legion Memorial, established in and located just north of Newellton. A new entrance sign to the cemetery has been erected. All three communities are linked by Highway 65 , which passes just to the west of each town. The mostly rural parish has continued to lose population.

Between July 1, , and July 1, , Tensas Parish lost residents, or 2. Joseph, [30] expressed surprise at those figures, as a number of people had moved into the parish in and as refugees from New Orleans and coastal areas after Hurricane Katrina.