In August the Spaniards at Tidore were composed of soldiers and a galley with another 40 soldiers on board with a total of men. During the government of Lucas de Vergara Gaviria, between the end of and January , another abortive attempt to besiege Tidore was made by the fleet led by Simon Jansz Hoen, who simply run for a naval blockade of the island of Tidore and attack and capture the Spanish fort on the island of Bachan.
In the following years because of the increasing pressure of the Dutch on Tidore, the Spaniards were forced to increase the forts and to garrison troops on the island and to abandon some strongholds on the outer islands of Morotai and Halmahera in the middle of were abandoned the forts of Sabugo May-July and San Juan de Tolo August The year is the year when the Dutch tried several times to expel the Spaniards from the island permanently, with attacks towards Marieco and the fortifications of the main city of Tidore.
In February , the Dutch captured the fort of Marieco, rebuilt it and placed a strong garrison there. Also the fort of Socanora, located south of the capital of Tidore was garrisoned by a small Spanish garrison.
Diego Hurtado Mendoza Cartas by Juan Varo
The continuous state of war between the Dutch and Spaniards, and among their allies ternatese and tidorese led to an impoverishment of the land and population, which was also noticed by the casual visitors like the English John Saris, who stopped for a few days in Tidore during , which expressed its regret on the lamentable state of destruction brought to the islands by the continuous wars. In subsequent years the state of war between two rival European powers is to persist, but apart from a few skirmishes, the Dutch will not attempt more attacks such as those brought on a large scale in , for they will change tactics, trying to interfere in relations between the Spaniards and tidorese and to undermine the alliance between the two.
Especially they come near the Prince of Tidore, who was madly in love with the Queen of Jailolo, trying to get him on their side. However, even after the Spaniards were forced to constantly maintain a strong garrison on the island. The forts in Spanish hand, Vergara informs us, dispose of one third of a normal garrison. The Dutch who occupied from the fort of Marieco between and dismantled and abandoned it. The entire island as of this date and until almost the final abandonment by the Spanish troops in remained under the control of the Spaniards and their Tidorese allies.
In the following years as well as with the Dutch, the Spaniards had some serious problems and different crises in relations with their closest ally, the king of Tidore, especially between and most severely in the years around , when the island of Tidore remained in a state of constant rebellion. The first period of crisis coincided with the usurpation of the kingdom by cachil Naro, and the accession to the throne of Tidore by cachil Borotalo, endorsed by the Spanish Governor Pedro de Heredia.
He came to Ternate with the specific order to put on the throne the rightful king of Tidore, the cachil Naro, who had been unjustly deprived of his crown by Pedro de Heredia, who had put in his place the cachil Borotalo cousin of the king cachil Naro. It seems that Heredia had had friction with cachil Naro regarding the sale of cloves, because of this Pedro de Heredia influenced the Tidorese to abandon him and swear allegiance to cachil Borontalo, his cousin. Cachil Naro was then forced to take refuge with the Dutch in their fort of Malayo. For this and other reasons it was later decided to open legal proceedings against the actions of Pedro de Heredia.
The cachil Naro is described as a man loyal and brave and always loyal to the Spaniards. The new governor Pedro de Mendiola was ordered to put in place cachil Naro, which for the moment he could not do, because cachil Naro had taken refuge at the Dutch fort Malayo. He had received strict instructions from the governor of the Philippines Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera to restore legality, secretly contacting, by letter cachil Naro, who was exiled to Malayo, but now ordered to Ternate to be put back in place as the king of Tidore, since Pedro de Heredia had no authority to take away the kingdom.
In the document, which displays the Spanish plans, it appears that, once arrived in Ternate, Mendiola was secretly contacting cachil Naro and invite him or on a Spanish galleon or in the city of Ternate, guaranteeing the security through cards of the governor, once cachil Naro came to talk with Mendiola, the governor had to be pointed out the regret he had for the actions of Pedro de Heredia, who had not helped with the Spanish arms cachil Naro to defend himself against his opponents and had allowed him to be deprived of his kingdom.
The Spaniards now wished to remedy this by providing their troops to resettle cachil Naro in Tidore, provided, he acknowledges the Spanish aid and alliance with the Spaniards. The Spanish proposal was to unite the Tidorese in remaining faithful to cachil Naro along with the Spanish troops and take possession of the kingdom. After reaching the agreement with cachil Naro, the document describes the moves to be made against the usurper.
The first move was to release cachil de Reues so that he could give to his king cachil Bontalo Borontalo a card inviting him to the Spanish castle, where he was to be entertained with kind words and gifts before the cachil Naro would arrive to take over and occupy Tidore. The instructions also included the possibility of the request for caracoras and men for the case cachil Borotalo would remain in power. So far the plans of the Spaniards, but the absolute secrecy, basic thing of the whole operation, was not kept, because, cachil Borontalo had to be learned about the intentions of the Spaniards and at his request, the Dutch and the ternatese treacherously killed cachil Naro, it seems that cachil Borotalo had promised to the Dutch to build a fort on the island.
The Spaniards then decided to lay cachil Borotalo and settle as King the son of the late King cachil Naro, the cachil Sayde. So he could carry out the orders he had received to capture or kill cachil Borontalo. Askins, Cleveland, Cleveland State University, Ucar, El ms. Blecua, por su parte, ha descrito otro ms. Su editora, Beatriz Entenza de Solare, interpreta que las coincidencias entre el manuscrito y el Cancionero de no se deben a. Beatriz E.
Amado Alonso, , Cancionero general de obras nuevas Zaragoza, , ed. La cadencia editorial del Generala la siguiente: , , , , , , , y Hay ediciones de , , , y Ariosto, Orlando furioso Toledo, ; Hernando de Hoces, trad. Boiardo, Orlando enamorado Valencia, ; G. Virgilio, Eneida Toledo, Maxime Chevalier, L'Arioste en Espagne Jorge de Montemayor, La Diana, ed.
Juan Montero con est. Although enlightened Spanish reformers, following Montesquieu and Rousseau, eulogised travel as a path to knowledge, in Spain these travels were understood in a different way. The main goal was 'learning' for 'usefulness and for the common good', two concepts which were well established in Enlightenment philosophy.
People travelled with the aim of acquiring useful knowledge for the progress of Spain, not only in techniques and industry, but also in artistic matters. Consequently, there were two kinds of travels. It was unusual for the monarchy to fund visits to Italy in order to buy antiquities to expand or complete royal collections and thereby facilitate the assimilation of the image of Rome in Spain. One of the most important results of this expedition was the acquisition of several mosaics, now in the National Archaeological Museum Madrid.
They were bought from the heirs of Cardinal Massimo and discussed by Winckelmann There are coins, part of the cabinet of coins of the royal library subsequently integrated into the Madrid National Archaeological Museum from its foundation in The acquisition through purchase or by legacy of collections of classical sculpture amassed in Italy was another element of the 'Romanisation' of the monarchy. Rulers decorated their palaces with these statues, giving their buildings an appearance similar to that of the other royal houses of Europe.
The two most important collections of the 18th c. Between and he stayed in Rome as recorded in the biographical prologue of vol. Dissertatio historica Rome His visit to Rome coincided with Winckelmann's and with that of the painter Anton Rafael Mengs; the latter had an important influence on the diffusion of the neo-classicism in Spain through the editions of his works made by his good friend, the Spanish ambassador Azara. Unlike foreign writers who often considered the literature of travel important, only a few Spanish visitors wrote about their impressions.
In one, written in Rome on April 23, , he described his visits to Pompeii and Herculaneum and to the court of Charles III in Naples he does not mention Ponz, though probably he travelled with him The main aim of his travel was the study of governments, literature, fine arts and theatre in England, France and Italy; his costs were paid directly by Manuel Godoy, the powerful minister in the government of Charles IV. Nevertheless, architects were the most important of those who travelled to Italy, for they spread the classical image to Spain.
Their mission was to study the monuments of antiquity in order to apply ideas about proportions, style and ornamentation in their designs of civil and religious buildings in Spain, and especially in the royal palaces. The Spanish Bourbon dynasty also promoted the study of classical topics through institutions that were royal foundations, such as the Real Academia de San Fernando and the Real Academia de la Historia.
For this purpose, several expeditions with very specific goals were financed; as a result, a national history was established that had strong Greco-Roman roots, and a classical artistic atmosphere was introduced, not only in iconography, but also in architecture and the minor arts. This constitutes the second major phase in the relationship between Spain and Rome. The tradition in classical architecture that was dominant from the 16th c. Around , a particular event called this interpretation into question - the discovery of the Greek temples of Paestum the so-called 'Fortune of the Doric' The temples of Paestum presented a new image of Greek architecture.
Goethe described his visit to Paestum, accompanied by the painter Kniep, in a letter dated March 23, He followed Winckelmann, who had visited the site in Goethe described his feeling of confusion and annoyance when he saw these temples, which were less slender, cruder and more severe than the reproductions he knew:. This confusion was the result of the contrast between Doric architecture and the ideas of classical architecture held in the Renaissance - that is, images derived from Rome and amended by Palladio, Vignola and Serlio, who interpreted Vitruvius.
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After all, it was Greece, and Greeks were always right. This surprise was also experienced by other travellers. Consequently, a crisis occurred in the tradition of architectural studies based mainly on Renaissance treatises in the Vitruvian tradition: the reaction adopted simplicity in composition and austerity in ornamentation - rational ideas that corresponded with the principles proposed by Winckelmann. The return to a 'true and noble architecture' would be possible only through direct study of Vitruvius, and not by taking into account the interpretations, more or less rigorous, derived from Renaissance writers.
In Spain there was a serious need for a reliable edition of The ten books of architecture to act as an instrument for the codification of architectural rules and thus facilitate the elaboration of a neo-classical theory during the second half of the 18th c There was no accurate translation of Vitruvius in Spain even though the new Vitruvian theories had been introduced since the beginning of the 16th c.
This was the first Spanish treatise on classical architecture and also the first in France, translated in with the title Raison d'architecture antique though Renaissance art had been introduced into Spain 40 years earlier There were also translations of Serlio such as that from Francisco de Villalpando, Tercero y quarto libro de architectura de Sebastiano Serlio Toledo , in which can be found the first descriptions of ancient monuments in Rome and the Renaissance buildings modelled after them, with drawings of plans, elevation and decoration To the difficulties of the Latin text was added a lack of reliable translations, so during the 18th c.
His editions of Vitruvius and Palladio played an important part in the debate and in the consolidation of classicism in the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando He quickly realised the differences between the ideal architecture described by Vitruvius and converted into an architectural tradition by classical scholars of the Renaissance, and the actual Roman monuments.
Responding to criticisms of Vitruvius that were prompted by the inexactitude of his text, for example, those resulting from the re-discovery of Doric architecture, Ortiz y Sanz developed a defence of him by rejecting the two architectural orders that had been invented by Renaissance architects, especially Serlio and Vignola the Tuscan and the Italic orders. This did not mean, however, the adoption of a new Greek taste.
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Ortiz y Sanz returned to Spain in and in presented the idea of an archaeological journey around Spain to the count of Floridablanca, the secretary of state. This project, known as the Noticia y plan de un viage arquitectonico-antiquario, encargado por S. The aim of the journey was to draw the archaeological and architectural remains of Roman date in Spain in order to find the roots of an authentic Spanish classicism. To develop his research on Vitruvius, Ortiz y Sanz asked for the collaboration of resident architects in Rome. The minister Floridablanca considered it vital for architects to travel to Rome as part of their education, since Spain did not have the splendour and magnificence of Italy and the country needed good architects who could put into practice Enlightenment ideas about recovering the classical past.
By contrast, painters and sculptors in Spain had excellent models to use for their inspiration: these included, for example, the sculptures in the royal collections and the copies and casts in the academies. For this reason, the grants for painters were suppressed in , but the grants for architects continued.
The first architects returned in , prepared to apply their knowledge. Before this, however, the Academy had purchased in Rome several books considered fundamental for the theory and practice of classical architecture. In Rome, the resident architects were integrated within the Academy of Spain, in the Palazzo di Spagna at the same location as the embassy. Their work included the measurement and drawing of ancient and Renaissance monuments such as the Tempietto of Bramante on the Janiculum it belonged to the Spanish Crown from its construction by order of the Catholic monarchs.
These practices in turn helped them to plan new buildings that imitated classical models.
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Do venerate antiquity as the mother of architecture: I consider it a mirror in which we must always look at ourselves; I had this idea before coming to Italy, but after visiting Rome and looking at these precious remains from the past, I am convinced that without a rigorous observation of them we can do nothing The objective was twofold: to obtain a good architectural treatise through a reliable translation of Vitruvius and to apply the models.
In the account of these travels, he described the importance to architects of visits to Italy. Thanks to this training, architects.