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The captain ordering it to be brought on deck, its fermentation was encreased by the addition of fresh air, and several of the casks had their heads forced out by the fermenting liquor, with an explosion like that of a fowling-piece. A kind of vapour, like smoke, always preceded the eruption. A vessel, strongly fumigated with sulphur, was, by my father's advice, filled with this essence, by which means the fermentation was stopped for a few days, but returned afterwards, especially in casks exposed to the free access of air.

Some casks, which had been buried in the ballast-shingle, were preserved and prevented from bursting. Perhaps the admixture of double-distilled spirit, might have hindered the progress of fermentation in this essence. The beer made of it, by the simple addition of warm water, was very good and palatable, though it had a little empyreumatic taste, caused by the inspissation. The next morning, the weather cleared up, after a shower of rain, and presented to our sight the isle of Mayo.

About noon we approached the isle of San Jago , and anchored at three o'clock in the afternoon in Porto-Praya. Jago , the capital of the island; but as he was very sickly, which his complexion witnessed for him, he had retired hither about two months ago, where the air is reckoned more salubrious. He occupied the apartments of the commandant, who was now obliged to dwell in a wretched cottage, and who gave us some information relative to these islands. In , Antonio Nolli , probably by others named Antoniotto , a Genoese in the service of Don Henry , Infante of Portugal , discovered some of the Cape-Verd islands , and on the first of May landed on one of them, which had its name from thence.

Jago was seen at the same time. In , another voyage was undertaken in order to settle them; and on this occasion the remaining islands were likewise discovered. San Jago is the greatest of them, and about seventeen leagues in length. The capital, of the same name, lies in the interior parts of the country, and is the see of the bishop of all the Cape-Verd islands. This isle is divided into eleven parishes, and the most populous of these contains about four thousand houses, so that it is but very thinly inhabited.

Porto-Praya stands on a steep rock, to which we climbed by a serpentine path. Its fortifications are old decayed walls on the sea side, and fences, scarce breast-high, made of loose stones, towards the land. A small church is inclosed within these walls, towards the sea; but, besides it, there are only a few cottages. A tolerable building, at a little distance from the fort, belongs to a company of merchants at Lisbon who have the exclusive right to trade to all the Cape-Verd islands , and keep an agent here for that purpose.

When we made application to this indolent Don, by the Governor's direction, to be supplied with live cattle, he indeed promised to furnish as many as we wanted, but we never got more than a single lean bullock. The company perfectly tyrannizes over the inhabitants, and sells them wretched merchandize at exorbitant prices.

The natives of St. Jago are few in number, of a middle stature, ugly, and almost perfectly black, with frizzled woolly hair, and thick lips, like the most ill-looking kind of negroes. II, p. At present there are very few white people among them, and I believe we did not see above five or six, including the governor, commandant, and company's agent. In some of the islands, even the governors and priests are taken from among the blacks.

The better sort of them wear ragged European cloaths, which they have obtained by barter from ships that touched here, previous to the establishment of the monopolizing company. The rest content themselves with a few separate articles of dress, either a shirt, or a waistcoat, or a pair of breeches, or a hat; and seem to be well pleased with their own appearance. The women are ugly, and wear a long strip of striped cotton over the shoulders, hanging down to the knees before and behind; but children are perfectly naked till the age of puberty.

Despotic governors, bigotted priests, and indolence on the part of the court of Lisbon, will always keep these people in a wretched situation, beneath that of any community of negroes in Africa , and prevent them from increasing their numbers, which are the real wealth of a nation. It is natural for people whose solids are relaxed in a fervid climate, to incline to sloth and laziness; but they are confirmed in these vices, and must become indifferent to improvement, when they know the attempt would only make their situation more irksome.

With a kind of gloomy insensibility they give themselves up to beggary, the only state which can protect them from the greedy clutches of tyrannical masters; and they shun every labour, which must encrease the treasures of others without benefit to themselves; and which only breaks in upon those hours of rest, that are now the solace of their precarious condition. Such clouded prospects, that never admit a gleam of happiness, cannot be incitements to marriage, and the difficulty of supporting a wretched existence, is a sufficient reason to decline the cares annexed to the relation of parents.

Let us add to this, that the dry soil, whose fertility depends on the stated return of annual rains, is parched up whenever a drought takes place; all vegetation is then destroyed, and an inevitable famine succeeds. It may be reasonably supposed, that the experience of such fatal periods, deters the inhabitants from indulging in the sweets of conjugal connections, when they must apprehend that misery, and perhaps the horrors of slavery, await their unhappy offspring [16] On our return to the Cape of Good Hope , in , we were told of a general famine which had happened in the Cape-Verd islands in and , and which had risen to such a height that hundreds of people had perished for want.

The commander of a Dutch ship, which touched at St. Jago during this distressful season, received several of the natives, with their wives and children, who sold themselves to him, in order to escape the dreadful consequences of want. He carried them to the Cape of Good Hope , and sold them; but when the Government there was informed of it, he was ordered to redeem them at his own expence, to carry them back to their native country, and to bring a certificate from the Portuguese governor, importing the execution of these orders.

The Cape-Verd islands in general are mountainous, but their lower hills which are covered with a fine verdure, have a very gentle declivity, and extensive vallies run between them. They are ill supplied with water, which in many of them is only found in pits or wells.

Jago has, however, a tolerable river running into the sea at Ribiera Grande , a town which takes its name from thence. At Porto-Praya there was only a single well set round with loose stones, and containing muddy brackish water, in such small quantities, that we drew it quite dry twice a day. The valley by the side of the fort seems to have some moisture, and is planted here and there with cocoa-nut-palms, sugar-canes, bananas, cotton, goava, and papaw-trees; but the greatest part of it is over-run with various sorts of brushwood, and another is left for pastures.

We may perhaps conclude from hence, that the Cape-Verd islands in the hands of an active, enterprising, or commercial nation, would become interesting and useful, and might be cultivated to the greatest advantage. The cochineal-plant, indigo, some spices, and perhaps coffee, would thrive particularly well in this hot and parched climate; and these productions would be sufficient to supply the natives not only with the necessaries, but likewise with the conveniences and luxuries of life, under the benign influence of a free and equal government, like that under which we have the happiness to live in this country.

Instead of feeding on a scanty allowance of roots, we should see their board heaped with plenty, and convenient houses would then supply the place of wretched hovels. Some of the lower hills were dry and barren, scarce any plants growing upon them; but others had still some verdure on them, though we were now at the end of the dry season. They are all covered with abundance of stones, which appear to have been burnt, and are a species of lava.

The foil, which is fertile enough in the vallies, is a kind of rubbish of cinders, and ochreous ashes; and the rocks on the sea-shore are likewise black and burnt. It is therefore probably, that this island has undergone a change from volcanic eruptions; and it will not be deemed unreasonable to form the same opinion of all the Cape-Verd islands , when we consider that one of them, the island of Fuogo, still consists of a burning mountain. The interior mountains of the country are lofty, and some of them appear steep and craggy, being perhaps of a more ancient date than the volcanic parts which we could examine.

In the evening we returned on board; but as the surf ran considerably higher than at our landing, we were obliged to strip in order to wade to our boats, which our best swimmers had loaded with water-casks, and such refreshments as could be purchased on shore; not without some danger of being hurt by sharks, which are numerous in the harbour.

The captains, astronomers, and masters, had spent this day in making astronomical observations upon the little islet in the harbour, named Ilha dos Codornizes or Quail island , from the birds which are in great plenty upon it. The commandant of the fort informed us, that the officers of a French frigate had likewise made astronomical observations on this identical spot some time ago, having several watches of a new construction on board [17] This was the Isis frigate, commanded by M.

A journal of the voyage and observations made in that ship, has since been published in 2 vols. The captain sent them his own boat; but when it came on shore, the governor begged to be excused, because he was always affected with sickness on board any vessel, whether at sea or in harbour. The commandant promised to come, but having at first neglected to ask the governor's leave, the latter retired to take his siesta or afternoon's repose and no one ventured to disturb him. The extreme scarcity of refreshments made our stay at Porto-Praya very short.

We were therefore obliged to content ourselves with a few casks of brackish water, a single bullock, a few long-legged goats, with strait horns and pendulous ears, some lean hogs, turkies, and fowls, and a few hundreds of unripe oranges, and indifferent bananas. The researches we had made the preceding day, furnished us with a few tropical plants, mostly of known species, with some new kinds of insects and of fish. We also observed several sorts of birds, and among them guinea-hens, which seldom fly, but run very swiftly, and which, when old, are very tough and dry eating.

Quails and red-legged partridges are likewise common, according to the report of the natives, though we did not see any; but the most remarkable bird we found is a species of Kingfisher [18] The same species is found in Arabia Felix; vide Forskal Fauna Arabica ; as also in Abyssinia, as appears from the elegant and valuble drawings of James Bruce , Esq. Our sailors, who catch at every thing that may afford them diversion, purchased about fifteen or twenty monkies, known by the name of St.

On each side of their mouth, they had a kind of pouch like many others of the monkey tribe which the English in the West-Indian colonies, call by their Spanish name alforjes. The antic tricks of these little monkies were amusing for some days, while their novelty lasted; but they soon became insipid companions, were neglected, sometimes cruelly bandied about the vessel, and starved to death for want of fresh food, so that only three of them reached the Cape of Good Hope.

A harmless race of animals, dragged from the happy recess of native shades, to wear out the rest of their lives in continual anguish and torment, deserve a pitying remembrance, though humanity would fain have drawn the veil of all acts of iron-hearted insensibility, and wanton barbarism. We got under sail in the evening and steered to the southward, having mild weather with frequent showers of rain on the following days, and the wind blowing from N. Our distance from St. Jago was fifty-five leagues at noon, notwithstanding which, we saw a swallow following our vessel, and making numberless circles round it.

The necessary manoeuvres of trimming the sails, in the evening disturbed it from its roost on one of the gun-ports, upon which it took shelter in the carved work of the stern. During this time we observed many bonitos in the sea around us, which frequently shot past us with great velocity; but notwithstanding our endeavours to catch them with hooks, and strike them with harpoons, we could not take a single one.

The crew were more successful in hooking a shark of about five feet in length. Its common attendants, the pilot-fish gasterosteus ductor and sucking-fish echeneis remora , likewise appeared with it; but with this difference, that the former carefully avoided being caught; and swam about very nimbly; but the latter stuck so fast to the shark's body, that four of them were hauled on deck with it. We dined on part of the shark the next day, and found it a tolerable food when fried, but rather of difficult digestion on account of its fat.

His good-natured character, and a kind of serious turn of mind caused him to be regretted even among his shipmates, and must embitter his loss to those, whom the tender ties of parental or conjugal affection had united to him. Humanity stole a tear from each feeling traveller, the tribute due to a rational fellow creature of a gentle and amiable disposition.

Jago , and experienced a remarkable heavy fall of rain on the 21st , during which we caught up seven puncheons of fresh water in our spread awnings. This supply, though we were not distressed for want of it, was however very seasonable, inasmuch as we were now enabled to give large allowance of this necessary element to the crew. Captain Cook's remark deduced from long experience, that abundance of fresh water contributes to the preservation of health in long voyages, is extremely judicious, and seems to be founded on the known principles of physiology.

If seamen have plenty of water to drink, and some to wash themselves and their linen, this essential precaution will in a great measure prevent the sea-scurvy from gaining ground among them. Their blood is diluted, and the waste of fluids caused by profuse perspiration in hot climates, is restored by plentiful drinking, and the insensible perspiration likewise goes on without a check, when the people frequently shift their linen, and wash off any uncleanliness that may obstruct the pores.

It is evident that the greatest danger of putrid distempers is thus precluded; since the reimbibing of perspired matter, and the violence of perspiration without a fresh supply to temper and dilute the saline and caustic quality of the remaining fluids, which are often supposed to be the causes of inflammatory fevers are both in a great measure prevented. The heavy rains of this morning, entirely soaked the plumage of the poor swallow, which had accompanied us for several days past; it was obliged therefore to settle on the railing of the quarter-deck, and suffered itself to be caught.

I dried it, and when it was recovered, let it fly about in the steerage, where, far from repining at its confinement, it immediately began to feed upon the flies, which were numerous there. At dinner we opened the windows, and the swallow retook its liberty; but about six in the evening, it returned into the steerage and cabin, being sensible that we intended it no harm.

Having taken another repast of flies, it went out again, and roosted that night somewhere on the outside of the vessel. Early the next morning our swallow returned into the cabin once more, and took its breakfast of flies. Emboldened by the shelter which we afforded it, and the little disturbance it suffered from us, the poor little bird now ventured to enter the ship at every port and scuttle which was open; some parts of the morning it passed very happily in Mr.

Wales's cabin; but after having left that it entirely disappeared. It is more than probable that it came into the birth of some unfeeling person, who caught it in order to provide a meal for a favourite cat. From the history of this bird, which was of the common species, or a house-swallow hirundo rustica Lin.

It seems to be probable, that they begin with following a ship, from the time she leaves the land; that they are soon lost in the great ocean, and are thus obliged to continue close to the ship, as the only solid mass in this immense fluid expanse. If two or more ships are in company, it is also easy to account for the expression of meeting with land-birds at a great distance from land; because they may happen to follow some other ship from the shore, than that which carries the observer; thus they may escape observation for a day or two, or perhaps longer, and when noticed, are supposed to be met with at sea.

However, great storms are sometimes known to have driven single birds, nay vast flocks out to sea, which are obliged to seek for rest on board of ships, at considerable distances from any land [19] Captain Cook very obligingly communicated to me a fact which confirms the above assertion. Being on board of a ship between Norway and England , he met with a violent storm, during which a flight of several hundred birds covered the whole rigging of the ship. Among numbers of small birds, he observed several hawks, which lived very luxuriously by preying on those poor defenceless creatures.

I shall venture another reflection on this incident. In the long solitary hours of an uniform navigation, every little circumstance becomes interesting to the passenger; it is therefore not to be wondered at, if a subject so trifling in itself as putting to death a harmless bird, should affect a heart not yet buffeted into insensibility.

They were supposed to be grampusses, delphinus orca. The wind for several days past had blown from the N. Several of our navigators, who had frequently crossed the Atlantic, looked upon this as a singular circumstance; and indeed it fairly proves, that though nature in the torrid zone commonly produces regular and constant winds, nevertheless it sometimes deviates even there from general rules, and admits of several exceptions.

In this situation we also observed several man-of-war birds, pelecanus aquilus. It is a common belief among sailors that their appearance denotes a vicinity of land; but we were at present above a hundred leagues from any shore, so that this opinion seems to have no better support than many old prejudices.

Each eradication of one of these is a gain to science; and each vulgar opinion, proved to be erroneous, is an approximation to truth, which alone is worthy of being recorded for the use of mankind. Piscium, appendix pag. In its external shape it was similar to the genus of rays, but seems to be a new species; from whence it is evident, that even in the most frequented seas, such as the Atlantic , many new discoveries in natural history might be made, if those who can distinguish unknown from known objects, had always opportunities of enquiring into them.

What terms of art can Nature's pow'rs display? A boat was this day hoisted out in order to find the direction of the current, and to determine the temperature of the sea-water at a great depth. We sounded with fathoms without finding any bottom. Those who had been obliged to undergo the briny submersion, changed their linen and clothes; and as this can never be done too often, especially in warm weather, the ducking proved a salutary operation to them.

The quantity of strong liquors, arising from the forfeits of the rest, served to heighten the jovial humour, which is the predominant characteristic of sailors. This day we likewise obtained a southerly wind, which gradually came round to S. We had also at various intervals, found the sea covered with animal belonging to the class of mollusca , one of which, of a blue colour, in shape like a snail, with four arms, divided into many branches, was named glaucus atlanticus ; another, transparent like a crystal, and often connected in a long string with individuals of the same species, was referred to the genus named dagysa , mentioned in Lieut.

Cook's voyage in the Endeavour [20] See Hawkesworth's compilation, vol. It continued 15 min. We likewise took up a new species of the blubber medusa. For two days past, we had observed a bird, which we were this day enabled to examine, when we knew it to be the common shear-water procellaria puffinus. Having now reached the latitude of twenty-five degrees south, we found the wind gradually coming round from E. Our bodies, which the heat of the torrid zone had in a great degree relaxed, now began to feel a considerable alteration in the climate, and though the thermometer was not above ten degrees different from what it used to be near the line, yet I contracted a violent cold, attended with the tooth-ach, swelled gums, and cheeks.

The next day the albatross, diomedea exulans and the pintadas procellaria capensis , made their first appearance. In the evening we observed an eclipse of the moon, of which the end at a medium happened at 6h. The next day we tried the current and the temperature of the sea a third time. We let down the thermometer fathoms, where it continued 20 min. At the surface it stood at 59 deg. It being calm, we employed ourselves in the boat with shooting sea-fowl; among which were a small tern, a shear-water, a new species of albatross, and a new petrel: Several animals of the mullusca-tribe likewise came within our reach, together with the helix janthina , a violet-coloured shell, remarkable for the extreme thinness of its texture, which breaks with the least pressure, and seems therefore entirely calculated to keep the open sea, or at least to shun rocky shores [21] See Hawkesworth's Compilation, vol.

We find another remark at the end of that above quoted, which is of very different value, and seems to indicate that the ancient authors were not consulted. Whoever has looked into Pliny, can never have the least idea that the thin shell afore-mentioned could be " the purpura of the ancients. Earum genera plura, pabulo et solo disoreta , lib. It is equally clear and uncontrovertible that the figure and hardness of their purple shells were very different from those of the little helix janthina. Purpura vocatur, cuniculatim procurrente rostro et cuniculi latere introrsus tubulato qua proferatur lingua , lib.

Albatrosses, pintadas, and petrels of all kinds, amongst which was also the fulmar, procellaria glacialis , were now daily observed. On the 17th , we had an alarm that one of our crew was overboard, upon which we immediately put about, but seeing nothing, the names of all persons on board the vessel were called over, and none found missing, to our great satisfaction. Our friends on board the Adventure, whom we visited a few days after, told us they had indeed suspected by our manoeuvre, the accident which we had apprehended, but that looking out on the sea, Capt. Furneaux had plainly observed a sea-lion, that had been the cause of this false alarm.

As we had been a considerable time at sea, the Captain had for some weeks past ordered sour-krout or cabbage sliced and fermented to be regularly served to the crew, at a pint per man on meat-days, which was four times a week. The Lords of the Admiralty, attentive to every circumstance which bids fair to preserve the health of seafaring men, had ordered a very considerable quantity of this salutary and palatable food to be put on board both of the ships, and the event has proved that it is one of the best prophylactics against the sea-scurvy.

Our navigation, which for nine weeks past had been out of sight of any land, began to appear dull and tedious, and seemed to be distressing to many who were not used to an uniform recluse life on board a ship, without any refreshments or variety of scenes. We should have found this long passage equally disagreeable, if it had not supplied us with employment from time to time, and nursed the hope of making many interesting discoveries relative to the science of nature.

Soon after the land disappeared entirely, and we could not see it again till three o'clock in the afternoon, when its parts were much plainer, though the clouds still involved them. The wind blowing fresh, and the Adventure being a great way a-stern, we could not venture to get into the Table bay during night, but stood off and on till the next morning, having thick squally weather, and heavy showers of rain. The night was scarcely begun, when the water all round us afforded the most grand and astonishing sight than can be imagined.

As far as we could see the whole ocean seemed to be in a blaze. Every breaking wave had its summit illuminated by a light similar to that of phosphorus, and the sides of the vessel, coming in contact with the sea, were strongly marked by a luminous line.

Great bodies of light moved in the water along our side, sometimes slower, sometimes quicker; now in the same direction with our course, now flying off from it; sometimes we could clearly distinguish their shape to be that of fishes, which when they approached any smaller ones, forced these to hasten away from them. The most accurate attention to it proved, that innumerable minute sparks, of a round shape, communicated this luminous appearance to the water, and moved about in it with great briskness and velocity.

After the water had been standing for a little while, the number of sparks seemed to decrease; but on being stirred again, the whole became as luminous as before. Again, as the water gradually subsided the sparks were observed to move in directions contrary to the undulations of the water, which they did not before, whilst the agitation was more violent, and seemed to carry them along with its own motions. We suspended the bucket, to prevent its being too much affected by the motion of the ship; the bright objects by this means betrayed more and more a voluntary motion, independent of the agitation of the water caused by our hands, or by the rolling of the vessel.

The luminous appearance always gradually subsided, but on the least agitation of the water, the sparkling was renewed, in proportion as the motion was encreased. As I stirred the water with my hand, one of the luminous sparks adhered to my finger. We examined it by the common magnifier of Mr. Ramsden's improved microscope, and found it to be globular, transparent like a gelatinous substance, and somewhat brownish: by the greatest magnifier we discovered the orifice of a little tube, which entered the body of this little atom, within which were four or five intestine bags connected with the tube.

Having examined several of them, which had much the same appearance, I endeavoured to catch some in water, and bring them under the microscope in a concave glass, where its nature and organs might be better examined: but these minute objects were always hurt with our touch before we could place them in the concave g lass, and when dead only appeared as an indistinct mass of floating filaments. In about two hours time the water had lost its luminous appearance. We had another bucket full of it drawn before that time, but all our attempts to catch one of the little atoms in the glass proved ineffectual.

Accordingly we hastened to draw the appearance of the first globule, and to write down our observations. The most probable conjecture which we could form concerning these little atomical animalcules was, that they might be the young fry of some species of medusa or blubber, though it may likewise be possible, that they are beings of a distinct genus.

The ocean covered to a great extent, with myriads of animalcules; these little being, organized alive, endowed with locomotive power, a quality of shining whenever they please, of illiminating every body with which they come in contact, and of laying aside their luminous appearance at pleasure: all these ideas crouded upon us, and bade us admire the Creator, even in his minutest works. It is the natural fault of young people to think too well of mankind; but I hope I shall not have formed too favourable an opinion of my readers, if I expect that the generality will sympathize with me in these feelings, and that none will be found ignorant or depraved enough to despise them.

Turrigeros elephantorum miramur humeros, taurorumque colla et truces in sublimejactus, tigrium rapinas, leonum jubas; quum rerum natura nusquam magis, quam in minimis tota sit. The next morning, after a very rainy night, we sailed into Table bay. The mountains at the bottom of it, now appeared clear of clouds, and surprised us with their prodigious craggy, steep, and barren appearance. As we advanced farther into the bay, we discovered the town at the foot of the black Table mountain, and soon came to an anchor.

After saluting the fort, and receiving the visit of several officers in the service of the Dutch East-India company, we went on shore with captains Cook and Furneaux , being prepared to meet with many new acquisitions to science, on a continent so distant from our own, and situated in an opposite hemisphere.

From him we proceeded to the other members of the council, and at last retired to take up our lodgings at Mr. Brand's now commander at False bay , whose house at the Cape town is commonly frequented by the English captains who happen to touch there. Almost every inferior officer of the Dutch Company's government, the members of the council excepted, let their supernumerary apartments to the officers and passengers in the various English, French, Danish, and Swedish ships, which annually put in here, either on their voyage from or back to Europe.

We were not a little pleased with the contrast between this colony, and the Portuguese island of St. There we had taken notice of a tropical country, with a tolerable appearance, and capable of improvement, but utterly neglected by its lazy and oppressed inhabitants; here, on the contrary, we saw a neat well-built town, all white, rising in the midst of a desart, surrounded by broken masses of black and dreary mountains; or in other words, the picture of successful industry.

Its appearance towards the sea-side, is not quite so picturesque as that of Funchal. The store-houses of the Dutch East-India company, are all situated nearest the water, and the private buildings lie beyond them on a gentle ascent. The fort which commands the road, is on the east side of the town, but seems not to be of great strength; besides which, there are several batteries on both sides. The streets in the town are broad, and regular; all the principal ones are planted with oaks, and some have in their middle a canal of running water, which on account of its small quantity, they are obliged to husband by sluices, so that parts of it are sometimes entirely drained, and occasion no very pleasant smell.

The national character of the Dutch strongly manifests itself in this particular; their settlements being always supplied with canals, though reason and common sense evidently prove their noxious influence on the health of the inhabitants, especially at Batavia. The houses are built of brick, and many of them are white washed on the outside. The rooms are in general lofty and spacious, and very airy, which the hot climate requires. There is but one church in the whole town, and that is extremely plain, and seems to be rather too small for the congregation. That spirit of toleration, which has been so beneficial to the Dutch government at home, is not to be met with in their colonies.

It is but very lately that they have suffered even the Lutherans, to build churches at Batavia , and at this place; and at the present time, a clergyman of that persuasion is not tolerated at the Cape, but the inhabitants are obliged to content themselves with the chaplains of Danish and Swedish East-India-men, who give them a sermon, and administer the sacrament once or twice a year, and are very handsomely rewarded.

The government, and the inhabitants do not give themselves the trouble to attend to a circumstance of so little consequence in their eyes, as the religion of their slaves, who in general seem to have none at all. A few of them follow the Mahommedan rite, and weekly meet in a private house belonging to a free Mahomedan, in order to read, or rather chaunt several prayers, and chapters of the Koran. As they have no priest among them, they cannot partake of any other acts of worship [22] We would not be understood to throw an odium on the Dutch in particular, when it is well known that the negroes, who wear the chains of the English and French, are equally neglected: it was only intended to awaken a fellow-feeling towards an unhappy race of men, among the colonists of all nations; and to remind them whilst they enjoy, or strive to enjoy the inestimable blessing of liberty, to exert themselves in acts of humanity and kindness, towards those from whom they with-hold it, perhaps, without remorse.

The slaves belonging to the company, who amount to several hundreds, are lodged and boarded in a spacious house erected for that purpose, where they are likewise kept at work. Another great building serves as an hospital for the sailors belonging to the Dutch East-India ships, which touch here, and commonly have prodigious numbers of sick on board, on their voyage from Europe towards India.

The vast number of men, sometimes six, seven, or eight hundred, which these ships carry out to supply the military in India , the small room to which they are confined, and the short allowance of water and salt provision, they receive on a long voyage through the torrid zone, generally make considerable havock among them: it is therefore no uncommon circumstance at the Cape, that a ship on her passage thither from Europe , loses eighty or a hundred men, and sends between two and three hundred others dangerously ill to the hospital.

A fact no less deplorable than certain, is, that the small expence and facility with which the ziel-verkoopers actually carry on their infamous trade of supplying the India company with recruits, makes them less attentive to the preservation of health among these poor people. Nothing is more common, in this and other Dutch colonies, than to meet with soldiers in the company's service who, upon enquiry, acknowledge they have been kidnapped in Holland. There is an apothecary's shop belonging to the hospital, where the most necessary remedies are prepared, but no expensive drug is to be found in it, and the method of administering to all the patients indiscriminately out of two or three huge bottles, full of different preparations, suffice to convince us, that the fresh air of the land, and fresh provisions here, contribute much more to the recovery of the sick, than the skill of their physicians.

Patients who are able to walk, are ordered to go up and down the streets every fair morning; and all kinds of greens, pot-herbs, sallads, and antiscorbutics are raised for their use in an adjacent garden belonging to the company. Travellers have sometimes praised and sometimes depreciated this garden, according to the different points of view in which it has been considered. I could have had bigger and abler men at the same price and will take care that they are well cloathed and they shall exclusive of plenty of [rum?

Gordon included a list of members of the East Florida Society-wealthy British men interested in investing in Florida land- which met at the Shakespeare Head Tavern. The list contained nearly forty names, including that of Dr. Andrew Turnbull. Turnbull and the Greek settlers who you will soon have out with you. They have done me the honor of electing me their president. He is a sensible active man and I think will prove a great blessing to so young a child as is yours of East Florida. His letter gave great satisfaction, but I insisted on sinking that part which alluded to sending out Germans, least poor Doctor Stork who is Puff General for us, should have fainted and died of chagrin.

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Earle, who is gone to the Island for his family, the moment he returns, she shall be dispatched for St. This day though it exceeds the sum ordered, however without this he could not proceed to St. Augustine and after you had gone so far I could not but be willing this should likewise be done. Box is drawing a mortgage on his fifteen Negroes to you so that you will have a very sufficient security.

So soon as I have settled everything with him and finished such necessarys [sic] as he says are absolutely wanted. Five Duffil Blankets 3. John Graham to James Grant. Besides, Mr. Earle had his choice I have given them all new clothes, two blankets, and a cap, and likewise a barrel of rice for provisions Graham expected to recover the four soon and send them to St.

Augustine on another vessel. John Murray to James Grant. My plan of settlement and cultivation is the same with that gentleman.

Wallace Williamson

He is so kind as to have undertaken the management of it. It is therefore necessary that my lott should be adjoining to his. The land there is equally good according to the information he gives, as that he has pitched upon for himself and for Sir William Duncan, and if it is not already taken up, I shall be glad it falls to my share.

If it is already taken, please delay locating mine until he returns, which I hope will be December or January next with or families. I was very sorry he bought the whole, some of them being dear at any price, but as you mention he shall want ten or twelve in the fall I will then make a point of making him amends for the last bargain. I would however recommend their being bought in the summer as there will be more time to season them before the pinching weather comes in.

These orders are now made out and will be signed either today or tomorrow. He has insisted on being in partnership with Sir Wm. Duncan and me, and he is to make over his grant to my children. It is not Charles Townshend. But I beg, Sir, that this half-imparted secret may not be mentioned. You easily see, Sir, why I am so anxious to have that tract located as near the others as possible, as it is to be on the same footing as ours. Our capital is to be ten thousand. I also begged that Mr.

Perhaps there may be a tract of good land found nearer than that. He goes entirely on the Greek scheme and I am to bring Greeks with ours to put on it. I have enclosed his order from the King in the packet with this.

Georg Forster

I beg leave to remind your Excellency of my earnestly desiring that the salt marsh opposite or before our tracts may not be granted away, nor the Sea Beach opposite to us on either side of the Inlet. I do not pretend to advise your Excellency but this seems to me to be a rule which may be necessary by way of keeping little troublesome fellows from among us. The land on the sea beach is certainly bad, but it may be very useful and even of value for the purposes mentioned. This seems to be no great thing, but it will be of consequence to us, as it partly gives a better idea of our scheme to the Greeks, and at the same time will be a certain conveyance to be depended on.

If this is granted we shall probably join another freighted vessel to the sloop of war, by which means I flatter myself of introducing into your Province at least a thousand Greeks a year. The ministry, who support Mr. Sullivan, are in a fair way of turning out the present direction, and of turning a million a year of the Territorial Revenue of the India Company into the Treasury.

Tomorrow is the day of Election. Governor Elliot tells me he has been with him and that he cannot get him to tell him the least thing of West Florida he has so much on his hands in this East India bustle. Governor Elliot is a brother of Pat Elliots in the west of England. He was Capt. Of a man of war, and promises, from what I have heard and seen of him to be a proper person for that government. It appears to the Council that his only crime consisted in protecting the French against those people, his accusers, who had intentions to plunder them.

He has it in his option to go out if he pleases. But the internal embroils of the administration constantly prevents their thinking much of the external interest of the nation. I was with Lord Bute the other day. He said much in your favour. I find some of your friends are everywhere. Sullivan did not get into the direction of the East India affairs, but the Ministry have gained a compleat victory over the minority. In the House yesterday the question was whether the East India Affair should be postponed sine die or looked into. The minority were for putting everything off, but the ministry had 56 majority.

It is immagined that this India business will fix the present ministry as the revenue from our territories then will ease the people of the most burdensome and lamented of taxes. Pitt was ill the ministry was splitting. As soon as he was out and had been with the Army they all got together again. I think there is a great probability of the present administration being permanent.

I carried my affair of the sloop of war through the Council and Board of Trade, but the Lords of the Admiralty pretended that all the sloops were in commission against the smugglers and refused me through that excuse. This plaguing East India Business has been hurtful to me for I repeat, Sir, my entreaties about the twenty thousand acres of land to the southward of Sir Wm. I cannot get the grant for it till Tuesday next on account of the Holidays. Governor Elliot, Captains Jervis and Barrington and I with some others are to go with him to stay two days at his house at Muscle Hill.

The Colonel with all these gentlemen Governor Elliot excepted and more, are to solicit for land in your Province, and Col. Lord Shelburne is gone for ten days to Bowwood. Duncan are accepted and will be paid when due. Sir Wm. If Mrs. Turnbull wants money I beg you will supply her fifty or a hundred pounds at a time drawing on Mr. Thomas Nixon, Merchant in Lombard Street, London, who has my directions to accept all your bills for money advanced to her.

It gave me much satisfaction to receive her letter of the 22 nd February six days ago, but I was very sorry to hear that you had been confined by a fall, which I hope will not be attended with any bad consequences as Mrs. Turnbull writes me that you was much better. Some of the great grantees are preparing to send out people in the autumn, and Stork is to depart about a month hence to locate some of the great grants.

I immagine that the few things I sent out by her from Charlestown will also be lost. Governor Elliot does not go out till September. Governor Johnstone disheartens him a little about the Indians. Roberts, the Secretary of the Province. I find he flatters himself of staying in England. I dare say, Sir, that you will not be of the same way of thinking with him. A peopled Province may do very well without a Residence of their officers but a new colony will stand in need of every aid.

I think I have heard you say, Sir, that the officers should be obliged to reside in the Province. I beg the favour of my compliments to all the ladies and gentlemen. I remember their civilities with pleasure and gratitude, and do not doubt of the continuance of them to Mrs. Roberts told me that he did not think of going to Florida, yet I beg that your Excellency would not mention me in this affair, as I should be sorry to hurt such a man, time will prove best what he intends to do. John Graham to Sir William Duncan. By a letter from Governor James Grant in St. Augustine written in March, Graham learned that Mr.

Earle arrived safely in East Florida. Earle that he would receive a premium if he raised pounds of cotton in Debrahm was to be married in the Wednesday following to Miss Roe at his house. That a proper settlement was to be made which was to be lodged in Mrs. You have a mortgage for all his Negroes.

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James Grant to Andrew Turnbull. Erle [John Earle, overseer hired by Turnbull] arrived early in March just as Bachop was preparing to sail with provisions for Picolata. Erle begged hard for the East Florida without delay.

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The season was so far advanced he would be able to raise nothing this year and a thousand other good reasons, to which he received fair answers. But the garrison of Picolata must have provisions Erle like a good engineer then changed his method of attack and offered if I would send him to the Mosquitoes directly he would send two thousand weight of cotton this year to London. That was my price. Bachop was ordered to take him on board. I have promised Erle a premium into the bargain if he keeps his word.

Bachop had a good passage, likes the Barr much better than this one [bar at the mouth of the Matanzas River at St. Bachop is now on the St. Oswalds which has been blazed by Grey Eyes, an Indian friend of mine, with a number of his attendants, accompanied from here by Davis and Black Sandy, who served for an interpreter. My bargain with the Indians was no purchase, no pay; do the work first and then the reward.

He knew the country well, agreed to my terms and did the business, though your friend the Engineer thought it impossible. Your Guide Cracker Johnstone was of the same opinion, and you may recollect that one day at dinner. The house is raised, in May it should be covered in. Watson behaves well. Two of your people made an attempt to get away. I sent a party after them. They were taken and put into goal, and afterwards sent to their work. Your gardener turns out ill, is affronted at having been sent to work in the country, attempted to go to Georgia, executed the plan ill and is now in prison, but will be brought to himself.

You did not look narrowly enough at them, but by the care which was taken of them in your house and at Robina tis to be hoped they will be able to do business with Erle. The boys [five enslaved boys purchased from John Graham in Savannah] are well chose. I have desired Mr.

Graham to buy ten Negroes for you to reinforce Erle as you desired, he will give you a bargain of them to make up for the bad slaves brought here. The East Florida will carry them and six months provisions from Savannah to the Mosquitoes, with a fresh supply of provisions from Charles Town to Erle, who will not be able to hold out to the next crop with what he carried with him. He has ordered twelve Negroes from Savannah, but there is an embargo upon corn in that province which is an inconvenience. Moncrief followed them lately to assist in locating Mr. Townshend from the West Indies went with Moncrief, but hs is Grenada mad and will do no good.

Laurens is expected next month, he is my friend, but I am concerned he goes to the Mosquitoes on purpose to find fault. My sugar cane looks well, my corn surprising. He has wrote me I dare say forty sheets of paper. My answers are very civil and exceeding short. Gerry [Woolridge] asked me in conversation whether Squire [Rolle] did right to stop his servants provisions when they refused to work.

I told him very right thinking that he meant a dinner or a supper, but Rolle improved upon it and used for the most trifling offense to stop provisions from them for a week, ten days, a fortnight at a time in a wilderness where nothing could be got for love or money. I have married argument [W. DeBrahm, the provincial surveyor] to Miss Rowe, a good girl.

The Father takes charge of a plantation for DeBrahm. I give him the use of the pilot boat for his survey and he buys thirteen Negroes with the money he was to pay for a vessel. This was very pleasing to Mrs. Turnbull who has a friendship for little DeBrahm. She is constantly with her. It will not be a marriage with Edmiston, but Rainsford like a fool intends to buckle with [name not legible] Daughter. Johns [River] and to conduct them by the new road to the Mosquitoes. You have nothing to do with driving the cattle or with losses they may sustain upon the road.

The five hundred head are to be compleated for Mr. Penman and the division to be made at the Mosquitoes , Davis to take care of yours and Upton to take charge of Mr. I have ordered a thousand acres for you near Oswald. Moncrief, John Moultrie, his brother William, and the children of the late chief justice Moultry are all to have plantations in your neighborhood. I mean Tomoka. I have given orders for a survey [and] lands for Bisset and Macdougal if they choose it but Macdougal brought out no orders from Council.

Lord Adam I have not heard from. My Madeira vines are in great glory, [growth] from them this year is more I think than we expected. My vines along that wall according to your plan do well and could cover it this season, but a part of the wall next to DeBrahm fell in and the promise I had almost [lost a bet to a] West Florida Cracker an engineer [and] botanist and was out of pocket be it for a few hours before it fell in.

We were poking about the vines and considering for a long while what was to be done with the wall, whether it would stand or not, and a support of cedar posts was determined upon. Turnbull is vastly well and in good spirits, she is much at Debrahms seldom at Cumings. Woolridge a bad companion but Methodising is not the fashion here and we hear no more of religion.

She dined with a dozen people at my house at Easter Sunday. The parson [Reverend John Forbes] was gone round to St. I was under a necessity of informing Mr. Townshend that his affairs in Florida would be ill managed. He has thrown away Mr. She has affronted half the town, particularly the [name not legible] family. She said they were all drunkards particularly the lady of the house.

Jerry did not bring out his mandamus to be on the Council. I took the liberty to postpone receiving him and have remonstrated against his appointment in a letter to Macleane who is my particular acquaintance. Roberts is not yet arrived. I long to be at a certainty, tis tiresome, he would be a great acquisition to our society.

Haldimand is appointed Brigadier of the District. Colonel and Mrs. Taylor will be here in the course of the summer. I have applied for one [troop] here which would be of great utility and have endeavoured to convince the Earl of the propriety of the measure by informing him that the Indians carried off nine horses from this town and that I was determined not to put up with the affront and was therefore obliged to have a party of woodsmen to pursue them under the command of [James] Moncrief with orders to not return without the horses.

The Engineer followed my directions, came up with the Indians above a hundred miles from this place, got the horses and gave the Princes a smart talk from me, that I would hang a white man if he stole one of their horses and that if they attempted such a thing again they should not escape so well. They were sorry, they said they were drunk and it was the rum. They gave up the horses very willingly and it was well. The Congress will not take place before the end of September, I postponed it for Mr.

Stuart and shall then hold it without him. The mortgage drawn by Mr. Earl could not have brought his Negroes from Georgia without this advance and delay would have frustrated your plan for this year, and I have told Mr. Graham that he did right in exceeding his orders. Augustine though a supply comes from here at times, but we could not have risked the starving at Mosquito Inlet. I am surprised Colonel Laurens did not mention that there was an Act of Assembly in force in Georgia prohibiting the export of corn in that province. Erl had his choice and they are worth the money.

I flatter myself the other ten will be as good and perhaps come lower. I at first ordered them to be purchased in the autumn, but Mr. Graham desiring to include the summer in case a favorable quantity offered, I agreed to it. The balance of your account to Mr. I have directed him to draw for the whole amount upon Sir William Duncan as was indicated in my letter to him before you set out, but I shall draw the bills upon Duncan for your cattle and the ten additional Negroes. I give fair words and little money. Tis right to be in his debt if possible. The [liberal] advance to such people is not advisable when it can be avoided.

The business of the cattle on the Georgia side will be settled without him. His presence there would have been attended with more expence than utility. If he had not carried some rice to Savannah the demurrage you agreed to would have run high. But Graham informed me that when the rice was landed that, [and] while it remained on board, the vessel could not be considered on your account in point of time, though it was attempted.

Demurrage is a bad thing on an agreement, one does not know where that is to end. I did not like your bargain with Mr. The plan was to carry Negroes and provisions to the mosquitoes directly, bringing them here was doing nothing. I could just as easily have carried them from Savannah as have sent them from this place.

This will be an expensive year Sometime after you left us she got cold going to Robina. A second jaunt was intended but I went there, saw the house, told her it would not be worth seeing for three months to come so the plan was laid aside. They are idle lazy crackers. I can think of nothing more which interests you or your affairs. My country house is fitted up neatly for the reception of the young house keepers from Turkey. I am afraid that he will want much of your good advice as he is not so well acquainted with things of this nature as one could wish, but he seems to be good natured and active.

The gentlemen he is partners with, intend to go pretty deep into the plantation scheme and trade if they see that it will answer. It was to obtain a bounty on the importation of Greeks into your Province. I am to have forty shilling a head premium on the first Greeks, small children not to reckon, and the other hundred pounds for my Greek priest with a kind of promise to put him on the Establishment for the future.

This affair, however, may be of more consequence than the present advantage, as it is breaking the ice in the premium way. A letter with orders on this bounty will be sent to your Excellency as soon as Lord Shelburne comes to town which will be four days hence. I wait to see all this forwarded. Lord Shelburne is also managing an accommodation with Mr.

Roberts for me. I am to make him a pecuniary acknowledgment and he is to give up the Secretaryship to me, which is in part to be made up to him by Lord Shelburne giving something else for the present, but this affair is not concluded but will be off or on in six days hence. He seems resolved on [adventuring] in East Florida. Since my arrival here many petitions have been thrown in for Lands in your Province. Some of them will make very solid settlers. I hope always to be in St.

Augustine in January. McLean told me that you had wrote to him about the Mandamus for the Council. I have not got out the grants which I desired your Excellency to secure 20, acres for, but shall have them next week, for they have been delayed by the lazy clerks. I am thinking that of the land on each side of our tracts that [our third] 20, acres may be [located] more in the back of Sir William Duncan and mine if good land as I immagine it, but your Excellency will best judge of that from the description of the Deputy Surveyor after they have been to examine it and therefore I leave it entirely to your ordering.

I have stayed here much longer than I intended but it was to finish the affair of the bounty on the Greeks. Lord Shelburne will write your Excellnecy about it. I am to have fourty shillings a head for the first Greeks imported to Florida My name is not to be mentioned, nor is it confirmed to me, that it is intended to assist bearing the extraordinary expense that I must be at in this affair.

Roberts, already appointed to the post, was to receive another appointment. Turnbull asked Grant to continue Mr. Yates as at present, acting in behalf of the secretary. The object before me hastens me so much that I regret the loss of this day, which, however, I would not shun. I troubled you, Sir William, with a letter from Dover to desire you to write one [letter] to Marseilles as soon as the warrant for Secretary came to your hands.

Stork, I suspect that he had an intention to endeavour to get [the secretary of East Florida appointment] through the Prince of Wales, to whom he is known. I hope this suspicion is not well founded, however, I shall not be sure of it until I hear of Mr. Though it is not of importance yet a second disappointment would not be agreeable. I hope I am wrong for I should be sorry to have such a bad opinion of Stork. My respects to Lady Mary, I find a remarkable difference in the dampness of the air here, and am persuaded that Lady Mary would be better in France than in London.

Graham has now secured the cattle requested by the East Florida planters. He bought head from Mr. They are up country cattle. Have Mr. Rolle wants head. Stork were ill founded. I have engaged a gentleman here to procure me some able vine and olive planters from this part of France. I intend also to carry a few Italians with me from Leghorn that I arrived here the 17 th of this month and I go by the packet boat to Port Mahon.

If the wind is favorable we go tomorrow morning. I have received letters from Mr. Penman and from Captain Bisset, both mention how unlucky Dr. Turnbull has been with regard to the purchase of Negroes from me. No less than three of the five are dead. I propose sending to Augustine twenty or thirty supernumeries that they may have any one of ye choosing for any that may be disliked of my choice. I was sorry not to find the [letters of credit] from Mr. Couts but I could not doubt of having them very soon, and still flatter myself that they are forwarded Without letters of credit, Turnbull was forced to delay his recruitment plans, forcing him to stay one week longer in Italy than he wanted.

Alexander Longis at Mssrs. Martin and Triol [perhaps Friot], known merchants in Marseilles. I will not neglect, Sir William, to acquaint you on how I go on Couts for the pounds. I have collected these People from several states in Italy. I go away with them as fast as possible as the governour has taken umbrage at my taking so many People from his place. I mean strangers, for I have taken none belonging to this State. He gave me leave at first to ship strangers but having discovered that my scheme was much larger than he at first imagined he seems to look out for a pretext to detain my ship, and although I proceed with caution yet I think it proper to get away for fear of Detention.

As soon as I set these people down at Mahon I depart for Greece to bring the other colonists. I am now on board and the ship is getting under sail. I have about a hundred fine vine planters and labourers aboard. I bought a fiddle and drum for them and we were merry, noisy, and healthy during the passage. They are all young people without maim or deformity, and seem to be very able for planting and peopling. I will endeavour to take only those who have such qualifications as are necessary in a new colony.

I have these first recruits here under proper care and regulations and I hasten to Turkey for the Greek colonists. As I find there is a great deal to do in this affair I look forward to it with so much the more pleasure, and I do not doubt of succeeding to our expectations.

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I depart tomorrow for Greece and hope to be here again in October or November at farthest. I leave them here until my return from Greece, which I hope will be in November at farthest; I have reasons, Sir, to flatter myself that I may bring nigh five hundred working people besides children, but something may hinder my getting above half that number. I beg the assistance of a favour to bring them ashore when the ship or ships appear off the bar of St.

I will hoist a white flag at the [? Turnbull will be uneasy about the risk she thinks I [take] on this Levant expedition. I beg sir that you will assure her that I do not go to any place where there is danger. I think I know the ground well that I am to head on. Also two or three thousand weight of pork not of the fishy sort and. The fish must be all wet salted, and the rows well dried in the sun, small fish and rows too, for one. Earl and Davis may order a few to be used, especially the rows if the fish they catch for eating [are not sufficient.

I am sorry for causing you a great] deal of trouble. I give my complements to everybody. If the passage is long they will certainly perish, therefore I should be glad if it could be contrived to have some from Georgia that no time may be lost Five hundred pounds was placed in the hands of Edward Purnell Esq. That laid out in cloathes is charged against their wages.

It was delivered to Mr. Thomas Nixon in London. I have agreed with them at wages of five pounds a year for six years from the day of their arrival in the province, one half of the five pounds to be paid at the end of every year, the other half at the Expiration of the six years. A few of them from fifteen to twenty years of age serve at half wages till twenty, and six years afterward at full wages of five pounds yearly. By this agreement you see, Sir William, that the labour of these people will not cost us half so much as is generally paid, besides the advantage of their being easily maintained, and of keeping the one half of the wages in our hands until the expiration of the term of years agreed upon.

This will ensure their staying with us better than any other method I could think of, and at the same time saves the laying out of much money for wages till the produce makes a fund for that end. And as there must be an overseer for every twenty-five or thirty laborers I have agreed with four at fifteen pounds Sterling a year. This is another savings of thirty or forty and more is generally given in America.

The family however is to have the necessary provisions of food from the mass of the produce before the division is made. These will be very advantageous conditions to the proprietors as it will ensure the people on his ground at least ten years, I mean even those who engage for seven years after the first divisions which will probably [be] the third year after their beginning to open the ground.

I will do my utmost to engage the Greeks to accept terms which you will observe, Sir William, are more advantageous to us than the first I proposed in London. When I am in Turkey if I find that I can have a sufficient number of Greeks, I will in that case, draw on you for the other thousand pounds from Smirna, or draw from Minorca on my arrival here again, and if you think proper, Sir William, to Johnstone arrange credits for me it would speed us on.

Turnbull arrived in Malta on July 19 th , and planned to proceed to Turkey in five or six days. I have also ordered some cotton ginns to be made here. I stayed a few days in the place from whence I take these Greeks and as there will be as many in all probability as will fill two ships, I have freighted another here.

The first with provisions etc. However, I am up with them, for I have persuaded half their factors here to come to Florida where they intend not only to bring their families and fortunes but also to bring others with them. The difficulty of settling affairs here will keep them here two or three years before they can come.

I proceed with caution and secrecy as to the place where I intend to ship the people and do not even mention it here for fear my letter should be opened, but as soon as I arrive in Malta or Mahon I will write more fully. My schooner was seen here, and the Turks were informed of it, which obliged me to some little Expenses extraordinary for fear of my provisions being stopped The contrary winds and weather having buffeted me about for twenty days past without being able to advance a foot, and at last obliged me to take shelter for fear of being drove on some of the Islands in these seas.

This delay ill suits my impatience to get on, and will probably retard my arrival at Port Mahon till the middle of November, so that I cannot expect to sail from thence to Florida before the beginning of December at soonest, and if I meet with much bad weather, it may be later. I am onboard the ship I brought from Leghorn which is at anchor in the mouth of the Eurotes River where the Spartan Fleet used to lay. Then, they step onto a dirt trail behind Deese's rural Louisiana cabin and find a jungle full of graves.

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But time has taught Allie otherwise. Not getting caught was far worse. Allie has been haunted for two decades by what she and the others did, and by the fact that she never told a soul. The dark secret has eaten away at her, distancing her from everyone she loves, including her husband. Because she wasn't punished by the law, Allie has punished herself, and it's a life sentence. Now, Allie stands on the precipice of losing everything.

She's ready for a reckoning, determined to learn how the prank went so horribly wrong. She digs to unearth the truth, but reaches a shocking conclusion that she never saw coming--and neither will the reader. A deeply emotional examination of family, marriage, and the true nature of justice, Someone Knows is Lisa Scottoline's most powerful novel to date.

Startling, page-turning, and with an ending that's impossible to forget, this is a tour de force by a beloved author at the top of her game. This Writer's Cut edition features fascinating behind-the-scenes commentary read by the author. Critically-acclaimed and award-winning narrator Scott Brick returns to his role as Cotton Malone -- eponymous hero of Berry's iconic New York Times bestselling series -- as he enters a deadly race for the Vatican's oldest secrets. The pope is dead. A conclave to select his replacement is about to begin. Cardinals are beginning to arrive at the Vatican, but one has fled Rome for Malta in search of a document that dates back to the 4th century and Constantine the Great.

Former Justice Department operative, Cotton Malone, is at Lake Como, Italy, on the trail of legendary letters between Winston Churchill and Benito Mussolini that disappeared in and could re-write history. But someone else seems to be after the same letters and, when Malone obtains then loses them, he's plunged into a hunt that draws the attention of the legendary Knights of Malta. The knights have existed for over nine hundred years, the only warrior-monks to survive into modern times.

Now they are a global humanitarian organization, but within their ranks lurks trouble -- the Secreti -- an ancient sect intent on affecting the coming papal conclave. With the help of Magellan Billet agent Luke Daniels, Malone races the rogue cardinal, the knights, the Secreti , and the clock to find what has been lost for centuries. The final confrontation culminates behind the walls of the Vatican where the election of the next pope hangs in the balance.

Brick easily negotiates his way through this complex plot, his confident delivery keeps the suspense high while bringing a solid reality to a story that often walks a fine line between the believable and the improbable. Secrets unravel, and tensions rise as Brick shifts vocal focus from the historical secret society to contemporary conspirators who include corrupt politicians and judges. This companion tale tells the story of Ruth, the daughter that Rachel Kalama--quarantined for most of her life at the isolated leprosy settlement of Kalaupapa--was forced to give up at birth.

The book follows young Ruth from her arrival at the Kapi'olani Home for Girls in Honolulu, to her adoption by a Japanese couple who raise her on a strawberry and grape farm in California, her marriage and unjust internment at Manzanar Relocation Camp during World War II--and then, after the war, to the life-altering day when she receives a letter from a woman who says she is Ruth's birth mother, Rachel. Daughter of Moloka'i expands upon Ruth and Rachel's year relationship, only hinted at in Moloka'i.

It's a richly emotional tale of two women--different in some ways, similar in others--who never expected to meet, much less come to love, one another. And for Ruth it is a story of discovery, the unfolding of a past she knew nothing about. Told in vivid, evocative prose that conjures up the beauty and history of both Hawaiian and Japanese cultures, it's the powerful and poignant tale that readers of Moloka'i have been awaiting for fifteen years.

New York Times Bestseller: The moving, entertaining, never-before-told story of how one man found his calling: to see that those who defend this country and its freedoms are never forgotten. As a kid in suburban Chicago, Gary Sinise was more interested in sports and rock 'n' roll than reading or schoolwork. But when he impulsively auditioned for a school production of West Side Story , he found his purpose--or so it seemed. Within a few years Gary and a handful of friends created what became one of the most exciting and important new theater companies in America.

From its humble beginnings in a suburban Chicago church basement and eventual move into the city, the Steppenwolf Theatre Company launched a series of groundbreaking productions, igniting Gary's career along with those of John Malkovich, Joan Allen, Gary Cole, Laurie Metcalf, Jeff Perry, John Mahoney, and others. Television and film came calling soon after, and Gary starred in Of Mice and Men which he also directed and The Stand before taking the role that would change his life in unforeseeable ways: Lieutenant Dan in the Academy Award-winning Forrest Gump.

The military community's embrace of the character of the disabled veteran was matched only by the depth of Gary's realization that America's defenders had not received all the honor, respect, and gratitude their sacrifices deserve. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, this became Gary's mission. While starring in hits like Apollo 13 , Ransom , Truman , George Wallace , CSI: NY , and Criminal Minds: Beyond Borders , Gary has worked tirelessly on behalf of those who serve this country, entertaining more than a half million troops around the world playing bass guitar with his Lt.

Dan Band, raising funds on behalf of veterans, and eventually founding the Gary Sinise Foundation with a mission to serve and honor America's defenders, veterans, first responders, their families, and those in need. Grateful American is the moving, entertaining, profoundly gripping story of how one man found his calling: to see that those who defend this country and its freedoms are never forgotten. This program includes a bonus conversation with the authors. Taking place during the most critical period of our nation's birth, The First Conspiracy tells a remarkable and previously untold piece of American history that not only reveals George Washington's character, but also illuminates the origins of America's counterintelligence movement that led to the modern day CIA.

In , an elite group of soldiers were handpicked to serve as George Washington's bodyguards. Washington trusted them; relied on them. But unbeknownst to Washington, some of them were part of a treasonous plan. In the months leading up to the Revolutionary War, these traitorous soldiers, along with the Governor of New York, William Tryon, and Mayor David Mathews, launched a deadly plot against the most important member of the military: George Washington himself. This is the story of the secret plot and how it was revealed. It is a story of leaders, liars, counterfeiters, and jailhouse confessors.

It also shows just how hard the battle was for George Washington and how close America was to losing the Revolutionary War. In this historical masterpiece, New York Times bestselling author Brad Meltzer teams up with American history writer and documentary television producer, Josh Mensch, to unravel the shocking true story behind what has previously been a footnote in the pages of history. Drawing on extensive research, Meltzer and Mensch capture in riveting detail how George Washington not only defeated the most powerful military force in the world, but also uncovered the secret plot against him in the tumultuous days leading up to July 4, Anyone with an interest in American history will love this book.

What a book. You'll love it. The next audiobook of psychological suspense and obsession from the authors of the blockbuster bestseller The Wife Between Us. Seeking women ages to participate in a study on ethics and morality. Generous compensation. Anonymity guaranteed. When Jessica Farris signs up for a psychology study conducted by the mysterious Dr. Shields, she thinks all she'll have to do is answer a few questions, collect her money, and leave. But as the questions grow more and more intense and invasive and the sessions become outings where Jess is told what to wear and how to act, she begins to feel as though Dr.

Shields may know what she's thinking As Jess's paranoia grows, it becomes clear that she can no longer trust what in her life is real, and what is one of Dr. Shields' manipulative experiments. Caught in a web of deceit and jealousy, Jess quickly learns that some obsessions can be deadly.

the grandmaster Manual

From the authors of the blockbuster bestseller The Wife Between Us comes an electrifying new audiobook about doubt, passion, and just how much you can trust someone. Readers will enjoy the dizzying back-and-forth as they attempt to figure out just who to root for and as the suspense ratchets up to one hell of a conclusion. The crowning work of an American master. It is January, Torrential rainstorms hit L. A body is unearthed in Griffith Park. The cops rate it a routine dead-man job. They're grievously wrong.

It's a summons to misalliance and all the spoils of a brand-new war. Elmer Jackson is a corrupt Vice cop. He's a flesh peddler and a bagman for the L. Chief of Police. Hideo Ashida is a crime-lab whiz, caught up in the maelstrom of the Japanese internment. He's gone rogue and gone all-the-way Fascist. Joan Conville was born rogue. She's a defrocked Navy lieutenant and a war profiteer to her core. They've signed on for the dead-man job.

They've got a hot date with History. They will fight their inner wars within The War with unstoppable fury. The million-copy bestseller Lilac Girls introduced the real-life heroine Caroline Ferriday. Now Lost Roses , set a generation earlier and also inspired by true events, features Caroline's mother, Eliza, and follows three equally indomitable women from St.

Petersburg to Paris under the shadow of World War I. Eliza Ferriday is thrilled to be traveling to St. Petersburg with Sofya Streshnayva, a cousin of the Romanovs. The two met years ago one summer in Paris and became close confidantes. Now Eliza embarks on the trip of a lifetime, home with Sofya to see the splendors of Russia: the church with the interior covered in jeweled mosaics, the Rembrandts at the tsar's Winter Palace, the famous ballet. But when Austria declares war on Serbia and Russia's imperial dynasty begins to fall, Eliza escapes back to America, while Sofya and her family flee to their country estate.

In need of domestic help, they hire the local fortune-teller's daughter, Varinka, unknowingly bringing intense danger into their household. On the other side of the Atlantic, Eliza is doing her part to help the White Russian families find safety as they escape the revolution. But when Sofya's letters suddenly stop coming, she fears the worst for her best friend. From the turbulent streets of St. Petersburg and aristocratic countryside estates to the avenues of Paris where a society of fallen Russian migr s live to the mansions of Long Island, the lives of Eliza, Sofya, and Varinka will intersect in profound ways.

In her newest powerful tale told through female-driven perspectives, Martha Hall Kelly celebrates the unbreakable bonds of women's friendship, especially during the darkest days of history. A stoner, an Instagram model, a Czech oligarch, and a missing unicorn. Charming Con Man Nicholas Fox makes them up as he goes along. She thinks he's nothing but a scoundrel. He thinks she just needs to lighten up. They're working together to tackle the out-of-bounds cases ordinary FBI agents can't touch.

And, their relationship? Well, there hasn't been so much explosive chemistry since Nitro was introduced to Glycerin. Next on the docket: The mysterious disappearance of the Silicon Valley billionaire, known as the Big Kahuna. Kate's been assigned to find him but no one seems particularly keen on helping. His twenty-six year old adult actress wife-turned Instagram model wife and his shady Czech business partner are more interested in gaining control of his company. For that they need a dead body not a living Kahuna. The only lead they have is the Kahuna's drop-out son, who's living the dream in Hawaii - if your dream is starting your day with the perfect wave and ending it with a big bowl of weed.

To get close to the Kahuna's son, Kate and Nick go undercover as a married couple in the big wave, bohemian, surfer community of Paia, Maui. Living a laid back, hippy-dippy lifestyle isn't exactly in Kate's wheelhouse, but the only thing more horrifying is setting up house with Nick Fox, even if he does look pretty gnarly on a longboard. If they don't catch a break soon, waves aren't the only thing she's going to be shredding or bedding. That was five years ago. But the autopsy finds no cancer. It does find traces of poison, and evidence of suffocation. Praise for Sally Hepworth: "With jaw-dropping discoveries, and realistic consequences, this novel is not to be missed.

London, Life has been easy for Maxim Trevelyan. With his good looks, aristocratic connections, and money, he's never had to work and he's rarely slept alone. But all that changes when tragedy strikes and Maxim inherits his family's noble title, wealth, and estates, and all the responsibility that entails. It's a role he's not prepared for and one that he struggles to face. But his biggest challenge is fighting his desire for an unexpected, enigmatic young woman who's recently arrived in England, possessing little more than a dangerous and troublesome past.

Reticent, beautiful, and musically gifted, she's an alluring mystery, and Maxim's longing for her deepens into a passion that he's never experienced and dares not name. Just who is Alessia Demachi? Can Maxim protect her from the malevolence that threatens her? And what will she do when she learns that he's been hiding secrets of his own? From the heart of London through wild, rural Cornwall to the bleak, forbidding beauty of the Balkans, The Mister is a roller-coaster ride of danger and desire that leaves the reader breathless to the very last page.

Thank you for sharing, Chelsea " --Tiffany Haddish. Praise for Scott Brick as Cotton Malone: "Scott Brick continues to bolster his status as one of the best narrators of international thrillers with his excellent reading of Berry's latest Captain Amy Cornwall's family is missing. She'll do whatever it takes to bring them home. In her career as an Army intelligence officer, Amy Cornwall has seen haunting sights half a world away. None compare to the chilling scene at her Virginia home.

It is empty. A phone rings with a terrifying ultimatum: locate and liberate an unnamed captive in forty-eight hours, or her kidnapped husband and ten-year-old daughter are dead. Now, and in open defiance of Army Command, Amy must employ every lethal tactic she has to save them. To succeed, she must discover not only who dispatched her on this mission, but why.

Without her family, she's dead anyway. A shocking accident. A little girl struggling to survive. And the childless aunt who transforms her own world to help her Danielle Steel's latest novel is a deeply moving story of resilience and hope. Paige Watts is the ultimate stage mother. The daughter of Hollywood royalty, Paige channels her own acting dreams into making her daughter, Emma, a star. By the age of nine, Emma is playing a central role in a hit TV show. Then everything is shattered by unforeseeable tragedy.

Now Emma is living with her aunt Whitney, who had chosen a very different path than her sister. Whitney was always the studious older sister, hating the cult of celebrity that enveloped their childhood. Instead, she is a psychiatrist who lives for her work and enjoys a no-strings-attached love affair with a wealthy venture capitalist. But at a moment's notice, Whitney drops everything to help her niece. Once famous, outgoing, and charismatic, Emma is a shadow of her former self--without speech, without memory, lost and terrified.

But with her aunt Whitney's help, along with a team of caregivers and doctors, Emma begins to find her way, starting her young life all over again--and changing the lives of everyone around her. Emotionally gripping and richly involving, Silent Night explores how the heart has mysterious healing powers of its own, and blessings happen when we think all is lost. From the 1 New York Times bestselling author Iris Johansen comes a new explosive, compelling thriller.

Despite her tragic childhood, violin prodigy Cara Delaney has finally found peace in her career as a professional musician and stability in her relationship with her guardians, forensic sculptor Eve Duncan and ex-Navy SEAL Joe Quinn.