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  1. Race and Ethnicity in the American West - University of Nebraska Press : Nebraska Press
  2. Race And Ethnicity In The American West Series
  3. African-American culture
  4. Gray and White
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For nearly three centuries, the criteria among whites for membership in these groups were similar, comprising physical appearance, assumption of non-European ancestry, and social circle. The criteria for membership in these races diverged in the late 19th century. During and after Reconstruction , after the emancipation of slaves after the Civil War, in the effort to restore white supremacy in the South, whites began to classify anyone with " one drop " of "black blood", or known African ancestry, to be black.

Such a legal definition was not put into law until the early 20th century in most southern states, but many established racial segregation of facilities during the Jim Crow era, after white Democrats regained control of state legislatures in the South. Efforts to track mixing between groups led to an earlier proliferation of historical categories such as " mulatto " and " octaroon " among persons with partial African descent and "blood quantum" distinctions, which became increasingly untethered from self-reported ancestry.

In the 20th century, efforts to classify the increasingly mixed population of the United States into discrete categories generated many difficulties Spickard By the standards used in past censuses , many mixed-race children born in the United States were classified as of a different race than one of their biological parents. In addition, a person may change personal racial identification over time because of cultural aspects, and self-ascribed race can differ from assigned race Kressin et al.

Until the census, Latinos were required to identify as one race, and none was Latino. Partly as a result of the confusion generated by the distinction, Mays et al. Historical trends influencing the ethnic demographics of the United States include:. In some cases, immigrants and migrants form ethnic enclaves ; in others, mixture creates ethnically diverse neighborhoods. White and European Americans are the majority of people living in the United States.

White Americans are the majority in 49 of the 50 states, with Hawaii as the exception. White Americans overall non-Hispanic Whites together with White Hispanics are projected to continue as the majority, at Although a high proportion of the population is known to have multiple ancestries, in the census, the first with the option to choose more than one, most people still identified with one racial category.

This makes German and Irish the largest and second-largest self-reported ancestry groups in the United States. Both groups had high rates of immigration to the U.

Critical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life.

However, English Americans and British Americans are still considered the largest ethnic group due to a serious under count following the census whereby many English and British Americans self-identified under the new category entry 'American' considering themselves 'indigenous' because their families had resided in the US for so long [29] [30] [31] [32] or, if of mixed European ancestry, identified with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group. This change in reporting represented the largest "growth" of any ethnic group in the United States during the s, but it represented how people reported themselves more than growth through birth rates, for instance, and certainly did not reflect immigration.

Most French Americans are believed descended from colonists of Catholic New France ; exiled Huguenots , much fewer in number and settling in the eastern English colonies in the late s and early s, needed to assimilate into the majority culture and have intermarried over generations. Hispanic immigration has increased from nations of Central and South America.

In this case, grouping is thus based on the geography of the individual, and may contradict or misrepresent their self-identification, for instance not all immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa are "Black". African Americans also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans, and formerly as American Negroes are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa.

There were 37,, non-Hispanic blacks, which comprised Most African Americans are the direct descendants of captives from West Africa , who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present United States. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean. According to US Census Bureau data, very few African immigrants self-identify as "African-American" as "African-American" is usually referring to blacks with deeply rooted ancestory dating back to the US slave period as discussed in the previous paragraph.

In , " Hispanic or Latino origin " was the self-identification of 47 million Americans. They chiefly have origins in the Spanish-speaking nations of Latin America. Very few also come from other places, for example: 0. The leading country-of-origin for Hispanic Americans is Mexico Salvadorans are poised to become the third largest Hispanic group by the next census, significantly overtaking and replacing Cubans.

According to the PEP The remaining Hispanics are accounted as follows, first per the PEP: 1. Per the ACS: 3. In the United States the Hispanic and Latino population has reached 58 million in According to Pew Research Center the Latino population has been the principal driver of United States demographic growth since Mexicans make up most of the Hispanic and Latino population 35,, In all the 50 US states California houses the largest population percentage of Latinos.

In , The Hispanic or Latino population is young and fast-growing, due to immigration and higher birth rates. The Census Bureau projects that by , one-quarter of the population will be Hispanic or Latino. A third significant minority is the Asian American population, comprising This is their largest share of any state. Their histories are diverse. As with the new immigration from central and eastern Europe to the East Coast from the midth century on, Asians started immigrating to the United States in large numbers in the 19th century. This first major wave of immigration consisted predominantly of Chinese and Japanese laborers, but also included Korean and South Asian immigrants.

Many immigrants also came during and after this period from the Philippines , which was a US colony from to Exclusion laws and policies largely prohibited and curtailed Asian immigration until the s. After the US changed its immigration laws during the s to s to make entry easier, a much larger new wave of immigration from Asia began. Not all of Asian Americans' ancestors directly migrated from their country of origin to the US.

But a predominant amount of Guyanese people are Indo-Guyanese , or are of Indian descent. Indigenous peoples of the Americas , particularly Native Americans , made up 0. The legal and official designation of who is Native American has aroused controversy by demographers, tribal nations, and government officials for many decades. Federally recognized tribes and state recognized tribes set their own membership requirements; tribal enrollment may require residency on a reservation, documented lineal descent from recognized records, such as the Dawes Rolls , and other criteria.

Some tribes have adopted the use of blood quantum, requiring members to have a certain percentage. The federal government requires individuals to certify documented blood quantum of ancestry for certain federal programs, such as education benefits, available to members of recognized tribes. But Census takers accept any respondent's identification. Genetic scientists estimated that more than 15 million other Americans, including African Americans and Hispanic Americans specifically those of Mexican heritage , may have up to one quarter of American Indian ancestry.

Once thought to face extinction as a race or culture, Native Americans of numerous tribes have achieved revival of aspects of their cultures, together with asserting their sovereignty and direction of their own affairs since the midth century.

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Many have started language programs to revive use of traditional languages; some have established tribally controlled colleges and other schools on their reservations, so that education is expressive of their cultures. Since the late 20th century, many tribes have developed gaming casinos on their sovereign land to raise revenues for economic development, as well as to promote the education and welfare of their people through health care and construction of improved housing.

Today more than , to one million persons claim Cherokee descent in part or as full-bloods; of these, an estimated , live in California, 70,—, in Oklahoma , and 15, in North Carolina in ancestral homelands. It is home to half of the , Navajo Nation members. Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders numbered , in , or 0. More than half identify as "full-blooded", but historically most Native Hawaiians on the island chain of Hawaii are believed to have admixture with Asian and European ancestries. Some demographers believe that by the year , the last full-blooded Native Hawaiian will die off, leaving a culturally distinct, but racially mixed population.

Race and Ethnicity in the American West - University of Nebraska Press : Nebraska Press

Throughout Hawaii, they are working to preserve and assert adaptation of Native Hawaiian customs and the Hawaiian language. They have cultural schools solely for legally Native Hawaiian students. There are an estimated 1. Census, [70] including both Arab and non-Arab Americans, [71] comprising 0. Census population estimates are based on responses to the ancestry question on the census, which makes it difficult to accurately count Middle Eastern Americans.

Middle Eastern Americans are counted as White on the census. The expert groups, including some Jewish organizations, felt that the earlier "white" designation no longer accurately represents MENA identity, so they successfully lobbied for a distinct categorization. Self-identified multiracial Americans numbered 7.

While the colonies and southern states protected white fathers by making all children born to slave mothers be classified as slaves, regardless of paternity, they also banned miscegenation or interracial marriage , most notably between whites and blacks. This did little to stop interracial relationships, except as legal, consensual unions. Demographers state that, due to new waves of immigration, the American people through the early 20th century were mostly multi-ethnic descendants of various immigrant nationalities, who maintained cultural distinctiveness until, over time, assimilation , migration and integration took place.

According to James P. Allen and Eugene Turner from California State University, Northridge , by some calculations in the Census, the multiracial population that is part white which is the largest percentage of the multiracial population , is as follows:. A study found an average of Meanwhile, in a sample of European Americans from State College, Pennsylvania , there was an average of 0. In Robert Stuckert produced a statistical analysis using historical census data and immigration statistics. He concluded that the growth in the White population could not be attributed solely to births in the White population and immigration from Europe, but was also due to people identifying as white who were partly black.

He concluded that 21 percent of white Americans had some recent African-American ancestors. He also concluded that the majority of Americans of known African descent were partly European and not entirely sub-Saharan African. More recently, many different DNA studies have shown that many African Americans have European admixture, reflecting the long history in this country of the various populations.

The Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics Working Group of the National Human Genome Research Institute notes that "although genetic analyses of large numbers of loci can produce estimates of the percentage of a person's ancestors coming from various continental populations, these estimates may assume a false distinctiveness of the parental populations, since human groups have exchanged mates from local to continental scales throughout history. In the census, the non-standard category of "Other" [3] was especially intended to capture responses such as Mestizo and Mulatto , [16] two large multiracial groups in most of the countries of origin of Hispanic and Latino Americans.

However, many other responses are captured by the category. In The ancestry of the people of the United States of America is widely varied and includes descendants of populations from around the world. In addition to its variation, the ancestry of people of the United States is also marked by varying amounts of intermarriage between ethnic and racial groups.

While some Americans can trace their ancestry back to a single ethnic group or population in Europe , Africa , or Asia , these are often first- and second-generation Americans. Generally, the degree of mixed heritage increases the longer one's ancestors have lived in the United States see melting pot. In theory, there are several means available to discover the ancestry of the people residing in the United States, including genealogy , genetics , oral and written history , and analysis of Federal Population Census schedules.

In practice, only few of these have been used for a larger part of the population. According to the — American Community Survey , the twenty largest ancestry groups in the United States were see above for the OMB self-designation options : [91] [92].

Race And Ethnicity In The American West Series

These images display frequencies of self-reported ancestries, as of the U. Regional African ancestries are not listed, though an African American map has been added from another source. Frequency of American ancestry. Density of Asian Americans. Percent of Asian Americans. Density of African Americans. Percent of African Americans. Density of Native Hawaiian Americans.

Percent of Native Hawaiian Americans. Density of Native Americans. Percent of Native Americans. Density of White Americans. Percent of White Americans. Density of Hispanic ancestry. Percent of Hispanic ancestry. These images display frequencies of self-reported European American ancestries as of the U. English ancestry. Finnish ancestry.

Racial and Ethnic Boundaries in the Coal Mines

French Canadian ancestry. Hungarian ancestry. Icelandic ancestry. Italian ancestry. Lithuanian ancestry. Norwegian ancestry. Portuguese ancestry. Romanian ancestry.

African-American culture

Russian ancestry. Scots-Irish ancestry. Scottish ancestry. Swedish ancestry. Ukrainian ancestry. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Gray and White

Overview of diverse American populations. See also: Category:Lists of American people by ethnic or national origin. Main article: Hispanic and Latino Americans. Main article: Multiracial Americans. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Arab ancestry. West Indian ancestry. Czech ancestry. Danish ancestry. Dutch ancestry. French ancestry. German ancestry. Greek ancestry. Irish ancestry. Polish ancestry. Slovak ancestry. Welsh ancestry. United States portal. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 16, Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved May 5, Retrieved January 30, Race - 7".

Census Bureau I. Retrieved February 28, Hispanic or Latino By Race. Census Bureau. Francis Coll. Al-Khazraji U. Cobb, U. Retrieved February 9, Census Fact Finder. American Community Survey. Retrieved February 19, Retrieved August 8, Retrieved March 2, Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez March Retrieved January 2, Census Bureau; Department of Commerce.

Retrieved April 19, Archived from the original on May 9, Archived from the original on November 27, Retrieved November 2, Census Bureau: FAQs". Retrieved May 16, Retrieved April 2, Retrieved April 6, Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic may be of any race.

People in each race group may be either Hispanic or Not Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race or races and whether or not they are Hispanic. Married or Single? Catharine Maria Sedgwick. Kaufman and Richard H. Elder Northfield's Home A. Jennie Bartlett. Reading Unruly Zahi Zalloua.

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