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  1. (PDF) Lu Xun's fiction in English translation: the early years_ | Baorong Wang -
  2. Anthologie des poètes français contemporains/Tome troisième
  3. Authorship, Originality, and Intellectual Property
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Bao was then just fresh from Peking University 58 Cf.

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Wherever necessary, instances of omission, alteration and mistranslation are added to those enumerated by Bao. I read it through and found his comment apt. So there are still quite a lot of places in the English that are open to discussion. In my opinion, it is precisely because the translation appears a bit too serious and earnest that it is unfortunately rather stiff and unnatural. Indeed these are the common problems of a literalistic approach to translation.

That is, Leung feels much more comfortable with the classical Chinese than with the vernacular. It should however be noted that there is also the problem of misinterpretation. Bao cites a number of mistranslations and alterations or inappropriate renderings for special comment. See B. My impression, after reading a number of journal articles by Leung, is that he handles formal written English with ease, though somewhat stilted.

This defect becomes even more marked in his colloquial style. In the second instance, Ah Q is dreaming about material profit women, properties, revenge he may get from making revolution. Yet even such a phrase has baffled the translator. As a culture-specific reference, it requires a gloss. Worried about his property and personal safety, the rich man tries to determine in which way the revolutionary winds are blowing.

There are also mistranslations caused mainly by a lack of understanding of the Chinese culture. As mentioned above, Lu Xun points out two translation problems. One of them is actually a mistranslation. In the edition Leung revised this to 66 Pp. There are more errors and we shall not make a complete list here. It appears that as an overseas Chinese not reared and educated in a typical Chinese environment, Leung was not well-equipped for doing Chinese-English translation at this level. On the other hand, whenever baffled by the original Leung could always seek help from dictionaries or friends.

The string was threaded through the holes, and its two ends tied together so as to form a loop. However, such strings seldom carried a full hundred coins. Lyell, trans. As mentioned above, when Leung was grappling with his English version, B. Interestingly, a subdued rivalry grew up between the two translators. This was strongly felt by Leung, though the Russian was probably not aware of this. Vasiliev asks Cao to introduce himself to Lu Xun in an effort to obtain translation rights from the author and to request him to write a preface and an autobiographical sketch for his Russian version.

He had to rush through his job in order to publish his work ahead of Vasiliev. Ge Baoquan, A Q zhengzhuan zai guowai pp. These are common Chinese names to refer to any person esp. See Ge Baoquan, A Q zhengzhuan zai guowai, pp. This, however, is the only slip that Bao makes in his review. The translation is inappropriate because Leung, presumably not knowing the sense of the colloquialism, attempts a literal rendering without considering the context. The sentence can be pinned down only when it is put back in the context. A hungry 74 See Lu Xun, W. I have not seen the edition, but to my mind the revised version is even more unnatural.

Another scholar also agrees with Bao that Leung is wrong here and even takes issue with a similar rendering by the Yangs. Since this time he is caught a thief red-handed Ah Q is not so bold as to bully the weak nun again. He wants nothing but to get away quickly with some turnips. This is what is meant by the narrator, whose attitude is one of mock-heroic. The real problem with the translation is that Leung adds something to explain the foregoing. But as noted by Bao, at that moment Ah Q is surely not that brave enough to open hostilities.

Since this culture-specific reference is not very significant in the story, there is no need to treat it with great earnestness. But I am doubtful of his treatment since it makes the translation intolerably dense for the English reader. Yet even if his did, the pun was still a hard nut to crack.

Thereby the special effect of the pun here is completely lost. Unfortunately, the fact that Leung takes liberties with the original text has been scarcely noticed probably because his version appears to be a cautious and literalistic rendering. The translation removes the entire competition episode except the two underlined sentences and then tries to compensate for the loss by summarizing it.

But can it really be compensated? As can be expected, any other sentences related to louse-catching have to be removed. Taken together, the passage constitutes a satirical expose of the negative aspects of national character. The English reads p. We shall discuss this aspect of his translation after looking at some instances of addition. We notice at least four additions, two of which appear at the end of chapters. We shall refer to the fourth instance a bit later.

Such language befits the peasant characters, particularly the protagonist Ah Q, and plays an important part in characterization. Unfortunately, the translation of suggestive or sex-related language is at once difficult and subtle. It is a perennial translation problem to achieve both adequacy and acceptability, that is, to make sure that the translation conveys the sense and force of the original while still intelligible.

Meanwhile, translating such language can be a subtle problem because there are often aesthetic, cultural, pragmatic and ideological considerations involved. So in most cases he tries to sterilize such language by either weakening or omitting. Let us first look at a couple of swear words.

Yet it is still vulgar enough to offend people with a refined taste. Although the Chinese oath has richer connotations than Snow thinks, depending on the situation where it is used, it is possible to find English equivalents, e. In fact, even slightly or vaguely suggestive phrases or bawdy language are unacceptable to Leung.

Finally, let us look at a composite instance of omission, addition and modification. In fact this instance is cited by Bao as an instance of modification. Unfortunately, Bao only highlights those parts of the sentence which he finds have been modified, but does not go into details. It is not hard to see that as a result of the sterilizing treatment of sex-related or suggestive language the protagonist Ah Q has been turned into a much less vulgar, more gentlemanlike fellow. Consequently, the original characterization of Ah Q and the authorial intention have been greatly altered.

This is arguably the worst infidelity to the original. These useful notes are designed to explain some classical and historical allusions e. Indeed, when faced with gambling terms, forms of address, titles and other culture-specific references Leung frequently resorts to transliteration, but only in few cases does he provide a gloss. On the other hand, where no English equivalents can be found for these difficult items, transliteration is often the easy though arguably not quite responsible way for the translator to choose.

In what follows we shall try to explain why his translation appears like this. There are many factors involved, but the publisher and the intended readership seem to be the decisive ones. Since in those days few foreigners residing in China would bother to read modern Chinese literature, the business-minded publisher would be smart enough to aim the book primarily at a domestic readership. As few foreigners would read the book and even fewer could read Chinese, it is very clear that the book was chiefly intended for Chinese learners of English. We have mentioned that The Lone Swan was a prelude to The True Story of Ah Q, yet it was the case in one other respect: the former defined the intended readership and general translation strategy for the latter.

Otherwise there was no point in publishing it as loss of money would be a sure thing. However, it was in the late s and early s that Lu Xun systematically published his translation theory, which was more related to the political and ideological agendas which he wanted translation to serve than to the proper translation method. This was a natural development because a weak China needed urgently to borrow from the West and Chinese readers demanded authenticity of such translations.

Meanwhile, the fact that Leung sent his draft translation to Lu Xun for revision dictates that his rendering would keep close to the original. Leung was fully aware that Lu Xun fervently advocated literalism in translation and thus would not tolerate his own story being treated in a cavalier manner. This is highly likely, but further evidence is required to support the point.

If the translator finds that the narrative mode of the original does not conform to his own poetical criteria, he may add something to the story or even change the storyline. Leung should be very familiar with the classical Chinese novel. When he sees a chapter end without a typical chapter ending, he feels that something is missing there. Therefore, it is only natural for him to put into the text what is not there but he thinks should have been there. Seen in this light, the two additions he makes to It is interesting to compare the case of Leung with that of Jing.

The impact of the circumstances of translation and publication on the choice of translation strategy should not be underestimated. That is, Leung intervenes in the narrative to express judgments as in the second instance or to direct the progress of the story as in the first instance. It can be seen as a case where ideological considerations prevail over linguistic considerations. According to Lefevere, there is a double control factor that ensures that the literary system does not fall too far out of step with the other social subsystems.

The internal factor, represented by the professional critics, reviewers, translators, editors, etc.

(PDF) Lu Xun's fiction in English translation: the early years_ | Baorong Wang -

However, the actions of the professionals are constrained by their patrons -- powerful persons, D. The story-teller intervenes freely in his narrative to express judgments and to direct the progress of the story. The reader is constantly reminded that the story-teller is in control. The patron is usually more concerned with the ideology of literature than with its poetics. However, the patron often relegates authority to the professional where poetics is concerned. Leung may know the profound message the author is trying to convey, but for a Chinese-American who can afford a decent life, the image of lice living on the human body and the act of catching and biting them can be offensive if not repulsive.

While the somewhat exaggerated lice catching competition serves as a critique of national character, it is true that lice used to live on the bodies of many poor people leading a wretched existence. Finally, there can be a third possibility: since both parties find the lice catching passage unacceptable, a secret agreement may have been reached between the translator and the publisher to remove it from the English text.

At any rate, Lu Xun must have been kept in the dark. The draft translation Leung sent to Lu Xun for revision was probably free of drastic omissions, which were made after the manuscript was returned. When the book came out, Lu Xun had yet another chance to find that his text had been tampered with. Unfortunately, his poor English denied him the chance. While ideological, poetical, cultural and aesthetic considerations are often involved in the translation of sex-related or suggestive language, this is a field where the patron tends to delegate authority to the translator, particularly if such language is not systematically or flagrantly employed in the original.

He takes exception to the swearwords and sexually suggestive language in the original text out of his ideological, poetical and aesthetic considerations. Firstly, as a connoisseur of beauty spots and gardening Leung finds dirty language in conflict with the aesthetic to which he is faithful. Lu Xun probably accepts bawdy language as an essential stylistic device for characterization, but Leung may have dismissed them as poetically undesirable. Thirdly, Leung should be worried that such language could exert bad moral influence on young readers of his translation. Therefore, the swearwords and sexually suggestive language are also ideologically unacceptable to Leung.

Details of book sales, reprints, circulation figures are all sketchy. However, we know that the book went through several reprints, including the and editions of the Commercial Press. In a revised edition was brought out by the same publisher and was reprinted in and It was also reprinted in the bilingual volume War Cry edited by Zhao Jingshen. The translation is credited to S. Leung, i. George Kin Leung. The other, giving neither publication date nor translator attribution, was published by Baili Bookstore. The Wildside edition is rather sloppy with a large number of typos.

The book has not earned a published review as far as we know. Two of them are in Chinese written by bilingual Chinese critics. The other three are in English, all penned by foreigners residing in China at that time. It is not clear whether they knew Chinese or not. Is he alluding to the louse-catching passages removed or the sex-related language sterilized?

No one knows. Yet even if Zheng notices the unauthorized changes Leung has made to the original, he may have refrained from pointing them out. The reason is self-evident: Zheng worked for the Commercial Press then and he was probably well acquainted with Leung. An anonymous reviewer for an American-run English journal in Shanghai writes: Foreigners in China are pathetically unfamiliar with the literature of the common people.

Leung is doing an incalculable service through his translations. He has been very successful in preserving quaint idiom without burlesquing it, and even in carrying over much of the humor with which Chinese literature abounds. Ah Q is a familiar village character. The reader, if he has lived in the interior of China, recognizes the rustic at once. The Commercial Press is to be congratulated on these publications.

Regrettably, no comments are made on whether the translation is readable or not, which the reviewer should have done. Also he does not seem to see the inner message of the story -- a critique of the negative aspects of the Chinese national character. Instead he suggests that such an approach can help retain the original style. Danton suggests that this marks the beginning in China of a stream of consciousness story of the genre made famous by James Joyce and carried on by Virginia Woolf. See C. Interestingly, the reviewer tries to justify the translation problem.

He argues that it is not the style of work rather it is the subject matter of the story that makes the present translation important. Bao adopts a down-to-earth approach to the issue of reception by relating it to the target readers. Even if they can, they will surely get bored, and that is tantamount to not reading it. But Pidgin English is the commonest problem among Chinese learners of English.

Reading this book, I am afraid, will do nothing but aggravate the problem. Finally, as the translator George H. Yet it does not completely sink into oblivion, as is evidenced by its recent reprinting in the United States. Translated by Jing Yinyu ? Only seven authors are translated, one story for each, except Lu Xun who is honored with three pieces.

He was the librarian of Birmingham University U. Jing is the author of a article, which discusses the influence of Romain Rolland on modern Chinese literature. Why did he treat it that way? How was the translation received? How should we evaluate his translations? The article is reprinted in his A Q zhengzhuan zai guowai, pp. Since the s a number of articles have appeared, mostly in the influential Lu Xun yanjiu yuekan Lu Xun Research Monthly. Later Jing was sent to church schools in Chengdu where he studied Latin and French for about ten years. A child prodigy, Jing had acquired a good command of French and Latin before he turned twenty and left for Hangzhou.

After joining the Creation Society, Jing began writing, translating and publishing, initially in the journals run by the Society. A turning point in his life came in the summer of , when Jing, encouraged by Guo Moruo, wrote a letter to Romain Rolland on June 3, His translations appeared in the January, February and March issues of the influential Chinese literary journal Short Story Monthly. I owe thanks to Dr. Gao Fang of Nanjing University for supplying an electronic copy of the original letter. Jing may have expressed his intention to study in France and have asked Rolland for financial support.

And Rolland should have promised him in that way. While attending college in Paris and Lyons, Jing led a dissipated life, frequenting the brothels there. Sure enough, Jing was very confident in his knowledge of French, yet the idea might have been proposed by Rolland. Jing sent it to Rolland in an effort to get it published. In A Q zhengzhuan zai guowai p. He was pleased to get to know me as he was eager to learn about modern Chinese thought.

As you may know, there was almost nothing on this available in European languages. But afterwards one notices the terrible humour. In his letter Rolland also noted that Jing, if thus encouraged, would provide material for a volume of modern Chinese stories. Rolland suggested that it would be worthwhile because as far as he knew no journal or press in Paris had ever published works of contemporary Chinese literature.

As it was brought out by Rieder Press, the very publisher of Europe, Rolland and Bazalgette should have had a role in its publication. He suffered from serious mental disorder, showing signs of persecution mania. Rolland tried his best to help Jing, sending him to a private sanatorium, but all the efforts proved futile.

Diseased, jobless and helpless, he lived a wretched life. Here is an excerpt of the letter: Dear Mr. Romain Rolland. He praised it highly [hen chengzan]. Rolland said he was going to publish it in the journal run by him and his friends, Europe. Forgive me for not asking for your consent when translating it. I think you will like having acquired an appreciative foreign friend [i. The English translation is based on Paul B.

Lu Xun also translated a Japanese article on Rolland, and published a number of articles on Rolland and translations of his works in the April issue of Mangyuan devoted to Romain Rolland. His logic would have gone as follows: Rolland is a world-renowned French literary giant, and I am the most well-known Chinese writer who will soon enjoy an international fame. Therefore, even if merely out of courtesy, Rolland should write a personal letter to his Chinese counterpart.

The bitter debate runs deeper than anyone can imagine because of the feud between Lu Xun and Guo Moruo. This can explain why he treated Jing rather coldly from December onward and even sent him away when Jing paid him a visit on February 24, Whatever message he had for Lu Xun, it was transmitted by Jing Yinyu. See also Ge Baoquan, A Q zhengzhuan zai guowai, pp.

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To the subsequent four letters he received on Dec. He sent it to Romain Rolland, who gave it very high praise.

Anthologie des poètes français contemporains/Tome troisième

More than that, he told me he had deleted two or three pages [of the Chinese text]. This is indeed where the infidelity of his translation lies. The two or three pages Jing omitted may happen to be related to this part. The English translation is mine. Hence, Quan Fei should have been an insider who knew the whole story. By a curious coincidence, the political climate became tense and Lu Xun had to escape the authorities for a time in the spring and summer of In late August he fled to the south. Foster, Ah Q Archaeology, pp. These are found principally in the first six chapters where we notice major omissions and contractions.

But Lu Xun never bothered to correct this defect. See LXXQ: Kyn Yn Yu, trans. See Kyn Yn Yu and E. Mills, trans. He felt light, as if he had suddenly grown wings. It is hardly surprising that Jing decides to remove them. The other case is the outright omission of the last two paragraphs, which arguably do not affect the plot movement. Lyell notes that this chapter furthers the plot by relating how the evil reputation that Ah Q has gained as a result of the Amah Wu incident causes him to forfeit all possibility of employment.

Since these are accepted as constituting the story proper and contributing to plot movement, almost no omissions and contractions have been made. Ah Qui promised, and went away carelessly. The bachelor was more indignant than anyone at this insult. For my part, I had little regret for this sad native country which was slipping away behind us, like a nightmare. Though the narrator may have harbored these feelings, he never says that explicitly. That same night, the wife of the M. A little later the Lord M. Apparently Lu Xun intended to make a last attempt to satirize the local gentry before the story ends: the life of a sacrificial victim is nothing in the eyes of the landed gentry who would only care about the loss of their pigtails, money and properties.

So after Ah Q is arrested for the robbery he does not actually commit, the juren laoye insists that the loot be recovered before everything else whereas the captain prefers to make a public example of the criminal. In a fit of anger and embarrassment, the former pressurizes the latter with resignation. But he never actually resigns. By freely rewriting the Chinese text Jing Yinyu the translator has turned himself into a writer: he not only changes the characterization and the plot, but also weakens the satirical effects one perceives when reading the Chinese original.

Rolland may have enjoyed reading the story, but what he read was not a full and authentic Chinese story. We may safely assume that if Jing had rendered the story more faithfully, Rolland would have given different comments, if not higher praise. See Shen Shuang, Cosmopolitan Publics, p. It is interesting to investigate the reasons for the liberty Jing took with the original. Lin suggested to Jing that he translate modern Chinese literature into French to make some pocket money, taking advantage of his French knowledge.

As Jing was understandably anxious to complete the translation and send it to Rolland to get it published soon, he would, naturally enough, have omitted or contracted those passages which he found hard to tackle. In such circumstances, French publishers would proceed with extreme caution. When Rolland suggested to Jing that he translate contemporary Chinese fiction into French and get them published in France, he may have mentioned that Europe would be the most likely publication for them to appear in.

But the novella seemed to be his favorite, so he could not refrain from translating it. This is precisely why the French version appeared in two installments. As mentioned above, before setting out for France in the summer of , Jing did both translating and writing. His short stories, collected in the thin volume Mary, are characterized by the I-narrator, frequent use of internal monologue and the predominantly reminiscent and lyrical tone.

This novel is a biting attack on all the vices: cowardice, hypocrisy, ignorance Hence, Jing would not have taken these passages seriously. And when he felt compelled to make omissions and contractions, they would have to go first. Although Jing tried to subdue his impulse to write freely for most of the time during the translation process, he could no longer suppress it when reaching the end of his translation. The final product then is a funny mixture of Lu Xun and Jing Yinyu.

Therefore, Jing is not an isolated case. Hightower, Topics in Chinese Literature, pp. See Zhong Mi [pseudo. Even-Zohar observes that the French cultural system, including French literature, is much more rigid than most other systems. A certain Western scholar went so far as to claim that the development of Chinese literature came to an end in Otherwise, as he would be well aware, his translation would not be acceptable to French readers.

Consequently, Jing made omissions and contractions of those passages that he found of no use for plot development to make his translation conform to the short story-writing norms conventionally established in the target literature. The reception of the Jing-Mills version It is interesting to explore how the Jing-Mills anthology was received in the target culture.

As Foster argues in Ah Q Archaeology p. As this is an important review article, it is necessary to cite some passages in full. The article begins with these words One of the by-products of the Chinese Revolution is, as this volume demonstrates, the appearance of a new vernacular literature. China has always had a vernacular literature, but the student class has hitherto stuck to the formal classics. This group of nine short stories by modern Chinese students demonstrates that the Great Wall of the Classics has been breached by the forces of the West. For all of these stories are touched with westernism, by the literary standards of Poe and de Maupassant, and hardly at all by Confucius and the Sages.

Then brief comments are made on every piece. The article contains reviews of a dozen fictional works recently published in America. It is the humorous story, from an ironic point of view, of a village wastrel and drunkard, who joined the revolution and was executed by a revolutionary tribunal, as punishment for a theft in which he had not shared, in order to discourage local crime.

In fact, Lu Xun already gained some international exposure in the mids. In September , Liu Bannong, then a professor at Peking University, suggested to Sven Hedin, the Swedish explorer and member of the Swedish Academy who helped select Nobel laureates in literature, that Lu Xun be considered for a laureateship.

Hedin was in Beijing in late and early seeking government permission for an exploration to Mongolia ibid. Interestingly, Foster suggests that Lu Xun may have contributed to the publicity which eventually led to the suggestion that he be nominated for a Nobel Prize. In a word, no one has any way of knowing what actually happened. Edgar Snow and Yao Ke. Naturally enough, translators who are not masters of the language into which they translate cannot write that language with ease and confidence.

But real bilinguals are a rare species. George Kin Leung, who was born and educated in the United States, can be considered a bilingual. Unfortunately, his spoken Chinese was somewhat shaky and he seemed to be not very sure about colloquial English. Kennedy translated six Lu Xun stories with fairly good quality for his day.

The translation was attributed to Harold Isaacs, but it should have been made by Kennedy, probably with some editing by Isaacs, because Isaacs did not know enough Chinese for the work. When Isaacs finished work on his anthology Straw Sandals and began to explore the Chinese materials on Jiangxi Soviets, he realized that he needed a translator. Later he found an able translator in Liu Jen-ching, who would translate any item of interest while Isaacs copied it down in English. Kennedy, trans. For information about the translation and publication of these stories, see Donald A. Gibbs and Yun-chen Li, Bibliography, pp.

Since Kennedy published or completed the bulk of his translations in the s some of them were later slightly revised by others , I have decided to discuss them here. Unlike many missionary children in those days who returned to America for both high school and college, George spent his high school years, from to , at the American School in Shanghai, where he acquired fluency in Shanghainese, his second spoken Chinese language. In , his father died and his mother sent him back to America to begin his college years at Wooster College in September that year.

He graduated in June , with honors in Greek and Latin. Meanwhile he also signed up for a full course load at the Columbia School of Journalism. George got a final grade in only one of his Columbia courses and dropped out the following semester in February Therefore, he chose not to continue at Union at the end of the school year. In he got married and the following year, without a degree or other certificate from either Union or Columbia, he returned to China, presumably to return to his roots. From onward, he taught English and Chinese at various schools; the last of these being the Shanghai Public School Its editor and publisher was the then twenty-two-year-old American journalist Harold Isaacs, who later became known as a China expert with his classic book The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution London: Secker and Warburg, Naturally enough, it opposed the Guomindang ruling class and imperialism in China, devoting much of its space to news of the White Terror waged against those revolutionary youths and intellectuals.

For a time, Isaacs made a point of including in his newspaper modern Chinese short stories, some of which were written by the five leftist young writers executed in Shanghai in January But later on he adjusted his editorial policy and after issue No. For a perceptive study of the enigma of the five martyrs, see T.

This brought his personal crisis to a head, and Kennedy decided to start over again, on a different basis and on a different continent. And no translator attribution is given in her study. He was in due course promoted to assistant professor , associate professor , and a full professor in His work at Yale had a marked pedagogical focus, which can be seen as a continuation of his teaching career in Shanghai during Kennedy visited China twice during his tenure at Yale.

In , he gave a talk to the American Junior Chamber of Commerce about starting a summer school for the teaching of Chinese in the US. During he was a visiting professor at Peking University, delivering the first lectures on early Chinese grammar ever given in China. In the academic year Kennedy was on leave for study in Japan and Hong Kong. He died from a heart attack when he was traveling from Yokohama to San Francisco. He was the first to introduce the modern short-story form into China and weld it to Chinese life and needs.

This affinity would not only have prompted him to choose the stories for translation, but would also have helped him understand them profoundly. The story must have attracted Isaacs who devoted much space of his newspaper to publicizing the Guomindang terror against young students and workers. The three places are typical of Jiangnan lands close to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River where roughly the same customs and traditions are observed. See his Lu Xun xiaoshuo li de renwu, p.

During when he translated the piece which recounts the tragic story of two youths, he was having the same bitter experiences: his marital life was at a crisis which ended up with divorce in The choice is surely a natural one, because by that time Kennedy had been away from China his second national home for eight long years and he must have now and then recalled those bitter-sweet days he had spent in Zhejiang and Shanghai.

Despite a piecemeal addition, Jan. See E. The additions, most of which appear to have been intended to clarify certain difficult points in the original or to supplement background information, can help enhance the readability and acceptability of the text. As for alterations, Kennedy occasionally rephrased or reordered the original Chinese, apparently to make the text more readily acceptable to Western readers.

On the whole, mistranslations are much fewer than additions or omissions. Moreover, the limited length of the stories also makes this somewhat doubtful enumeration possible. Is that human? Of the above seven mistranslations, three are revised, fairly correctly, in the version while four are left intact. It appeared that they were not very careful while handling their work.

The inaccurate rendering may conceal, if not distort, the camouflaged theme of the story. At the opening part of the story, the narrator, a young waiter at the wine shop, is found not suited for waiting on the customers and consequently is transferred to the dull work of warming wine. This sentence is not revised in Straw Sandals p.

Of the two omissions, one is minor, and the other has actually been made to the initial translation by the revisers. Unfortunately, the translation error remains. Redundant they are indeed, but such redundancy is apparently deliberate: it is intended to show the callousness of the speaker and the listener toward a human wreck.

Authorship, Originality, and Intellectual Property

Of these omissions, the second and third instances are arguably not of much significance, but the first one is significant because the sentence leads up to a flashback in the story. The two contractions occur in the opening part of the story depicting how Juansheng waits for Zijun restlessly. Pathetically, his life is valued by the wine bills he leaves behind: nineteen coppers.

It appears that Kennedy allowed himself much more liberty when translating the story, but Isaacs also made some editorial changes to his version before sending the manuscript out to the editor of Story. The circumstances of its publication suggest that this was very likely. Seven Cattie was about to retort when she saw her husband coming toward the house p. And although he did not till the soil, his family still observed the peasant habit of not eating by lamplight during the summer.

Now it was growing dark, and Mrs. Seven Cattie had cause to scold p. These additions appear to have been intended to make it easier for the English reader to understand the original stories. With the possible exception of the last but one instance, one may see that they are quite necessary for achieving the purpose, i. Seven Cattie. The addition not only specifies the speaker, but also brings out her body language. This is obviously intended to bring the translation closer to a Western narrative model. Both instances serve as a necessary link between the otherwise loosely connected sentences.

On the other hand, the translation contains an equally large number of omissions or contractions, though by no means ruinous ones. The beans were of a good deal better quality Lu Sin, , p. Apart from additions and omissions, alterations including rephrasing and reordering are also common, which gives further evidence of the greater liberty the translator or editor has given himself.

It is easy to see that these cases of reordering are made to fit in with the conventional way in which English sentences are arranged, thereby enhancing the readability of the translation. Finally, there are a handful of mistranslations. Pa-I her child clasped close to her, trembled as the Seventh Mr. Chao came nearer to her, his face covered with beads of perspiration and his eyes unnaturally staring. With the mistake, the English reader may think that the woman trembles at the sight of the man bearing down on her. Where have you been so late? Where does a corpse carry himself off to — coming home as late as this!

Interestingly enough, in certain cases the revisers simply turn good into bad. This is reflected not only in apparently more idiomatic and free-flowing English employed in the translation but also in drastic omissions rarely found in his earlier translations. As for the former, let us take the first sentence as an example. Of the four drastic omissions, two are obviously made of the material in the story that would have required cross-cultural explanation which would baffle the English reader. This passage relates the traditional Chinese sacrificial rites which are unfamiliar to the general English reader.

As it is, the age-old ceremonial practice is unfamiliar even to contemporary Chinese readers. See LXXQ, p. In the Roman Catholic Church, a censer is often used during benedictions, processions, and important masses. We may conjecture that these omissions are made due to the limited space of publication. Yang ever got along so fast on her little crooked feet. It ceased publication after the issuance of Volume 3 in But the former is a retranslation from the French. For publication details about these stories, see Donald A. Firstly, Kennedy was a rare bilingual with an excellent command of English and Chinese.

Their translations also resolved, in large measure, the conflict between adequacy and acceptability. Indeed this change of attitude was noticed by Isaacs. In issue No. Although nowhere in his translations did Kennedy offer an exposition of his method in translating Lu Xun, we may know his view of translation back in the Ideally, a translation should strive for a balanced treatment of the two conflicting requirements. Different readers expect differently of a translated work: some demand of authenticity in it while others just look for a slightly quaint easy read.

Therefore, a translation that balances adequacy and acceptability can cater to the needs of as many readers as possible. However, as a rule a translation will be successful only if it meets the expectations of the target audience. Without a higher degree, Kennedy had to earn a living by teaching at various schools and working as a freelance translator for Isaacs.

This may help explain why his earlier work e. In a review, Kennedy touched on the rendering of classical Chinese poetry into Western languages. This follows from the assumption that the translator has found sense in the original, failing which it becomes questionable whether the job was worth doing. This made it impossible for his translations to reach a wide audience.

It should however be noted that initially the periodical was often the only medium through which modern Chinese literature in English could be introduced to a Western audience. See Chapter Five for details. There are, however, two brief book reviews in scholarly journals. See Anon.

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One obvious reason is that they translated only a small number of Lu Xun stories. George Kennedy rendered six pieces into English, but two of them were not published until A more important reason, however, is the fact that much of these early translations was hit-and-miss. They are jarred by inaccuracy, unauthorized changes or a somewhat awkward English.

The first three translations are ascribed to Lin while no translator attribution is given for the other four. Given the closeness in translating style and translation quality, it can be assumed that they were all made by Lin. This index is based mainly on the bibliography compiled by Gibbs and Li But the names of the translators and the titles they translated are not listed. Ge is mainly concerned with translations published in book form.

But journal publication, though not as influential as book publication, may be able to reach a wider audience. I have not been able to locate it in the China Press. Perhaps it is another factual error. Regrettably, in a monograph tracing the history of introducing Chinese writings to the world, these factual errors are exactly reproduced.

In his autobiographical sketch, Lin gives a brief account of his Chinese translations of the works by Erich Remarque, Henry James, and Ernest Hemingway, etc. See James R. Hightower, Topics in Chinese Literature, p. While no translator attribution is given in the journal, the story was most likely translated by Lin. For a time the journal was indispensable to those English readers interested in the political, social and economic development of China and in the national-revolutionary cause espoused by Wang Jingwei.

The most prominent place, however, was given to Lu Xun honored with seven stories published between November and April Since no See the cover sheet provided by the Center for Chinese Research Materials for the microfilm edition of the journal which I consulted. In Cosmopolitan Publics pp. Most of our basic information about him comes from a biographical note Lin wrote in the s, a dictionary entry already mentioned and a newspaper page devoted to Lin. Unfortunately, these source materials often disagree with each other with regard to certain data and information.

What follows is a biographical sketch of Lin Yijin, based on all the relevant materials we have obtained so far. Much effort has been made to present the information as accurate as possible. The eldest son in the family, Lin was named Baoquan and his style name was Guoguang. Yulin graduated in from St. Upon graduation Yulin took up teaching in St. But teaching was not a secure job for him; he often Anon. Between and he published four novels in Chinese. Finishing college in , Lin could not find a job for more than half a year later he secured a temporary teaching position in St.

Consequently, he had to earn his living by translating Laocan Youji and modern Chinese short stories into English. Returning to China in the fall of , Lin, once again, found himself jobless for more than half a year. Lin Yulin also translated several Lu Xun stories into English. Ling, trans. The translation stays quite close to the original.

From onwards Lin taught English at several universities in Shanghai. Firstly, there was an economic necessity for Lin. It was a big family with seven children: six sons and a little daughter. His mother had heart disease and for most time of the year was confined to the bed. It must have been very difficult for him to support such a big family.

As the eldest son of his parents, Lin should have been expected to help his father support the family. Lin made several revisions to his translation. Today it has become a classic translation, still in print with close to one million copies released. The manuscript experienced rejection after rejection until the Commercial Press in Shanghai agreed to bring it out in By Lu Xun had been generally acknowledged as the foremost modern Chinese fiction writer. Gushi Xinbian, which was brought out in , is not considered in this chapter. Ling, While his main interest was in the translation of Western literature, Lin was also an enthusiastic young writer of vernacular poetry and fiction.

Lin recollects that while studying in middle school he would occasionally write vernacular poetry and contribute to the Yusi Threads of talk weekly edited by Lu Xun. While studying at Dongwu No. Admittedly, having no facts or evidence, we are reduced to conjecture. Yet this certainly points to the deplorable fact that Lin, both an early Lu Xun translator and a story-writer, has remained under-researched.

For one thing, in large part he selected those pieces which as far as he knew had not yet been rendered into English. In fact, it was Lin who first rendered the latter two into English. A second English version of them appeared in and respectively, both made by Chi-chen Wang. Hsia singles out for special praise, had not yet appeared in English before Lin chose them for translation. They reached a wider LXQJ It was the same case with Lin. Feeling genuine sympathy for Xianglin Sao, he is however self-aware enough to realize that his sympathy is futile.

Therefore, Lin saw the reflection of his father in these in-between intellectuals. Moreover, the local customs and the speech of the characters, particularly swearwords, are reminiscent of Shaoxing and the local dialect spoken there. On the one hand, the two places are typical of the Jiangnan region the vast stretches of land close to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River where roughly the same customs and traditions are observed.

Needless to say, a familiarity with the local customs and the local dialect made things much easier for the translator. The story has copious references to local customs and institutions and the occasional use of dialect, all of which would have presented extremely difficult problems to the translator. I thought you were quite a sensible person, but how can you speak so foolishly?

Some of the instances are plain mistakes and we shall not discuss them. In another instance, the opening passage of the story recounts the country custom of eating supper in the open air on hot summer days, obviously to save some lamp oil and to take advantage of whatever cool air coming from the river. As it is very hot many males may be bare-backed, but it is impossible for the females to appear that way.

The last instance reads rather awkward because the translator mixes up two personal pronouns. Lin probably did not know its meaning, because it is not translated. It is unthinkable that the wealthy man should condescend to eat with the poor villagers! She is often seen hobbling to and fro on the mud flat, carrying the bowl with sixteen copper rivets.

In fact, the story unmistakably suggests that the revolution has effected no positive changes to Chinese society. The punishment for people without queues is Zhou Zuoren, Lu Xun xiaoshuo li de renwu, p. Most of the villagers avoided him, no longer anxious to obtain the latest news p. The translation is at once inaccurate and unclear. Again, the addition is by all odds unnecessary.

Instances like this are numerous in the story. It appears that Lu Xun was experimenting with techniques of dialogue presentation.

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The translation tends to add the introductory words which are not there in the original. The last part of the addition is by no means intended to clarify the original. It is precisely creative writing by the translator. As a result of these unjustified additions, the original concise style is spoiled as the text becomes verbose and redundant.

Proper names are for the most part transliterated, though for those with special significance their literal meaning is rendered. Curiously, the name is often followed by Chinese characters enclosed in brackets. Needless to say, such historical or classical allusions, the so-called culture-specific references, often call for lengthy explanation in the form of footnotes or in-text glosses, but it is certainly not a fitting translation strategy to insert Chinese characters in the English text.

By contrast, we notice only five minor omissions and one contraction in the translation. One case has already been mentioned and the other one appears where Seven-Catty thinks to himself about the grave danger he is in since he has cut his pigtail off. In each case the oath is omitted, probably because the translator takes exception to it and chooses to purify it for the English reader. She had been standing beside Mrs. Seven-Catty reddened to her ears with renewed rage at Mrs.

Therefore, Mrs. A fifth instance of omission may appear insignificant, but is actually of much significance. Near the end of the story the boatman and his wife are having a crucial conversation. The historical farce, however, lasted only for about two weeks. What is at stake are the ellipsis dots indicting the speechlessness of the boatman who is at the moment lost in thought. Firstly, they show a strong tendency toward adequacy.

Despite a piecemeal addition, omission and alteration throughout the text, for the most part the language of the translation stays close to the original. Noticeably, the culture-specific references are almost always retained and explained; the insertion of Chinese characters in the translation as a supplementary aid is evidently a preservationist attempt. Jerome, , p. This obviously is a missing link in his theory. But why did Lin add to, subtract from and modify the original text?

And why did he make so many plain mistakes? And some of the dialectal items e. Under such circumstances, Lin would have had to handle his work in great haste since he needed money urgently to pay the rice-vendor. Where he misunderstood or misinterpreted the original text, he was rarely aware of that himself. And he did not often use reference books or consult the well-learned.

As for the additions, it appears that Lin sincerely wished to facilitate reading by inserting explanations including the Chinese characters for proper names and introductory words for the conversations into his text. Fairbank, ed. Part 1 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , pp. That is, he was tempted to add things to his text even when there was no textual warrant for that addition. The reason, we believe, is essentially economic. As Snow noted in , Chinese writers were miserably paid. The average rate ranged from three to four Chinese dollars per thousand words.

As Chen has observed, many Chinese translator-cum-writers e. But the rate for translations from the Chinese in the s is not known. See Chen Pingyuan, Zhongguo xiandai xiaoshuo de qidian, p. If the case of Jing Yinyu should be recalled, Lin is certainly not an exception to the rule. For one thing, they all appeared in a non-literary English-language periodical and no subsequent effort was made, as far as we know, to put them together and bring out an independent volume.

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