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Oh, can I ever believe man again? Burnt all his letters. I shall now forget quicker I hope, and may he be forgiven his falsehoods. I know nothing of the earliest encounter of my father and mother. I like to think of my mother then as innocently animated, pretty and not yet overstrained by dingy toil, and my father as a bright and promising young gardener, son of a head gardener of repute, the head gardener of Lord de Lisle at Penshurst.

He was five years younger than she was, and they were both still in their twenties. He probably came to the house every day to discuss flowers and vegetables, and so forth, with the cook and the housekeeper and steward and perhaps there was a chance for a word or two then, and on Sundays, when everybody walked downhill a mile and more through the Warren to morning service in Harting Church, they may have had opportunities for conversation. It was not all country dances and smiling meetings.

I still possess a letter from him to her in which he explains that she has misunderstood an allusion he had made to the Holy Sacrament. He would be the last, he says, to be irreverent on such a topic. It is quite a well written letter. This Up Park is a handsome great house looking southward, with beechwoods and bracken thickets to shelter the dappled fallow deer of its wide undulating downland park.

To the north the estate over-hangs the village of South Harting in the triangle between Midhurst, Petersfield and Chichester. Up Park was built by a Fetherstonhaugh, and it has always been in the hands of that family. In the beginning of the nineteenth century the reigning Fetherstonhaugh was a certain Sir Harry, an intimate of the Prince Regent who was afterwards George IV.

Sir Harry was a great seducer of pretty poorish girls, milliners, tenants, singers and servant maids, after the fashion of the time. In his declining years Sir Harry was smitten with desire for an attractive housemaid, Frances Bullock, and after a strenuous pursuit and a virtuous resistance, valiant struggles on the back stairs and much heated argument, married her. No offspring ensued. They entertained house parties; people came to them for their shooting and hunting. It could not have been much in the way of love-making anyhow, with everyone watching and disapproving.

But the housekeeper there is not in the least like my mother. If it was not so gay and various as that now vanished life below stairs in Ireland, it was bright enough. There were uncles and cousins in the district, so that I suppose the family had been in Kent for at least some generations. The lack of originality at the Christenings is appalling. My father grew up to gardening and cricket, and remained an out-of-doors, open-air man to the day of his death. He became gardener at Redleaf, nearby, to a Mr.

He talked to him, encouraged him to read, and lent and gave him books on botany and gardening. When the old man was ill he liked my father to take his arm when he walked in the garden. My father made definite efforts to improve himself. He had an aptitude for drawing. He drew and coloured pictures of various breeds of apple and pear and suchlike fruits, and he sought out and flattened and dried between sheets of blotting paper, a great number of specimen plants.

Behind him in the sunshine was Penshurst Church. But afterwards the Landseers were all sent to the Tate Gallery at Millbank and there a sudden flood damaged or destroyed most of them and washed away that record of my father altogether. I do not know what employment my father found after he left Redleaf, which he did when his employer died, before he came to Up Park and met my mother. I think there was some sort of job as gardener or under-gardener at Crewe. In these days he was evidently restless and uneasy about his outlook upon life. Unrest was in the air. He talked of emigrating to America or Australia.

In his working everyday world he, like my mother, was still very much in the tradition of the eighteenth century when the nobility and gentry ruled everything under God and the King, when common men knew nothing of the possibility of new wealth, and when either Patronage or a Legacy was the only conceivable way for them out of humdrum and rigid limitation from the cradle to the grave.

That system was crumbling away; strange new things were undermining it, but to my mother certainly it seemed an eternal system only to be ended at the Last Trump, and I think it was solely in rare moments of illumination and transparency that my father glimpsed its instability. But if such was the limitation of his serious talk in the daylight, there could be other moods when he was alone. I had one hint of that which was as good I think as a hundred explicit facts. His words opened a great gulf of unsuspected states of mind to me.

I wanted him to tell me more, but I did not want to bother him with a cross-examination. I hesitated among a number of clumsy leading questions that would tell me something more of the feelings of that vanished young man of forty years ago who had suddenly reappeared between us. But if he could look out of this planet and wonder about the stars, it may be he could also look out of his immediate circumstances and apprehend their triviality by stellar standards.

I do not think my mother ever wondered about the stars. My father was never at any time in his life, clear and set in that fashion. There is no mention of any engagement. I cannot imagine how it came about. She left Up Park to be with her mother who was very seriously ill in the spring of He had left Up Park and was on his way to stay with his brother, Charles Edward, in Gloucestershire until he could find another place. Then suddenly she was in a distressful storm. Her father was taken ill unexpectedly and died in August, and her mother, already very ill, died, after a phase of dementia due to grief and dismay, in November.

That happened on the 5th, and on the 22nd my mother was married to my father who was still out of a situation in the City of London at St. He seems to have been employed a little later as an under gardener at Trentham in Staffordshire, and for a time they could live together only intermittently. I guess they were married on his initiative, but that is only guessing. He may have thought it a fine thing to do. There is nothing like extravagance when one is down. He may have had a flash of imperious passion.

But then one should go on in the same key, and that he did not do. If so, my father was very little good to her. Presently he got a job and a cottage at Shuckburgh Park in the midlands. He kept this place at Shuckburgh Park until a daughter had been born to him in and then he was at loose ends again. There seems to have been no intimation of coming trouble until it came. Sir Francis gave Joe warning to leave trebly underlined. Oh what a sorrow! It struck to my poor heart to look at my sweet babe and obliged to leave my pretty home.

May it please God to bless us with another happy quiet home in His own Good Time. I do not know why my father was unsuccessful as a gardener, but I suspect a certain intractability of temper rather than incapacity. He did not like to be told things and made to do things. He was impatient. Perhaps it was as well that he did not attempt pioneering in new lands with my mother. She was that sort of woman who is an incorrigibly bad cook. By nature and upbringing alike she belonged to that middle-class of dependents who occupied situations, performed strictly defined duties, gave or failed to give satisfaction and had no ideas at all outside that dependence.

She was that in all innocence, but I perceive that my father might well have had a more efficient help-mate in the struggle for life as it went on in the individualistic nineteenth century. He was at any rate a producer, if only as a recalcitrant gardener, but he shared her incapacity for getting and holding things.

They were both economic innocents made by and for a social order, a scheme of things, that was falling to pieces all about them. And looking for stability in a world that was already breaking away towards adventure, they presently dropped into that dismal insanitary hole I have already described, in which I was born, and from which they were unable to escape for twenty-four dreary years. An obliging cousin, George Wells, with a little unsuccessful china and crockery shop in the High Street of Bromley, Kent, offered it to my father on extremely reasonable terms.

It was called Atlas House because of a figure of Atlas bearing a lamp instead of the world in the shop window. My father anticipated his inheritance of a hundred pounds or so, bought this business and set up for himself. He spent all his available savings and reserves, and my mother with one infant in arms moved into 47 High Street, in time to bring my eldest brother into the world there. And so they were caught. But they had now no means of getting out of it and going anywhere else.

No furniture sufficient and no capital to do as we ought. I fear we have done wrong. How I wish I had taken that situation with Lady Carrick! No customers all day. They have got their money and we their old stock. And being caught like this was to try these poor things out to the utmost. Later on I was to betray a similar deficiency.

He had been brought up in a country home with mother and sisters, and the women folk saw to all the indoor business. He lived from the shop outward and had by far the best of things; she became the entire household staff, with two little children on her hands and, as the diary shows quite plainly, in perpetual dread of further motherhood.

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There is a pathetic deterioration in the diary, as infested, impossible, exhausting Atlas House takes possession of her. There were no more descriptions of scenery and fewer and fewer pious and sentimental reflections after the best models. It becomes a record of dates and comings and goings, of feeling ill, of the ill health of her children, growing up, she realized, in unwholesome circumstances, of being left alone, of triter and triter attempts to thank God for his many mercies.

Church, morning, had a happy day. Went to church. Joe resolved on going to New Zealand. Advertisement of business to let or sold. Please God to guide us whichever way is for the best. This year ends with extreme anxiety about the business.

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How I wish we had never taken it. How unsuited for us. Not half a living and dear parents have all gone. Oh Heavenly Father guide and direct me. These advertisements came to nothing. Day follows day in that diary and mostly they are unhappy days. And so it went on. For twenty-four years of her life, and the first thirteen years of mine, dingy old Atlas House kept her going up and down its wearisome staircases in her indefatigable hopeless attempt to recover something of the brightness of that little cottage at Shuckburgh.

My mother used to accuse my father of neglecting the shop for cricket. But he developed his youthful ability to play cricket which he had kept alive at Up Park, he revived the local club and was always getting jobs of variable duration as a professional bowler and cricket instructor in the neighbourhood. He played for the West Kent Club from to and bowled for the County of Kent in and On June 26th, , he clean bowled four Sussex batsmen in four successive balls, a feat not hitherto recorded in county cricket.

Moreover his cousin John Duke at Penshurst, whom he had once got out of danger when they were swimming together, let him have long and considerate credit for a supply of cricket goods that ousted the plates and dishes from half the shop window. My Mother drudged endlessly in that gaunt and impossible home and the years slipped by. She was not clever at her job and I have to tell it; she sometimes did badly by her children through lack of knowledge and flexibility, but nothing could exceed the grit and devotion of her mothering.

She wore her fingers to the bone working at our clothes, and she had acquired a fanatical belief in cod liver oil and insisted that we two younger ones should have it at any cost; so that we escaped the vitamin insufficiency that gave my elder brother a pigeon breast and a retarded growth. No one knew about vitamin D in those days, but cod liver oil had been prescribed for my sister Fanny and it had worked magic with her. My mother brought my brother Freddy into the world in , and had her great tragedy in , when my sister died of appendicitis. Such early goodness, says Dr.

Ackroyd in Vitamins and other Dietary Essentials is generally a sign of some diet deficiency, and that, I fear is how things were with her. Quite healthy children are boisterous. I was born two years and more after her death, in , and my mother decided that I had been sent to replace Fanny and to achieve a similar edification.

But again Fate was mocking her. Little boys are different in constitution from little girls, and even from the outset I showed myself exceptionally deficient in the religious sense. I was born blasphemous and protesting. Even at my christening, she told me, I squalled with a vehemence unprecedented in the history of the family. We had no servants; no nurse-maids and governesses intervened between us; she carried me about until I could be put down to trot after her and so I arose mentally, quite as much as physically, out of her. I have tried to give an impression of the simple and confident faith with which my mother sailed out into life.

Vast unsuspected forces beyond her ken were steadily destroying the social order, the horse and sailing ship transport, the handicrafts and the tenant-farming social order, to which all her beliefs were attuned and on which all her confidence was based. Bromley was being steadily suburbanized.

An improved passenger and goods service, and the opening of a second railway station, made it more and more easy for people to go to London for their shopping and for London retailers to come into competition with the local traders. Presently the delivery vans of the early multiple shops, the Army and Navy Co-operative Stores and the like, appeared in the neighbourhood to suck away the ebbing vitality of the local retailer.

The trade in pickling jars and jam-pots died away. Poor little woman! How continually vexed she was, how constantly tired and worried to the limits of endurance, during that dismal half-lifetime of disillusionment that slipped away at Bromley! It was like writing to an absconding debtor for all the answer she got. A lesson. Fanny was well and happy and then she was flushed and contorted with agony and then in three days she was dead. My mother had to talk to her diary about it. Her simple faith was cracked then and its reality spilled away. I got only the forms and phrases of it.

I do not think she ever admitted to herself, ever realized consciously, that there was no consolation under heaven for the outrage Fate had done her. Our Lord was dumb, even in dreams he came not, and her subconsciousness apprehended all the dreadful implications of that silence. But she fought down that devastating discovery. She wanted me to believe in order to stanch that dark undertow of doubt.

In the early days with my sister she had been able so to saturate her teaching with confidence in the Divine Protection, that she had created a prodigy of Early Piety. My heart she never touched because the virtue had gone out of her. I was indeed a prodigy of Early Impiety.

I was scared by Hell, I did not at first question the existence of Our Father, but no fear nor terror could prevent my feeling that his All Seeing Eye was that of an Old Sneak and that the Atonement for which I had to be so grateful was either an imposture, a trick of sham self-immolation, or a crazy nightmare.

I felt the unsoundness of these things before I dared to think it. There was a time when I believed in the story and scheme of salvation, so far as I could understand it, just as there was a time when I believed there was a Devil, but there was never a time when I did not heartily detest the whole business. I feared Hell dreadfully for some time.

Hell was indeed good enough to scare me and prevent me calling either of my brothers fools, until I was eleven or twelve. But one night I had a dream of Hell so preposterous that it blasted that undesirable resort out of my mind for ever. In an old number of Chambers Journal I had read of the punishment of breaking a man on the wheel.

The horror of it got into my dreams and there was Our Father in a particularly malignant phase, busy basting a poor broken sinner rotating slowly over a fire built under the wheel. I saw no Devil in the vision; my mind in its simplicity went straight to the responsible fountain head. That dream pursued me into the day time. Never had I hated God so intensely. I have a sort of love for most living things, but I cannot recall any time in my life when I had the faintest shadow of an intimation of love for any one of the Persons in the Holy Trinity.

I sensed it was a silly story long before I dared to admit even to myself that it was a silly story. For indeed it is a silly story and each generation nowadays swallows it with greater difficulty. It is a jumble up of a miscellany of the old sacrificial and consolatory religions of the confused and unhappy townspeople of the early Empire; its constituent practices were probably more soothing to troubled hearts before there was any attempt to weld them into one mystical creed, and all the disingenuous intelligence of generation after generation of time-serving or well-meaning divines has served only to accentuate the fundamental silliness of these synthesised Egyptian and Syrian myths.

I doubt if one person in a million of all the hosts of Christendom has ever produced a spark of genuine gratitude for the Atonement. Why do people go on pretending about this Christianity? Jesus was some fine sort of man perhaps, the Jewish Messiah was a promise of leadership, but Our Saviour of the Trinity is a dressed-up inconsistent effigy of amiability, a monstrous hybrid of man and infinity, making vague promises of helpful miracles for the cheating of simple souls, an ever absent help in times of trouble.

And their Sacrament, their wonderful Sacrament, in which the struggling Believers urge themselves to discover the profoundest satisfaction; what is it? What does it amount to? Was there ever a more unintelligible mix up of bad metaphysics and grossly materialistic superstition than this God-eating? Was there anything more corrupting to take into a human mind and be given cardinal importance there? I once said a dreadful thing to my mother about the Sacrament. In her attempts to evoke Early Piety in me, she worked very hard indeed to teach me the answers in the English Church Catechism.

I learnt them dutifully but I found them dull. In one answer framed very carefully to guard me against the errors of the Church of Rome I had to say what were the elements in the sacred feast. My mother knew she had to be profoundly shocked. She was shocked to the best of her ability. But she was much more puzzled than shocked. The book was closed, the audition suspended. She said I did not understand the dreadfulness of what I had said, and that was perfectly true. And poor dear she could not convey it to me. No doubt she interceded with God for me and asked him to take over the task of enlightenment.

And anyhow it was made evident to me that a decorative revision of the English Church Catechism was an undesirable enterprise. I turned my attention to the more acceptable effort to say it faster and faster. My mother in my earliest memories of her was a distressed overworked little woman, already in her late forties. All the hope and confidence of her youth she had left behind her. As I knew her in my childhood, she was engaged in a desperate single-handed battle with our gaunt and dismal home, to keep it clean, to keep her children clean, to get them clothed and fed and taught, to keep up appearances.

The only domestic help I ever knew her to have was a garrulous old woman of the quality of Sairey Gamp, a certain Betsy Finch. In opulent times Betsy would come in to char, and there would even be a washing day, when the copper in the scullery was lit and all the nether regions were filled with white steam and the smell of soapsuds. There was little sun in her life, but she wore that headdress, she explained, to keep the dust out of her hair.

She is struggling up or down stairs with a dust-pan, a slop-pail, a scrubbing brush or a greasy dishclout. Long before I came into the world her poor dear hands had become enlarged and distorted by scrubbing and damp, and I never knew them otherwise. Her toil was unending.

My father would get up and rake out and lay and light the fire, because she was never clever at getting a fire to burn, and then she would get breakfast while he took down the clumsy shop shutters and swept out the shop. Then came the business of hunting the boys out of bed, seeing that they did something in the way of washing, giving them breakfast and sending them off in time for school.

Then airing and making the beds, emptying the slops, washing up the breakfast things. There was no O-Cedar mop, no polished floor; down you went to it on all fours with your pail beside you. If Joe was out delivering goods there might at any moment be a jangle of the shop bell and a customer. Customers bothered my mother, especially when she was in her costume for housework; she would discard her apron in a hurry, wipe her wet hands, pat her hair into order, come into the shop breathless and defensive, and often my father had neglected to mark the prices on the things the customer wanted.

If it was cricket goods she was quite at sea. My father usually bought the meat for dinner himself, and that had to be cooked and the table laid in the downstairs kitchen. Then came a clatter of returning boys through the shop and down the staircase, and the midday meal. The room was dark and intermittently darker because of the skirts and feet going by over the grating. Sometimes there was not much to eat; but there were always potatoes and there was too much cabbage for my taste; and sometimes the cooking had been unfortunate and my father Pished and Tushed or said disagreeable things outright.

My mother in those days was just the unpaid servant of everybody. I in particular was often peevish with my food, and frequently I would have headaches and bad bilious attacks in the afternoon. We drank beer that was drawn from a small cask in the scullery, and if it went a little flat before the cask was finished it had to be drunk just the same. Then she could attend to appearances. Instead of the charlady ensemble of the morning, she changed herself into a trim little lady with a cap and lace apron. Generally she sat indoors. Perforce if my father was at cricket, but mainly because there was nothing to do abroad and much to do at home.

She darned my heels and knees with immense stitches. Also she made loose covers for the chairs and sofa out of cheap chintz or cretonne. She made them as she cooked and as she made our clothes, with courage rather than skill. They fitted very badly but at least they hid the terrible worn shabbiness of the fundamental stuff. She got tea, she got supper, she put her offspring to bed after they had said their prayers, and then she could sit a little while, think, read the daily-paper, write a line or so in her diary, attend to her correspondence, before she lit her candle and went up the inconvenient staircase for the last time to bed.

I should certainly have learnt from my schoolfellows of any scandal or scandalous suspicion. He chatted a great deal at the shop door to fellow tradesmen in a similar state of leisure. The voices and occasional laughter came through the shop to my mother alone within. He read diversely, bought books at sales, brought them home from the Library Institute. I think his original religious and political beliefs were undergoing a slow gentle fading out in those days. Evidently he found my mother, with her rigid standards and her curiously stereotyped mind, less and less interesting to talk to.

She was never able to master the mysteries of cards or chess or draughts, so that alleviation of their evenings was out of the question. He felt her voluminous unspoken criticism of his ineptitude, he realized the justice of her complaints, and yet for the life of him he could not see what was to be done. I will confess I do not know what he could have done.

Whatever the realities of our situation, she was resolved that to the very last moment we should keep up the appearance of being comfortable members of that upper- servant tenant class to which her imagination had been moulded. She believed that it was a secret to all the world that she had no servant and did all the household drudgery herself. I was enjoined never to answer questions about that or let it out when I went abroad. Nor was I to take my coat off carelessly, because my underclothing was never quite up to the promise of my exterior garments.

It was never ragged but it abounded in compromises. This hindered my playing games. I was never to mix with common children, who might teach me naughty words. People who were not beneath us were apt to be stuck-up and unapproachable in the other direction. So my universe of discourse was limited. She preferred to have me indoors rather than out. She taught me the rudiments of learning. Also I began to read under her instructions. But then she felt my education was straining for higher things and I went off with my brother Freddy who was on no account to let go of my hand to a school in a room in a row of cottages near the Drill Hall, kept by an unqualified old lady, Mrs.

Such was my mother in the days when I was a small boy. She already had wrinkles round her eyes, and her mouth was drawn in because she had lost some teeth, and having them replaced by others would have seemed a wicked extravagance to her. I wonder what went on in her brain when she sat alone in the evening by the lamp and the dying fire, doing some last bit of sewing before she went to bed?

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I began to wonder what went on in her brain when I was in my early teens and I have wondered ever since. I believe she was profoundly aware of her uncomfortable poverty-stricken circumstances, but I do not think she was acutely unhappy. I believe that she took refuge from reality in a world of innocent reverie. As she sewed, a string of petty agreeable fictions were distracting her mind from unpleasant fears and anxieties.

She was meeting someone whom it was agreeable to meet; she was being congratulated on this or that fancied achievement, dear Bertie was coming home with prizes from school, dear Frankie or dear Freddie was setting up in business and doing ever so well, or the postman was coming with a letter, a registered letter.

All her own. It was a triumph over Joe, but all the same, she would buy him something out of it. Poor Possy should have that gravestone at last. Should she have a servant? More trouble than they are worth most of the time. And Joe? The boys were good as gold, she knew, but who could tell what might not happen if the girl chanced to be a bad, silly girl? Better have in a serious woman, Betsy Finch for example, more regularly.

It would be nice not to have to scrub so much. And to have new curtains in the parlour Wells, dear me! How pretty you have made the room! Without reverie life would surely be unendurable to the greater multitude of human beings. After all opium is merely a stimulant for reverie. And reverie, I am sure, made the substance of her rare leisure. Religion and love, except for her instinctive pride in her boys, had receded imperceptibly from her life and left her dreaming. Once she had dreamt of reciprocated love and a sedulously attentive God, but there was indeed no more reassurance for her except in dreamland.

My mother was still a good Churchwoman, but I doubt if her reveries in the lonely evenings at Atlas House ever went into the hereafter and anticipated immortality. I doubt if she ever distracted herself by dreaming of the scenery of the Life to Come, or of anything that could happen there. My leg was broken for me when I was between seven and eight. Probably I am alive to-day and writing this autobiography instead of being a worn-out, dismissed and already dead shop assistant, because my leg was broken.

I was playing outside the scoring tent in the cricket field and in all friendliness he picked me up and tossed me in the air. I had just taken to reading. I had just discovered the art of leaving my body to sit impassive in a crumpled up attitude in a chair or sofa, while I wandered over the hills and far away in novel company and new scenes. And now my father went round nearly every day to the Literary Institute in Market Square and got one or two books for me, and Mrs. Sutton sent some books, and there was always a fresh book to read. My world began to expand very rapidly, and when presently I could put my foot to the ground, the reading habit had got me securely.

A History of Reading. New York: Viking, Munt, Sally R. Murder by the Book? Feminism and the Crime Novel. London: Routledge,. Pustz, Matthew. Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, Putnam, Robert. Radway, Janice. Rifkin, Jeremy. New York: Penguin, Rosenblatt, Louis. Literature as Exploration. New York: Appleton-Century, Smith, Erin A. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, Tompkins, Jane. New York: Oxford University.

Press, Wright, Bradford W. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, Introduction The establishment of public libraries in the United States in the latter half of the nineteenth century provided ordinary citizens with free reading material, mainly books. Public libraries, over the century and a half since then, have undergone many changes, including the addition of a wide variety of nonprint materials, but books and reading are still at the heart of library services.

It naturally follows that providing guidance to readers also remains central to the work of librarians in U. The Early Years One of the most contentious debates in the early years of public libraries in the United States centered on the "fiction problem. Despite this, fiction made up a substantial portion of library circulation statistics in the late nineteenth century, as much as two-thirds in some places. Librarians subscribed to the belief that it was possible to lead readers from a "lower level" of reading fiction to a higher class of literature nonfiction. This "ladder approach" decreed that novel reading was "desirable when the selection of books read is judicious, and when the practice is indulged in only in moderation.

Methods to achieve that aim included careful selection of books for the libraries' collections and distribution to patrons of annotated lists of "the right" books. Further suggestions to improve reading habits included that libraries limit themselves to the purchase of very few novels, that libraries spend less on newer popular fiction in order to purchase duplicate copies of "good books," and that librarians try to attract readers to "good books through personal intervention. Today's view that the primary work of the librarian is to assist patrons to find useful information through reference assistance rather than providing assistance with leisure reading is very similar.

These two distinctive approaches characterize the two main phases in the history of readers' advisory. The first phase began in the s and focused on helping readers improve themselves through systematic reading programs provided by librarians. The second phase, discussed in more depth below, began in the early s; in this phase, instead of the librarian giving suggestions on reading that concentrates on improving the reader, the patron's own reading likes and dislikes are the central concern. Many librarians took part in an American Library Association-sponsored program during World War I that guided servicemen in their reading.

Librarians were eager to take what they had learned in their work with soldiers and apply it to their everyday jobs. We have ceased to worry about the moral implications of fiction-reading. But the fact remains that we still feel. The public library was ideally suited to aid adult learners because of its large store of reading material.

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The formal establishment of a readers' advisory program, and the first use of the term "readers' advisory," occurred between and , when seven urban public libraries, Detroit, Cleveland, Chicago, Milwaukee, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Portland, Oregon, established separate departments devoted to "informal adult education through reading. Following an extensive interview, the advisor prepared a course of reading for the patron based on his or her education level and interests. Generally the list went from lighter reading to more meaty fare, another example of the "ladder" approach to reading.

This first phase of readers' advisory was prescriptive in nature; that is, librarians provided the expertise to guide patrons into a directed, systematic program of reading for improvement. Useful Information 17 Based in part on the success of the programs at the seven institutions listed above, the American Library Association established the Commission on Library and Adult Education in The Commission, founded specifically "to study and investigate the role of the public library in adult education" accomplished several things between and Flexner wrote many articles on readers' advisory as well as a book that detailed the work of readers' advisors at the NYPL.

The brochures, written by subject specialists, covered a wide variety of topics. Between and the American Library Association sold , pamphlets in the series. One important finding was that libraries should provide "readers' advisory service to those who wished to pursue their studies alone, rather than in organized groups or classes. The job of readers' advisor became overwhelming as "it became almost impossible for reader's advisors to handle not only the large number of patrons who enlisted in this service, but more especially, the overwhelming burden of background reading which was required.

Useful Information During World War II, a lack of leisure time contributed to a falling off of interest in systematic programs of reading. Then, in the late s, the Carnegie Foundation funded a study of the public library by a group of social scientists led by Robert D. Leigh from the political science department of the University of Chicago. The resulting report, The Public Library Inquiry, suggested that readers' advisory service was no longer the province of a particular group of librarians, but diffused throughout the entire library staff.

Instead, other functions in the library, such as reference work, increased in importance as libraries became centered on providing information and "useful knowledge. Regan concluded that "there is still a sizeable amount of readers' advisory work being done, regardless of how unpublicized its results. An Emerging Focus on Fiction Though the formal readers' advisory programs of the s and s focused mainly on didactic programs of reading, readers still wanted to read fiction. An important figure in the development of services to readers of popular fiction was Helen Haines.

Haines not only championed the inclusion of fiction in the library, she became one of the preeminent voices to discuss collection development that included strong endorsement of the incorporation of popular contemporary fiction for adults. Her text, Living with Books: The Art of Book Selection, was first published in and widely used as a textbook in library schools, as was the second edition, published in The Renaissance of Readers' Advisory: Present In the early s, what has been called the "renaissance" of readers' advisory began, although it was more of a complete overhaul than a renaissance.

An early indication of this new vision was the publication in of Genreflecting by Betty Rosenberg. Rosenberg's book not only gave readers permission to read whatever they liked her first law of reading is "never apologize for your reading tastes" , but it provided a new kind of tool for librarians to assist readers to find popular fiction. The new readers' advisor was someone who could recommend fiction reading, especially genre fiction. Articles in the library literature encouraged librarians to learn about different genres and to familiarize themselves with different authors and types of popular fiction.

In particular, librarians were advised to be able to answer a patron's question about finding styles of writing, plot, and characterization similar to those that the patron already liked. Practical methods to help patrons find what they wanted included shelving books by genre rather than by author's last name, purchasing multiple copies of popular titles even multiple copies of paperback books so there would be adequate numbers of books for readers , and creating pathfinders and reading lists of similar books.

In a group of Chicago-area librarians established the Adult Reading Round Table ARRT , which was founded due to "the lack of continuing education available on both the national and local level relevant to. Other workshops featuring nationally known speakers such as Sharon Baker, Mary K. Chelton, and Duncan Smith followed. Research in Reading and Readers' Advisory As practitioners developed tools and continuing education programs for the new readers' advisors, scholars began to research and write more about readers of popular fiction.

In part this was due to an acceptance by academics that popular culture was worthy of study, but also because of a shift in the way that scholars viewed the study of literature. Whereas the text itself had been the central focus of literary studies, an awareness of the reader and the reader's interaction with text became of primary importance.

This gave rise to genre studies such as Janice Radway's Reading the Romance as well as important research within the LIS scholarly community. The work of Catherine Ross, Mary K. Chelton, and others provides the field of library and information studies with an important research base to accompany the applied work done by librarians. The rise of the Internet was supposed to bring about the death of the book. Not only did the book survive, it thrived, as evidenced by the increasing popularity of book "superstores" and the success of online booksellers.

The Internet also provided a new platform for readers' advisory tools that served readers and librarians alike. Sites such as Amazon. Genreflecting spun off a readers' series including Teen Genreflecting and Junior Genreflecting. Other books focused on particular genres such as horror, mystery, and fantasy. In Reference and User Services Quarterly began publishing a regular column on readers' advisory edited by Mary K.

Chelton, further evidence of the increasing importance of this topic. Readers' Advisory and LIS Education Although the demand for librarians skilled in providing readers' advisory services is very high, the curricula for library schools do not reflect this trend. It is standard in LIS education to provide courses in literature for youth that discuss reading promotion, the fiction genres, and readers' advisory for youth.

In fact, those students who want to be school media specialists or youth services librarians are usually required to take such classes. However, it is far less common to see comparable courses for adult readers' advisory, and they often are lectives. The prevailing attitude seems to be that services to adults can be covered in courses on reference sources and services and online retrieval. Readers' advisory is considered separate from the reference function. In fact, commonly used textbooks for reference courses, such as the second edition of Richard E.

Bopp's and Linda C. Smith's Reference. The third edition of Bopp and Smith includes a two-paragraph discussion of readers' advisory in the opening chapter, but it is by no means a thorough introduction to the subject. Studies of existing readers' advisory services in public libraries found that many librarians did not provide a high quality of service in this area.

Shearer and Robert Burgin, concluded that although many ALA-accredited schools offered specific courses in readers' advisory, "most of the programs accredited by the American Library Association do not even expose students to the idea that they can develop a practice devoted to building adult popular collections and encouraging rewarding reading among the general public. It is to be hoped that with consistent pressure from practitioners and educators working from within, this lack will be redressed soon.

Conclusion In one form or another, librarians have connected readers with books since the beginning of the modern public library movement. The philosophy, tools, and methods used to advise readers have changed since the early days of the public library. What hasn't changed is that public librarians see it as part of their mission to bring readers and books together. Although public libraries always included fiction in their collections, its presence has proven to be one of the hotly debated issues for librarians since the late nineteenth century.

In the past, librarians had an ambiguous relationship with fiction and struggled to define whether their mission was to provide readers with the "right" reading or to give readers what they wanted to read, even if librarians deemed it to be of lesser quality. Today fiction reading is fully acknowledged as an important part of what public libraries provide to their patrons.

Providing guidance to readers who want the latest in genre fiction is no longer something that librarians shy away from, but should be central to the work of the public library. Our patrons expect no less. Lee's book gives a through overview of the "ages" of the public library as an educational agency. References to readers' advisory are scattered throughout the book, but particularly pertinent is chapter IV, "Serving the Individual," which focuses on the period when the term "readers' advisory" first surfaced as a structured program of individualized reading advisement.

Samuel Swett Green. Notes 21 5. That librarians viewed themselves as experts in directing the public's reading may be seen in such articles as W. Charles E. Lee, Continuing Education for Adults, Flexner and Byron C. Joyce G. Chicago: American Library Association, , 5. Regan, "Status of Reader's Advisory Service," Wayne Wiegand points out that librarianship's most important professional responsibility became to provide useful information to its constituency, a course of action that influenced not only the practice of the profession on a daily basis, but also the course of library education.

Shearer and Robert Burgin, 11 Englewood, Colo. A brief survey of the Index to Library Literature showed that for the index of there were more than twenty articles and multiple references to book reviews under the heading "readers' advisory" the term changed to "reader guidance" in The index for had only twelve references, of which five were in foreign publications, and in the number of articles had dropped to only four references in English, with a few book reviews and a number of articles in foreign publications.

Robert D. Mary K. Kenneth D. Shearer and Robert Burgin, 24 Englewood, Colo. Wayne A. Shearer and Robert Burgin, Englewood, Colo. Haines published 2d ed. Saricks and Nancy Brown published 2nd ed. A successful match is made when the reader asks for "a good book to read" and ends up getting reading suggestions for materials likely to be enjoyable. This matchmaking job is tricky because, for any given reader, the concept of the "good book" involves a number of dimensions that go well beyond what may initially be asked for.

Relevant factors may include the reader's mood and the context of the intended reading as well as a number of idiosyncratic preferences. Avid pleasure-readers in one study reported overwhelmingly that they choose books according to their mood and what else is happening in their lives: "Short books, easy reads, and old favorites are picked when the reader is busy or under stress. They may request "some good books to read" or ask for a specific genre such as mysteries or history books.

The readers' advisor needs a way of finding out what these terms mean to the particular reader. For one, a "well-written" book may mean intricate plotting and fast-paced suspense; for a second reader it may mean good character development; and for a third reader perhaps it means the felicitous use of language, where every paragraph invites reflection, rereading, and savoring.

Effective readers' advisors take a nonjudgmental approach that accepts readers' tastes and preferences and doesn't try to change or "improve" them. When the reader asks for a category romance, he or she doesn't want to hear, "Why don't you read a really. Readers may mean a book to match my mood right now, or a book that suits my level of reading ability, or a book that speaks to my particular interests whether it's horseracing or high fashion or archaeology , or a book written in a style that maximizes the effects I enjoy e. That's why it doesn't work for a readers' advisor to have the same list of canonical "Good Books" such as War and Peace or Pride and Prejudice for all readers.

Nor does it work for a readers' advisor to recommend his or her own personal favorites to everyone e. This second area of expertise is of course the domain of the readers' advisory interview, which differs less from the reference interview than is sometimes supposed. All interviews are special kinds of conversations, directed intentionally toward some purpose. Both reference interviews and readers' advisory interviews involve collaborative conversations between the library user who is the expert in the kind of information or reading experience that is wanted and the information professional who is the expert in how knowledge is organized, stored, and retrieved.

Often reference interviews fail because the library staff member asks questions relating to the library system such as "Did you check the catalog? They know all the specialized terms and understand the difference between a biography and a bibliography or between a directory and a dictionary.

But users often make mistakes when they are asked to translate their information needs into the unfamiliar vocabulary of the library system. Readers' advisory interviews can similarly fail when the staff member asks questions that relate to classification schemes and literary terms, rather than asking about the kind of experience the reader wants. In contrast, in successful readers' advisory RA transactions, staff members typically initiate a conversation about books that is designed to get readers talking about their own preferred experiences with books, including favorite books, authors, and genres.

In a study of avid readers and how they choose books to read for pleasure,31 discovered that the single most important strategy for selection was choosing a book by a known and trusted author. The second was making selections by genre. For readers' advisors, it is also important to discover what readers don't like. Although they may sometimes say they will "read anything," they probably won't.

One UK investigation of book reading and borrowing4 reports that readers in the study qualified their "read anything" claim by specifying various categories they would not read. Men said they wouldn't read romantic fiction; many, and especially women, said they wouldn't read nonfiction. Others rejected war stories, anything "too violent," or "books which emphasize blood and gore. What do you not like and wouldn't want to read? What have you looked at so far? If we could find the perfect book for you today, what would it be like?

What would it be about? What would you like best about it? What elements would it include? An effective RA interviewer uses the same communication skills required in the reference interview: open questions "What did you especially like about that particular book? Anything else?

Did I get it right? What makes it an interview, however, is that this conversation is directed by an overall purposediscovering the nature of the reader's engagement with books. The features that the reader chooses to talk about provide important clues to reading tastes and preferences. In contrast, closed questions such as "Do you enjoy splatterpunk? Readers who are well-informed about literary terms will often use genre labels themselves to describe their preferences.

Is there a particular book that you've especially enjoyed? For example, does the reader talk about fast-paced action or leisurely description? Does the reader emphasize a single strong character or the complex interweaving of many characters, perhaps through several generations? Does the reader talk about the setting of the book as important, and if so, what settings in time and place does she mention?

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Does the reader refer to a recently enjoyed book as soothing and comforting, or as challenging and quirky? Are there types of books the reader dislikes and won't read? As already noted, readers frequently rule out whole categories of booksno horror or anything too scary, no romances, nothing set on other planets, nothing depressing, not too much description.

The ability to listen and distill the essence of what users say about their preferred reading experience is a critical skill that requires practice. In order to pick up on these clues and interpret them correctly, the readers' advisor needs to know about the various popular genres and subgenres of fiction, the differences among them, and the various satisfactions that each genre offers to readers. Although the reader may not know terms for, say, ten subcategories of romance, he or she may provide clues to his or her genre preferences by saying, "I want something that's a little spicy but I don't like bedhopping," or "I really enjoy Georgette Heyer but I've read all her books," or "I can't remember the name of that book I really liked but it had a high heel on the cover," or "I want a love story that emphasizes Christian values.

Seldom is there a single right answer in readers' advisory workmany books could suit the reader. But there are many wrong answers books that would not be appropriate for a particular reader. Matching on a single feature rather than on the overall "feel" of the book can be problematic. Chelton points to "the all-time mistake in this regard.

The readers' advisor's job is to help narrow choices to a manageable number of suggestions that match the reader's stated interests and tastes. Unlike those earlier readers' advisors, whom Melanie Kimball describes in chapter 2 of this volume as intent on pushing the reader up the reading ladder from light fiction to "serious" works, today's effective readers' advisor is nonjudgmental, values all kinds of reading, and takes the view that the reader, not the librarian, knows best what kind of reading experience is desired.

Ross, "Making Choices," Chicago: American Library Association, , Saricks and Brown, Readers' Advisory, Chelton, "Readers' Advisory ," Library Journal , no. Bibliography Book Marketing Limited. London: Library and Information Commission, Chelton, Mary K. Ross, Catherine Sheldrick. Conducting the Reference Interview. New York: Neal-Schuman, Saricks, Joyce G. Readers' Advisory Service in the Public Library. Chicago: American Library Association, Smith, Duncan. Chapter 4 Serving Today's Reader Diana Tixier Herald The American Heritage Dictionary defines genre as "a category of artistic composition, as in music or literature, marked by a distinctive style, form, or content.

Books usually described as genre fiction are books that share multiple characteristics and features, allowing them to be categorized as belonging to a specific genre. Those features may include a common setting, for example, the Old West, a distant planet in the future, a historical period on our planet, or a place where magic happens.

Stories that share these settings can be classified respectively as Westerns, science fiction, historical fiction, and fantasy. In other cases it is the type of plot premise that stories have in common, for example, boy meets girl, boy loses girl, boy and girl come back together and live happily ever after. Romance fiction generally follows this premise.

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  5. Crime fiction uses a different type of premise. A person dies under suspicious circumstances, and a detective follows clues until the mystery is solved. We call this story a mystery or detective story. Other genres may not be as formalized as these traditional genres, but nonetheless, the titles within those genres share characteristics that are important to readers. For example, women's fiction generally features a female protagonist, grappling with career or relationship problems within a supportive group of female friends.

    Literary, mainstream, or general fictionall terms used to define what is considered unclassifiable or "nongenre" fictioncan also be considered a genre. However, mainstream fiction is outside the scope of this guide. It can be said that genre fiction, which tends to be the most popular form of fiction, is the Rodney Dangerfield of literature. These books "get no respect.

    It sometimes connotes a sort of literary 'ghetto' to be contrasted with literature proper? One need only check the classics lists in each chapter in part II of this guide to see the fallacy in this thinking. In the meantime, while critics, scholars, and even some librarians may strive to "elevate" the tastes of the reading public, readers continue to read what they like.

    The roots of genre fiction are in the distant past, when storytellers and bards held audiences enraptured by their tales and ballads of wondrous adventure, larger-than-life heroes and heroines, and magical beasts. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, publishers and readers began defining genres through works of such authors as Jules Verne, H.

    Wells, and Edgar Allan Poe. Mass marketing of cheap publications in the form of dime novels and periodicals provided fertile ground for many of today's genres to develop. However, genre fiction is also very much tied into contemporary popular culture; with trends and developments in fiction both reflecting and directing current events. Although the literary quality may vary, the thrill of a strong plot, interesting dialogue, and a satisfactory conclusion lead many individuals to read for pleasure.

    The Nature of Genre Fiction Genre fiction is constantly evolving, but its essence remains the samea tale of heroism in which the characters surmount obstacles to triumph. The scale of the heroism can be as large as a galaxy or as small and intimate as a pair of struggling lovers, but in genre fiction a character is or characters are faced with an obstacle that is overcome through some strength of character, intelligence, or physical attribute.

    Genre fiction is plot-driven but can also have masterful characterization and graceful prose. Good genre fiction can be and often is characterized as "good storytelling. Characters are so important that often books are referred to by their names rather than by the name of the author or the book's title. Some characters are so popular that biographies have been written about them. Today genre fiction, often criticized for being formulaic and predictable, stretches boundaries while trying to maintain its original appeal.

    Romance tales include mysteries and murders that take place in futuristic societies.

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    Faerie folk pop up in Westerns, while tales of horror and the occult go for the laughs by incorporating humorous elements. Genreblending has become of such major importance that publishers have created imprints devoted to blends. Libraries and Genre Fiction 33 blends of science fiction and fantasy with romance. Romance giant Harlequin added the Luna imprint to feature romantic stories by major fantasy authors. Although genreblending can be confounding to the readers' advisor, genre categories continue to be extremely useful in helping readers find the books they will enjoy.

    Second only to a search by author, readers search for titles by genre. Categorizing fiction by types will never be a science, let alone an exact one. To a large extent, assigning genres is subjectiveit is an art. Yet publishers continue to publish genre fiction, and readers continue to read and seek out genre fiction.

    This is why bookstores arrange much of their stock according to genres. It is also why publishers use genre labels on books and in catalogs. The overwhelming number of books published each year becomes more manageable through genre classification. Whether or not readers are aware of the intricacies, nuances, and language of subgenres, these generally represent titles grouped according to reading tastes. To best serve their patrons, it is essential that librarians, and particularly readers' advisors, familiarize themselves with popular reading interests and genre fiction.

    With genreblending blurring the lines, that imperative becomes even stronger. Who Is the Common Reader? As Wayne Wiegand makes clear in chapter 1, books and common readers are at the heart of the library. But who are the common readers, and what exactly do they want? Simply put, common readers are people who read. Common readers borrow from the library, or buy, or trade books. They may read e-books or listen to books in various audio formats. They may search for titles via the library's Web site, or they may browse the stacks, or they may order books through Amazon.

    However they access books, common readers read because they enjoy reading, entering another world with more excitement than the mundane, everyday world. These people know the difference between reality and fantasy but choose to enjoy the age-old tradition of storytelling.

    Common readers can be of any age, any sex, and any intellectual level, and they work in all types of jobs, professions, and careers. They fall into all economic levels of society. Common readers are our public and our customers. Libraries and Genre Fiction Earlier editions of Genreflecting discussed the controversy over maintaining collections of genre fiction in libraries.

    Betty Rosenberg cited many articles criticizing popular reading as well as many promoting the library as a community resource for popular fiction. In chapter 2 Melanie A. Kimball offers an overview of the history of readers' advisory in the public library. Even now, more than twenty years after publication of the first edition of Genreflecting, in which Betty Rosenberg introduced her first law of reading"never apologize for your reading tastes"to the public, the controversy continues.

    The forum may have moved from library periodicals onto the Internet, but a lively exchange still ensued when a librarian asked a newsgroup for opinions regarding the purchase of a "not so good book" because a library user had made requests that it be purchased. Oh, the flames as accusations of censorship and wrong thinking were exchanged! In truth, while the American Library Association has recognized the value of a library's role as "popular reading center," some librarians continue to sniff disdainfully at genre fiction.

    Fortunately for the millions of. Although popular fiction collections are not funded in a ratio equivalent to their usage, libraries in the s made efforts to improve access to popular fiction, and that effort continues today. Several library schools have added readers' advisory classes.

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