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Although Ugra claimed that the stories were aimed at suppressing homosexuality by exposing it, Vanita highlights the ambivalence of his characterizations. Cosmopolitan, educated, and hedonistic, the Hindu and Muslim men he portrayed quote Hindi and Urdu poetry to express their love, and they justify same-sex desire by drawing on literature, philosophy, and world history.
He lived in Benares, Calcutta, Bombay where he wrote film scripts , and Delhi. Chocolate and Other Writings on Male Homoeroticism. Pandey Bechan Sharma. Many prominent figures, including Gandhi, weighed in on the debates, which lasted into the s. Well illustrated. Radio versions cover only British editions. The Works of Robert Louis Stevenson. Excellent comprehensive overview. Built up over years by Richard Dury, this is the center of the network of Stevenson scholars.
Contains a full list of editions, works, and critical studies with links to electronic texts, a photographic archive, the history of his reception, and lists of derivative works. Swearingen, Roger G. Hamden, CT: Archon, Essential reference guide. Based on extensive archival research, this gives unsurpassed details of manuscripts and publications.
Organized chronologically. Subsequent debates over dating and so forth are detailed in Swearingen cited under Critical. Edited by Joanne Shattock, — Includes translations, film versions, criticism, and biographies. Guides to individual collections of Stevenson manuscripts in two key holdings are McKay and Wainwright Bethune, Andrew, and Ronald Davies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh City Libraries, McKay, George L. Formed by Edwin J. Wainwright, Alexander D. Maixner and Alblas offer overviews of reception and works in translation, while Swearingen , Swearingen , Niederhoff , and the works section of the RLS Website cited under Bibliographies summarize and critique editions and criticism.
Maixner offers an essential guide to reception, though new reviews are identified in Jolly cited under General Criticism. Swearingen and Swearingen contain trenchant critiques of editions, criticism, and biographies. Niederhoff concentrates on criticism, while Alblas addresses translation. Alblas, J. Stevenson, and Their Contemporaries. Edited by Peter Liebregts and Wim Tigges, — Amsterdam: Rodopi, Identifies Furnas cited under Biography: General as a critical turning point in his reputation as a serious writer.
Traces the rise and fall of English and Dutch publications. Maixner, Paul C. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Notes that for many years Stevenson was better received by general readers and practicing writers than by critics. Extensive introduction. Niederhoff, Burkhard. Informative, evaluative account of Stevenson studies concentrating on — and identifying a more theorized, less defensive critical attitude. Exhaustive analysis of lateth- and earlyst-century editions of texts and letters and of related works with forceful evaluations.
Stevenson has been underrepresented in reference works. Only in did any of his writing appear in the Norton Anthology of Victorian Literature. Hart reflects an earlier stage of Stevenson criticism, while Gifford, et al. Arata, Stephen. Edited by Gail Marshall, — DOI: Construes Oscar Wilde and Stevenson as committed antirealists moving toward modernist ideas on art. Birch, Dinah. Edited by Dinah Birch, — Oxford: Oxford University Press, There are separate short entries on Dr.
Also available online for purchase or by subscription. Fielding, Penny. Book aimed at the undergraduate and high school markets. Substantial section on Stevenson but covers only selected texts. Hart, Francis R. Edited by Douglas Gifford, — Sanders, Andrew. By Andrew Sanders, — Stevenson has consistently attracted the attention of biographers interested in the journey from Scotland to Samoa, his ability to attract friends and devotees, a difficult relationship with his family in Edinburgh, the dynamics of his marriage, and the vagaries of his health.
Memoirs of Stevenson were popular shortly after his death and continue to thrive. Much biographical attention was directed upon his wife and friends and the Stevenson family. A comprehensive list of biographies is at the RLS Website. Swearingen cited under Bibliographies: Critical lists and critiques biographies from to Mehew cited under General Overviews is an excellent introduction.
Balfour accused by W. By the midth century, the best biographies explored both the life and writing. Furnas set the standard through its sources and perception. Calder offers a reliable and careful account based on the material available. Bell addresses the Scottish dimension with confidence. McLynn takes a more controversially psychological approach. Harman is the first significant subsequent account. Balfour, Graham. The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson. London: Methuen, Bell, Ian. Robert Louis Stevenson: Dreams of Exile. Edinburgh: Mainstream, Calder, Jenni.
London: Hamish Hamilton, Less on the works than might be expected. Furnas, J. London: Faber and Faber, Still considered one of the best Stevenson biographies, this is extensively researched, especially in terms of the letters and notebooks. Perceptive and forceful, it explores fully the quarrel with Henley. Gray, William. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, Avoids linear chronology, positioning the chapter on Stevenson and Scotland as a metaphoric acknowledgment of the centrality of his Scottishness. Usefully situates Stevenson within the literary publishing scene.
Harman, Claire. Robert Louis Stevenson: A Biography. London: Harper Perennial, Convincingly addresses the dualities of his existence as an invalid and a writer. Highly recommended. Le Bris, Michel. Paris: Nil Editions, First part of a two-part biography; the second has never appeared. McLynn, Frank. London: Hutchinson, Masson represents an early example, and Terry a later continuation of form.
His exotic life sustained interest in those around him, particularly his wife.
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Low gives a sense of bohemian communities in Barbizon and Paris. Bathurst delineates the wider family context. Bathurst, Bella. The Lighthouse Stevensons. London: HarperCollins, Jolly, Roslyn, ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, Fascinating selection of photographs. Gives insight into culture and trade in the western and central Pacific region in Lapierre, Alexandra. Translated by Carol Cosman. London: Fourth Estate, Low, W. A Chronicle of Friendships, — Masson, Rosaline, ed.
Edinburgh: Chambers, One of the best collections of personal eyewitness accounts, edited by an Edinburgh writer and friend of Stevenson. Terry, R. Robert Louis Stevenson: Interviews and Recollections. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, Recollections from a range of family and literary figures, including W. Introduces each figure, with notes on entries. Good-quality photographs. This area of study has become a subgenre in itself. Details of travels, following his route for Travels with a Donkey but also across Scotland—and, in the immediate years after his death, in the South Seas—are available on the RLS Website.
Holmes examines and establishes some of the conventions of the genre. Nimmo is a lively instance of a Scottish journey. Rankin brings together a range of experiences and locations. Holmes, Richard. Footsteps: Adventures of a Romantic Biographer. London: Flamingo, Classic example of biography as autobiography first published in Contextualizes Travels with a Donkey in terms of Stevenson engaging with the prospect of marriage and the role of the writer. Nimmo, Ian. Walking with Murder on the Kidnapped Trail.
Edinburgh: Birlinn, Well-illustrated and lively exploration of the trail across Scotland at the time Kidnapped was set, as the author found it in the s, and in the 21st century. Rankin, Nicholas. London: Faber, His early popularity ensures that his work is always well represented in secondhand bookshops and in libraries. Editions of his most popular works continue to appear, but their quality and reliability are less secure. In the first thirty years after his death, an impressive number of Collected Works appeared, but it is only in the early 21st century that scholarly research has reinvigorated this project.
Only in the early 21st century too have his Letters appeared in full and annotated form. While some of his Poetry has been consistently available, good editions of it all have been fewer and more problematic. His Essays and Travel Writing have been even patchier in publication and editorial attention. The most popular Fiction has been widely accessible, but again this has not guaranteed good scholarly editions. As Nash suggests, the six editions in thirty years after his death is a remarkable number both as strategically limited collections and as collaborations between four publishing houses.
Colvin — is significant for its editorial process and debates over contents in which Stevenson was to an extent involved. The attractive Tusitala edition Osbourne and van der Grift Stevenson — , the best complete edition from the early period and the most frequently used edition to reference criticism, is relatively easy to obtain in libraries and secondhand bookshops. The resurgence of interest in his work led to the Edinburgh centenary edition Kerrigan — , which remained incomplete after the publication of five volumes.
For mixed reviews of these volumes, see Swearingen , cited under Bibliographies: Critical. A new Edinburgh edition is slated for Menikoff is a reprint of the Tusitala edition with additions. Colvin, Sidney, ed. Edinburgh ed. Edinburgh: Constable, — First limited collected edition, high-quality collaboration between publishing houses. Includes juvenilia that Stevenson wanted omitted and did not follow his favored organization of material. Supplementary volumes published from to collect everything written. The Pentland and Swanston editions follow the Edinburgh edition.
Kerrigan, Catherine, ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, — Includes Treasure Island , Dr. Some were better received than others, and the chronology used throughout has been criticized for inaccuracies. Menikoff, Barry, ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars, Reprint of the Tusitala edition with reset typography in thirty-five paperback volumes.
Contains a general introduction by Barry Menikoff.
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Nash, Andrew. Edited By Andrew Nash, — Osbourne, Lloyd, and Fanny van der Grift Stevenson, eds. London: Heinemann, — Includes prefatory notes by Fanny Stevenson and biographical essays by Lloyd Osbourne. Standard and attractive edition for the 20th century. The Skerryvore edition was the more expensive version. The illuminating letters of W.
Henly have been edited in Atkinson Stevenson studies were transformed by the publication of Booth and Mehew — , a magnificent collection that was the product of over twenty-five years of scholarship. Atkinson, Damian, ed. The Selected Letters of W. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, Full introduction and chronology. Contains around letters from over 2, known to exist. Booth, Bradford, and Ernest Mehew, eds. The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson.
Invaluable resource not only for the letters but also for insightful biographical commentary and splendid, always relevant annotations on 2, letters. Selected, censored, and edited by Sir Sidney Colvin. Forms the basis of letters included in various collected works. Colvin saw these letters as appropriately representative of the time. Helps one understand earlier biographers without access to all the letters.
Ferguson, DeLancy, and Marshall Waingrow, eds. Gives a sense of the correspondence Stevenson enjoyed with a friend from his Edinburgh youth and who was his legal adviser later on. Mehew, Ernest, ed. Selected Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson. Selected as representative groups of letters from different periods of his life.
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Division of letters into fifteen sections provides a significant, highly reliable biographical overview. Smith, Janet Adam. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, Songs of Travel consists of collected material sent back to England before his death. The first of these is the most republished.
The publication of light verse and drafts not intended for publication has divided subsequent editors. Smith is excellent, leading to significant reevaluation. Lewis is a fuller collection but more controversial. Calder is an accessible teaching edition. Banned from middle school libraries in the Elgin, Ill. School District U46 because of sex scenes. The decision was upheld in June after an hour of emotional school board discussion.
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Source: Newsletter on Intellectual Freedom, May , pp. Proposed for removal, along with more than fifty other books, from the high school library in Russell Springs, Ky. Source: Newsletter on Intellectual Freedom, May , p. Retained in the Waukesha, Wis. Challenged in the Stafford County, Va.
Source: Newsletter on Intellectual Freedom, July , pp. Challenged in the Houston County, Ga. Source: Newsletter on Intellectual Freedom, Sept. Challenged, but retained in the Montgomery County, Tex. Retained in the Natrona County, Wyo.