Guide Common Infections (Infections in Reproductive Health Care)

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  1. infectious-disease
  2. Ministry of Health information
  3. Chlamydia Infections

Surveillance data regularly indicates that those aged less than 25 years and non-Europeans show a disproportionate burden of STIS, the highest numbers and rates for each STI are almost always seen in the 15 to 19 years and 20 to 24 years age groups.


Best practice guidelines on the management of STIs are an essential component of effective management of STIs in order to: a prevent onward transmission; b assist with partner notification; c reduce potential health complications; and d reduce risk of potential complications associated with development of antibiotic resistance. HealthEd is a searchable catalogue of resources about key public health topics.

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Skip to main content. Sexual and reproductive health. Information and resources on sexual and reproductive health. What is Genital Herpes? Chlamydia: Information Guide What is Gonorrhoea? It can cause fallopian tube salpingitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease PID , which in turn can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy in women with chronic infections [ 9 ].

Some studies report that the subfertile men with genitourinary infection caused by C.

In animal experiments, C. These studies suggest that C. Despite the advances in knowledge about C.

Ministry of Health information

Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate C. The study patients were recruited from couples of reproductive age complaining of primary or secondary infertility that came to our reproductive center for ART treatment, from January to December For the study, a total of patients were screened for epidemiology statistical analysis. After fulfilling the eligibility criteria, patients were diagnosed with C.

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Shenzhen Zhongshan Urology Hospital, and informed consent was obtained from all couples prior to the study. A total of testing samples including endocervical swab, semen and urethral swab were obtained.

Aliquots 0. We performed four different concentration reference standards from 10 4 to 10 7 to generate draw the standard curve, and then calculated the bacterial copy number for positive infection samples using absolute quantification real-time PCR methods. The kit for in vitro clinical diagnosis relies on absolute quantification of C. Furthermore, this system includes a Vic-labeled internal standard primer—probe set to test for the presence of PCR inhibitors.

Chlamydia Infections

The assay set up internal control, positive control and negative control. All female patients received the luteal-phase gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol. Since the pituitary was adequately suppressed triptorelin acetate injection; Tiantaishan Pharmaceuticals, China , ovarian stimulation was induced with human menopausal gonadotrophin Menotropins for Injection; Livzon, China and recombinant FSH Gonal-F; Merck Serono, Switzerland.

On day 3, embryos were scored using morphological criteria as previously described [ 15 ]. Grade 1 and 2 embryos were defined as high-grade embryos. Two or three cleavage-stage embryos at least one high-grade embryo were selected for transfer and the remaining embryos were stored in liquid nitrogen. The fertilization rates, cleavage rates, clinical pregnancy rates, implantation rates, miscarriage rates, take baby home rates and other data were collected and analyzed.

Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used to determine the difference. The statistical analyses were performed by SPSS The incidence of C. The prevalence and distribution of C. Schematic of the recruitment in the study. Abbreviation: C. Parameters and clinical outcomes of patients with and without C. P value. Parameters and clinical outcomes in patients cured of C. A total of C. These patients underwent successful treatment for the infections. They were further divided into two subgroups: male patients and female subgroup patients respectively.

The distribution of C. Parameters and Clinical outcomes of C. Parameters and clinical outcomes for different C. Baseline demographics and clinical outcomes for different C. The constituent ratios of subfertile couples with C. Infertility is becoming an increasingly significant health problem in both developed and developing countries, undoubtedly, including China. The increase appears to coincide with the growing role played by sexually transmitted disease [ 16 ]. Here, we found that C.

This is one of the largest epidemiological studies of genital C. The prevalence of C. Discrepancies of the findings in these studies might be due to the fact that almost all of the sub-infertile patients in our study have a regular sexual partner, and were asymptomatic prior to the study. In other study, many subjects had symptoms, such as warts, ulcers, ectopy, lesions, erythema and discharge; some had more than one sexual partner. Other different between our study and others include the criteria and sample size of patients, area of residence, occupation, gender, diagnostic methods, specimen type and clinical study design.

The positive rate of C. The incidence in different genders is close [ 21 ], in contrast to other indications of higher rates in females than in males [ 22 ]. In these literatures, the subjects are mainly women involved in prostitution; females carry an increased risk for infection based on their anatomy as well. In contrast, the majority of patients in this study have a regular lifetime partner, thus the risk of sexually transmitted infections is relatively lower. In the C. Some researchers have found that the prevalence of C. The highest prevalence rate in our study was in women aged years, in males and females.

The miscarriage rate was In our study, about one third of the couples were had two-sided infections and two thirds had one-sided infections; however, the clinical outcomes regarding the success of ART therapy are comparable in these two subgroups, suggesting that C. Chlamydia trachomatis is common infection in subfertile people and it is critical to test for this organism before starting the ART process.

For C. Chlamydia trachomatis. We are very grateful to all participants in this study, and thank all the clinical staff. We also thank all the members of the Zhang and Zeng group for interesting discussions, helpful suggestions, and technical support. YOZ and YZ: study design and manuscript revise.

YCZ: study design and manuscript write. BY: data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The committee of ethical reviews the manuscript and consent for publication. The research project is met our ethic criterion and have been approved to perform strictly following the protocols, and informed consent was obtained from all couples prior to the study.

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  8. Comparative study in infertile couples with and without Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. Reproductive Health 14 Abstract Background Chlamydia , caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis C. Results Nine hundred and seventy patients were diagnosed with C. Conclusions C. Chlamydia trachomatis Subfertile Epidemiology Assisted reproduction technique Clinical outcome.

    Study population The study patients were recruited from couples of reproductive age complaining of primary or secondary infertility that came to our reproductive center for ART treatment, from January to December Sample collection and C. Ovarian stimulation protocol All female patients received the luteal-phase gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol. Prevalence of C. The prevalence rate was 2. As shown in Fig. After identification, and eligibility screening, patients including single and dual infection of subfertile couples were included in the study for clinical outcome statistical analysis, Fig.

    Meanwhile, subfertile couples without C. The number of transferred embryos was 2. The implantation rate in C. Table 1 Parameters and clinical outcomes of patients with and without C. Variables C.