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  1. Lusitania Home
  2. American Entry into WWI
  3. r m s lusitania grand angle french edition Manual

This was the Cunard Line Ticket Office in and a portion of the building was used as a temporary morgue where some of the recovered bodies were laid out. Colman Rasmussen, Chairman of Cobh Credit Union, explained that they were delighted to support the Cobh Lusitania Centenary Committee in staging this signature exhibition in a long programme of events planned for Cobh. The sinking of the Lusitania was a terrible tragedy with a local, national and an international dimension. Very quickly the committee requested that the glass plates be digitised and that they could be exhibited in Cobh and the National Library duly obliged.

Fionnghuala Smith, a renowned photographer, whose Old Time Photography Studio is also based in the Cunard Centre, commented on the apparent giddiness of many of the survivors. Everywhere one turned the same unaffected expressions of sympathy and ejaculations of dread horror of the experiences of the immediate past were heard. Thousands turned out to pay their final respects to the victims. Respect is evi-. The funeral was impressive, dismal, ghastly and exceedingly sad. Seeing these photographs reveals the scale and horror of the sinking of the Lusitania.

Admission is free. The Flying Fish took survivors from the Wanderer, which had been first on the scene, and brought them back to Queenstown. In the following weeks, the Flying Fish returned to the area repeatedly to bring victims back to Queenstown. He is buried in the Old Church Cemetery, Cobh, where many victims of the Lusitania disaster are also buried.

Joe and Laura, great-great-great-grandchildren of Thomas Brierly pictured at the photographic launch with Angela Barry. Responsible for the commemorative tile display for the Lusitania victims on East Beach as part of the Home School Programme at Carrignafoy. Each traveller had their own reason to make the voyage at such a turbulent time.

World War I had been raging since July By May 7th, the passengers were well settled and near the end of the journey. Children such as Helen Smith, aged 6 from Pennsylvania were simply enjoying the fun and freedom of the large decks. Helen was travelling with her parents, Alfred and Elizabeth Smith, and her little brother Hubert, who were returning to live in England. The children had been playing together but Helen found herself alone on deck at 2. She was taken. The Library Building, then the Market House, played an integral role in the aftermath of the disaster as it was the site where many of the recovered bodies were laid out to be identified.

Events will take place throughout April and May with a special day of commemoration on May 7th, the th anniversary of the sinking of RMS Lusitania. Sheila Mannix was selected for the Poetry Ireland Introductions series for emerging Irish poets. Notes on the Lusitania considers a number of characters who were on board the ocean liner when it was torpedoed off the Cork coast by a German U-boat on the 7th May She was recently nominated for the Forward Prize for Poetry and writes for the Cork-based journal of contemporary art, Enclave Review.

Among the thousands of people who died when the boat sank were Cork born Sir Hugh Lane, who was best known as a renowned art collector and director of the National Gallery of Ireland, American Elbert Hubbard who was a writer, publisher and social agitator, and his wife Alice Hubbard - a writer and feminist.

Sound artist Danny McCarthy has pioneered both performance art and sound art in Ireland and he continues to be a leading exponent - exhibiting, performing and being broadcast widely, in Ireland and abroad. He co-founded The Quiet Club - a floating membership sound art and electronics performance group that has performed and presented works all over Ireland and internationally.

The movement had a strong influence on the development of American architecture and design in the early 20th century. The exhibition will take the form of a text-based installation by writer and poet Sheila Mannix, a sound installation by Danny McCarthy and a num-. Salvin was best known for his restoration work on Windsor. Castle and the Tower of London. For twenty-six years the building has housed the Sirius Arts Centre; an organisation that is dedicated to the facilitation and development of artistic expression on a local, national and international stage.

This is the only organisation of its kind in the east Cork area. Sirius is an arts centre that serves as an intermediary between art and the public that endeavours to raise public awareness of art. It offers developing opportunities for both emerging and more established artists from both Ireland and abroad. The programme is dedicated to the facilitation and development of artistic expression, with additional community programming that encourages exploration through direct participation in the arts.

This is achieved through a mix of activities including: visual arts programming and exhibitions, an international artist in residence pro-. The Sirius Arts Centre building provides the organisation with a unique environment and gives continuing life to a heritage building of architectural and historical importance in Cobh. In the service was increased to a weekly sailing across the Atlantic in each direction. But by with the formation of the American combine, the International Mercantile Marine and German competition, it was under threat. In it took the bold step of building the steam turbine-powered 20,ton Carmania.

Its success led to the building with government assistance of two 32,ton express liners, Mauretania pictured and Lusitania which captured the Blue Riband. The express service was moved from Liverpool to Southampton in and eventually two large liners, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth were built with government assistance.

Both played. The White Star Line was acquired in The line prospered after the war but passenger traffic declined in the. In it was taken over by Trafalgar House. Investments Ltd. We care about your home as much as you do! When Queen Victoria visited Ireland for the first time in it was at Cove which it was then known as she first stepped ashore. Some Cobh buildings along the main front were built with ballast bricks. These bricks would be left behind in Cove after the ships were able to fill their cargo areas fully.

They were of a special brown, beige colour, so if you see any of them in a building you will know they may have sailed the ocean. Following Irish Independence from Britain in , the town was renamed Cobh, which is pronounced as Cove. She was only 15 when she travelled to America and by a flip of fate became the first person to be processed through the newly opened Ellis Island Immigration Centre in New York.

A gentleman before her. Many famous ships and ocean liners came to Cobh. From the age of Sail through to the great age of Steam and into the present age of Diesel. Cobh, was the last port of call for RMS Titanic which anchored at the mouth of the harbour on April 11th, One hundred and twenty three passengers left from Cobh on the Titanic. Cobh Pastimes are honoured to have been invited to participate in the organisation and presentation of the Lusitania Exhibition. Striking images of survivors on the streets of Queenstown, the mass funeral and the burials in the Old Church Cemetery will stir emotions and transport you back in time.

Staff at the office came under enormous pressure when dealing with the Lusitania tragedy. He organised clothing, food, accommodation and travel for the survivors. He also arrange funerals for the deceased. It was a stressful and difficult period. Thomas Summer WHEN war broke out in , Thomas Summer could not enlist because he was an electrician in the vital coal-mining industry in Lancashire. Having worked in America, he sailed on the Lusitania to try and enlist again in England.

After the torpedo struck, Thomas Summer slid down a rope into the sea. Aged in his mid 20s, he was a strong swimmer. He and several others tried to swim to shore, but ended up back at the site of the disaster. He was rescued and brought to Queenstown, where he was told to obtain anything he needed from the shops. He married in and emigrated to Canada. Thank you for your support of our development fund.

He was born in Cork where he studied medicine at University College Cork. He later moved to Liverpool. By , he was 38 years old and had worked for the Cunard Line for seven years. Both were nurses and they had spent some time in America where they had relations. As the Lusitania began to list to one side and sink, Dr. Sadly, both sisters died in the tragedy.

Neither of them survived the disaster. Nearby are mass graves containing nearly other victims of the Lusitania tragedy. The reason we came to Cobh was to see the Lusitania Peace Memorial which was created by the sculptor, Jerome Connor, who like me was from the little village of Annascaul in County Kerry. I have been to Cobh many times in the intervening years, I was here for the Titanic commemorations in and many less formal occasions.

Tonight I am very much reminded of my inaugural trip to Cobh, because once again I am here because of my connection to Jerome Connor. I am Chairperson of the Jerome Connor Trust, which was established around the time I was still going on school tours. This Trust is responsible for overseeing and displaying a collection of Jerome Connor sculptures that were bequeathed to Annascaul village and also the promotion of his reputation and legacy as a sculptor.

The Annascaul Trust collection of sculpture is on display upstairs in the South Pole Inn, Annascaul, thanks to the generosity of Tom Kennedy, who owns the South Pole and was due to be here tonight. I hope that if some of you find yourself in west Kerry you will take the opportunity to visit the collection.

One of the pieces that is normally on display in the South Pole Inn is a bust of Elbert Hubbard; this piece we are very pleased to have lent to this very fine exhibition and it is very appropriate that it should be here in Cobh this year, as Elbert Hubbard died along with his wife, Alice and other people on the Lusitania on May 7th Hubbard had been a personal friend of Jerome Connor.

Connor created the Supreme Sacrifice in Washington, dedicated to the employ-. He created the Victory Memorial in the Bronx New York honouring servicemen in World War I and the Angels of the Battlefield- a bronze relief that depicts sisters of nursing religious orders who served in the battlefield hospitals during the American Civil War, and can be seen in Washington across the street from St. The memorial was. Connor created the full sized plaster cast of Elbert Hubbard, in Ireland and had this shipped to Mount Vernon, New York to be cast in bronze.

The base of the sculpture is made of Irish granite which was cut in his Dublin studio and meant to be reminiscent of the Old Head of Kinsale, the last sight that Elbert Hubbard would have seen before his death. Ironically, Elbert Hubbard was on the Lusitania because he was travelling to Germany, to meet with the Kaiser, on a self-appointed peace mission. Connor created the Hubbard sculpture in Ireland, because he had relocated to Dublin in as a result of. His body had never been recovered after the torpedoing and it is said he gave his own lifejacket, to a young mother, even assisting her to tie it as she held her infant child in her arms.

Continues next page In a meeting with the Cobh Town Clerk about the memorial, Jerome Connor said there was a possibility that President Roosevelt himself might come to the town for the unveiling. When Connor returned to Ireland in he had not yet formed a vision for the Lusitania peace memorial, a monument that he would never see realised in his lifetime. Connors development of the memorial was interrupted by both personal and international events.

On a personal level Connor had his own financial crisis after he was successfully sued in the High Court by a. The two fishermen, that are central to the monument, were cast in bronze in a Dublin foundry in They were the first bronzes cast in Ireland using the lost wax method. Unfortunately in , on the advice of his solicitors, Connor opted to be declared bankrupt and was unable to pay the foundry and take possession of the two mourning fishermen.

Lusitania Home

The outbreak of WW 2 in cast a further shadow on the project, sending thoughts of peace memorials to recede, as much for practical reasons such as fuel and metal shortages as for ideological. Connor died before the war was over in and did not get to complete the monument in his lifetime. The monument that Connor created and now stands in Casement Square here in Cobh commemorates, not just the torpedoing of the great Cunard liner, but the heroism of the fishermen and boat people of the Cork har-. Members of the Cobh Museum Board of Directors bour area who laboured through that Lusitania memorial created by awful day and night of May 7th Jerome Connor, with its two mournyears ago to bring ashore the living ing fishermen captures so well their and the bodies of the dead.

Connor exhaustion and sorrow following visited Cobh many times when their task. The sinking, of the Lusitania is an No doubt he had heard many local important event in the history of stories about May 7th and the horrible Cobh, the history of Cork, the history aftermath of one of the biggest civil- of Ireland and the world.

American Entry into WWI

You are to ian tragedies of WW1. No doubt he be congratulated on curating an exhiheard that when the lifeboat alarm bition that captures so well this event. Setting out at about 2pm time, effort, imagination and money it was 2 a. There were survivors achieved by a community museum rescued that day and who did and largely through voluntary effort is all the more laudable.

I wish you not survive. IN the last four issues of Cobh News which is published every two weeks we have carried and in depth analysis on the Lusitania tragedy, with facts that have never been published in Ireland before, writes Fr. Liam Kelleher. In this special commemorative issue we publish the entire series of articles, plus three pages which appeared in the Christmas issue of the magazine.

Michael has thoroughly researched the tragedy and we owe him a huge debt of gratitude for the contribution he has made to the series and all the articles are now published in this special commemorative issue of Cobh New and recorded for posterity. I have asked Michael to conclude the series with a overview of his research to mark the th anniversary, which we are delighted to publish in Cobh News, on the exact anniversary of the sinking of the Lusitania.

These Submarines destroyed almost half of all food supplies as well as military supplies transported by the British Merchant Navy from its Commonwealth countries. With Britain on the verge of defeat its only solution was to bring the Unites States Super Power into the conflict.

After the sinking the British Admiralty dropped hedgehog bombs on the wreck to destroy the evidence that the passenger liner was transporting munitions for the British army thereby providing a legitimate target for the German U-Boat. Such was the propaganda campaign against Germany that its Government lost the initiative in sinking Merchant shipping , which provided Britain with a respite until the United States entered the war two years later. President Franklin D. Roosevelt commissioned the manifest at that time and, after reading the contents of the cargo that was loaded onto the Lusitania, the President filed away the document in the White House archives.

It was as recently as that the Manifest was released into the Public domain. The document proves categorically that the passenger liner was a legitimate target of war because of its cargo of munitions. Liam Kelleher, in his columns in Cobh News. It can be speculated that with a stable German Government in a country without an economic crises the rise to power by a Nazi regime under a fanatical leader would never have taken place.

When the German army surrendered on 11th November, it left its citizens with a massive war debt that caused colossal unemployment, civil unrest and riots.


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Money lost its value and the German people had to barter to survive. The exhibitions reflect the cultural, social and maritime history of Cobh and the Great Island. Formerly known as Queenstown, Cobh has a long maritime history and is known throughout the world for its association with emigration and was the last port of call for the RMS Titanic.

Having a large natural harbour, Queenstown was the perfect location for a British Naval base. One of the biggest historical impacts on the town happened in when RMS Lusitania was torpedoed off the Old Head of Kinsale about 20 miles from Queenstown. Many of the survivors and victims were brought to Queenstown. On the following day, Sunday, they were relieved by more.

The people of the town rose to the huge challenge of rescue, comforting the shocked and injured survivors, and identifying, repatriating and burying the dead. The Museum is keeper of objects related to this significant event. There is a small genealogical reference section in the museum where visitors can do their own family research. Law, Templebreedy. The biscuit was taken from the lifeboat by a soldier, John Law, who assisted in the rescue operation following the sinking of ship by a German submarine. He sent the biscuit to his mother.

Cobh Museum believes that this is the only such biscuit to survive the years since the disaster. The biscuit is on display for the duration of this exhibition, which finishes in October To mark the centenary of this historic event on Sunday, May 10th, , the people of Cobh and Cork are invited by the Cobh Lusitania Centenary Committee to join in a poignant reenactment of the funeral procession in huge numbers. Accounts of the funeral in the press in described it as dismal, ghastly and exceedingly sad. Most of the survivors of the tragedy had returned home, but the word impressive was also used as thousands of people from Cobh and Cork turned out to pay their final respects to the victims.

Bodies had been brought to the cemetery all morning and the public funeral had just three hearses and two vehicles. Despite this it stretched for over a half a mile from the Old Church Cemetery back towards the town. Respect was evident everywhere. Next weekend most relatives of victims and survivors of the tragedy, who will have travelled to Cobh and Cork for the Lusitania centenary commemorations, will have returned home. As this is the final event in the Lusitania Commemorative programme, organisers are urging people to make a special effort to ensure that this is a fitting tribute to all those who lost their lives.

Members of the public are asked to gather in The Promenade Cobh from 2. Cobh Gardai are supporting this initiative and there will be some transitory traffic disruptions and diversions along the route. The funeral procession will include the Fermoy Concert Band, military re-enactors and a horse drawn hearse, sponsored by Cobh Undertaker Henry Black. The procession will be ordered as closely as possible to that in A prayer service, musical tributes and wreath laying in the cemetery will conclude with the last post and reveille.

To ensure maximum participation there is no requirement to wear clothing of the Lusitania era, however additional re-enactors and people wearing such clothing would be very welcome. For a full schedule of events in Cobh visit www. Our aim is to provide quality products at realistic and affordable prices. We also specialise in the installation of sound, lighting and visual equipment to enhance your venue or premises, from nightclub and bar installations to theatre and retail outlets.

The poem recalls the tragedy and is illustrated with pictures from the past and present to tell the story of how the Lusitania was torpedoed off Cork in May with the loss of 1, lives. Copies of the scroll will be presented to visitors who take Lusitania tours. He added that his late. Thursday, 7th May: All visitors and locals are requested to enter into the spirit of the day and dress in outfits of the era when coming to these events. Lane was best known as a renowned art collector and Director of the National Gallery of Ireland, Elbert Hubbard was a writer, publisher and social agitator and Alice Hubbard was a writer and feminist.

The exhibition will take the form of a number of portraits of all three characters painting and photographs and a text-based installation by writer and poet Sheila Mannix. Make sure you visit The Lusitania Peace Memorial in Cobh, which epitomises the efforts made by people to rescue survivors, recover bodies and comfort the bereaved.

Irish American Sculptor Jerome Connor was commissioned by. Bert Hubbard to sculpt a memorial to the tragedy.

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Especially welcome will be relatives of those who died in the sinking of the Lusitania, relatives of those involved in the rescue efforts and relatives of survivors. Immediately afterwards there will be an opportunity for everyone to attend an informal gathering in Cobh Parish Centre which is adjacent to the Cathedral and to sign a special book of remembrance. Special mass in St. All welcome. The Queen Victoria will then sound a second whistle to mark the sinking of Lusitania, and again the Naval vessel will respond, and there will be another minutes silence.

This will end the official commemoration. Music from Ireland and America will date from the period and there will also be a range of sea shanties of the era. The boats will re-enact the rescue efforts and symbolise the return to Cobh on 7th May of boats filled with victims and survivors.

The use of searchlights and white lights will provide a poignant and memorable spectacle from many varied vantage points and will allow local communities along the Cork coastline, including Fort Camden and Whitegate to have their own tributes and ceremonies. The illumination of the Lusitania Monument. It is intended to replicate the funeral as closely as possible to the funeral order that was in with the general public invited to dress in clothes of the era.

An ecumenical ceremony will be held in the Cemetery. The torpedo was fired meters from its target and travelled at 22 knots. Had the Lusitania being sailing at full speed of 24 knots the torpedo would not have hit its target. Had Captain Turner adopted a zigzag course more than likely the torpedo would not have struck its target, and of course had Captain Turner sailed far off the Irish coast the submarine would not have spotted its target. On Board were: 1, men, women and children First Class passengers Second Class passengers Third Class passengers Crew members The German Embassy had inserted notices in the New York Press warning passengers not to sail to England as a state of was existed between Germany and Great Britain and that any ship sailing into British waters was at risk to destruction.

Turner, ignored the warning. Deckhand, Leslie Morton, was at the bow on the lookout for submarines when he spotted the torpedo several hundred meters away. He warned the Bridge through his megaphone but his warning was not heard. Instead of giving repeated warnings the Deckhand raced below deck to warn his brother who was resting in his bunk after coming off duty. However, it was too late to take evasive action. Accordingly, Captain Turner took on many inexperienced crew members. The Cunard Line instructed Captain Turner to turn off one boiler to conserve coal which was rising sharply in price because of World War One which was raging throughout Europe.

During the voyage Captain Turner did not practice any life saving drills with passengers and crew members. The neglect of such essential life saving exercises was to prove fatal for many passengers and crew members when disaster struck. To add to the misfortune of the Lusitania, self-inflicted and unavoidable, the torpedo struck the Liner where its coal bunkers were stored. The torpedo itself would not have sunk the ship but a secondary giant explosion fatally ruptured the Lusitania. At that stage of its voyage from New York to Liverpool, the Lusitania had more coal dust than coal in its bunkers.

The bituminous coal was a highly combustible type. The dust from the coal posed little danger until the torpedo slammed into its bunkers. When force-fed with oxygen from the torpedo it became a highly volatile mixture. Captain Turner endeavoured to beach the ship by turning towards the Irish coast line only 10 miles away.

He maintained full speed but with the ship listing badly he was literally driving the giant liner propelled by its giant turbines deeper into the Atlantic Ocean. The Admiralty in Cobh sent several warnings to Captain Turner advising him that German submarines were lurking close to the South West of Ireland shores. He was advised to sail at full speed, to take a course well off the Irish coast line and to take a zigzag course. Captain ignored all warnings and advice and maintained a straight course close to the Irish coastline on his voyage to Liverpool.

On the fatal morning of 7th May, , the Irish South West coast line was shrouded in mist and fog rolling in from the Atlantic. Unfortunately, for the Lusitania, the mist and fog cleared and it was a clear day when the giant liner, the Lusitania, sailed into view of U-Boat, about 10 miles off the Old Head of Kinsale.

With only 18 minutes to abandon ship with an inexperienced crew , only a fraction of the lifeboats were successfully launched despite the fact that the previous day Captain Turner had ordered the lifeboats to be swung out ready for an emergency. Lusitania Memorial in Casement Square, Cobh. Inexperience crew members added to the panic. There were sufficient lifeboats to accommodate all passengers and crew members.

The majority of the victims of the disaster were either trapped in the lower decks of the ship when its electrical and hydraulic systems failed or died from hypothermia in the frigid waters of the Atlantic waters. An armada of craft, from the surrounding coastal harbours, raced to the scene of the tragedy. The Coxswain of the Courtmacsherry Lifeboat was shocked to witness the hundreds of dead bodies floating in the Atlantic when he reached the scene of the tragedy. The final death toll was 1, people.

Hotels and Guest Houses accommodated as many as possible and the people of Cobh opened their doors to take care of the rest. The only known witness of the tragedy was George Henderson from Bantry who was picnicking with his family in the Old Head where the 15th fairway is to-day.

Floating Sandbox - Sinking The Lusitania!

A total of victims were buried in a mass grave in the Cemetery in Cobh of which 80 were never identified. In recent times a large Memorial Stone was erected to honour those that died in the tragedy and in World War 1.

r m s lusitania grand angle french edition Manual

Two enquiries were held, one in Kinsale the day after the Sinking and the second in Westminister Hall with Lord Mersey presiding. Although Captain Turner who was one of the survivors was guilty of blatant marine blunders in the Atlantic crossing, the entire burden of blame was placed on Germany. In a war situation any other verdict would have been inappropriate. Those that survived is analysed as follows — First Class passengers Second Class passengers Third Class passengers Crew members Those survivors that witnessed the sinking reported that the feet Lusitania reared its stern high into the sky when its bow struck the sea bed feet below and its giant propellers were still turning before it fell back into its watery grave.

He was watching the giant liner sail by before he heard an explosion followed by a larger second explosion and saw billows of smoke rising from the Atlantic. Captain Turner survived another sinking in and died in Wather Schwieger died in when his submarine apparently struck a mine and exploded. Lusitania Survivors in Cobh. Another theory was that the British fired he second torpedo to sink the Lusitania to bring the Americans into the Second World War.

Neither of the two theories stand up. In August , Dr. Robert Ballard and his team dived to study the wreck of the Lusitania. Ballard findings were that the rupture of the hull occurred where the coal bunkers were situated. His authoritative report was published. Robert Ballard also discovered the wrecks of the Titanic and the Bismarck. Her name was derived from that of an ancient Roman colony on the coast of the Iberian Peninsula. She was launched by the Cunard Line in , at a time of fierce competition for the North Atlantic trade.

The Lusitania was meters or yards in length. It was the Cunard Line that commissioned the Lusitania at a time of fierce competition for the North Atlantic passenger trade. The Lusitania held the Blue Riband coveted title by achieving a record speed in the Westbound route from the United States. Cunard established a committee to decide upon the design of the ship. Oran from the Royal Navy and Charles Parsons whose company was producing revolutionary turbine engines capable of propelling the ship to a speed of 25 knots.

Twenty three double ended boilers and two 2 single ended boilers were fitted as well as one hundred and ninety two individual furnaces. The design of the hull, the storage area for ammunition and the horsepower of her engines were initiated by the Admiralty. Coal bunkers were placed alone the length of the ship and the hull was divided into 12 watertight compartments, any two of which could be.

The Lusitania had exceptional height as a result of having 6 passenger decks as against the customary 4. The ship conformed with the Board of Trade safety regulations with sufficient lifeboats and collapsible boats to accommodate all passengers and crew members. The Scottish architect, James Miller, designed the interior to provide the most luxurious, spacious and comfortable ship ever launched for its passengers.

The 6 passenger decks were identified by letters from the top to the waterline. As seen aboard all passenger liners of the era, First, Second and Third Class passengers were strictly segregated from one another. According to her original configuration in , she was designed to carry 2, passengers and crew members. The Cunard Line prided itself with a record for passenger satisfaction.

When fully booked, Lusitania could cater to First Class passengers. The one concession to seaborne life was that furniture was bolted to the floor, meaning passengers could not rearrange their seating for their personal convenience. However this would have been a rarely used feature given the often inclement weather of the North Atlantic. The first class lounge was decorated in Georgian style with inlaid mahogany panels surrounding a jade green carpet with a yellow floral pattern, measuring overall 68 feet 21 m. It had a barrel vaulted skylight rising to 20 feet 6.

Each end of the lounge had a 14 feet 4. The library walls were decorated with carved pilasters and mouldings. The carpet was rose, with Rose du Barry silk. The chairs and writing desks were mahogany, and the windows featured etched glass. These measures required a huge expenditure of effort and material, but met with little success.

Just 2 U-boats were sunk by these measures in On the other hand, serious offence had been given to neutrals such as Norway and the Netherlands, and brought the United States to the brink of war. This failure, and the various restrictions imposed on the U-boat Arm in the Atlantic area largely brought the campaign there to a halt, although it continued with little hindrance in the Mediterranean and elsewhere, where there was less likelihood of offending neutrals.

Anti-submarine vessels initially carried only two depth charges, to be released from a chute at the stern of the ship. Germany became aware of the depth charge following unsuccessful attacks on U on 15 April , and U on 20 April. UC and UB were the only other submarines sunk by depth charges during In the German Navy again tried to use the U-boats to erode the Grand Fleet's numerical superiority; they staged operations to lure the Grand Fleet into a U-boat trap.

Because the U-boats were much slower than the battle fleet, these operations required U-boat patrol lines to be set up in advance; then the battle fleet maneuvered to draw the Grand Fleet onto them. Several of these operations were staged, in March and April , but with no success. Ironically, the major fleet action which did take place, the Battle of Jutland , in May , saw no U-boat involvement at all; the fleets met and engaged largely by chance, and there were no U-boat patrols anywhere near the battle area.

A further series of operations, in August and October , were similarly unfruitful, and the strategy was abandoned in favor of resuming commerce warfare. The British were well aware of the risk of U-boat traps to the Grand Fleet, although they had no means of knowing where these might lay. However Jellicoe had developed a tactical response to the problem which, in the event, was never tested.

Faced with a German fleet that turned away, he would assume a submarine trap, and decline to follow, but would move at high speed to the flank, before deploying or opening fire; the aim of this would be to fight the battle away from the ground chosen by his enemy, and forcing any U-boats present to surface if they intended to follow. During the commerce war continued unabated in the Mediterranean. Allied countermeasures were largely ineffective; the complex arrangements for co-operation between the various navies meant a fragmented and unco-ordinated response, while the main remedy favored by the Allies for the U-boat menace, the Otranto Barrage , was of little value.

Just two U-boats were caught in the barrage in all the time it was in operation; meanwhile merchant shipping suffered huge losses. In the Germans completed two submarine merchant vessels , to be used as blockade runners. The aim was to use them to carry high value goods to neutral nations such as the U. The first of these vessels, Deutschland , sailed in summer and made a favorable impact on U. She made a second equally successful voyage in autumn of that year.

Her sister, German submarine Bremen Bremen ]], was less fortunate; she disappeared on her maiden voyage, the cause of her loss unknown. Although this was in international waters, and Rose scrupulously followed international law, the action was seen as an affront to the U. In autumn , U-boats of the High Seas flotilla attacked shipping bound for Russia. Also, the two UE1-class minelaying boats laid minefields in the White Sea. These boats sank 34 ships 19 of them Norwegian before winter ice closed the area for operations.

On 22 December , Admiral von Holtzendorff composed a memorandum which became the pivotal document for Germany's resumption of unrestricted U-boat warfare in Holtzendorff proposed breaking Britain's back by sinking , tons of shipping per month, based on a February study by Dr. Richard Fuss, who had postulated that if merchant shipping was sunk at such a rate, Britain would run out of shipping and be forced to sue for peace within 6 months, well before the Americans could act. Even if the "disorganized and undisciplined" Americans did intervene, Holtzendorff assured the Kaiser, "I give your Majesty my word as an officer, that not one American will land on the Continent.

On 9 January , the Kaiser met with Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg and military leaders at Schloss Pless to discuss measures to resolve Germany's increasingly grim war situation; its military campaign in France had bogged down, and with Allied divisions outnumbering German ones by to , there was a real possibility of a successful Allied offensive. Meanwhile, the German navy was bottled up in its home port of Kiel, and the British blockade had caused a food scarcity that was in turn causing deaths due to malnutrition.

The military staff urged the Kaiser to unleash the submarine fleet on shipping travelling to Britain, Hindenburg advising the Kaiser that "The war must be brought to an end by whatever means as soon as possible. On 27 January, Admiral Beatty observed that "The real crux lies in whether we blockade the enemy to his knees, or whether he does the same to us. Germany had submarines ready for action on 1 February: 46 in the High Seas Fleet; 23 in Flanders; 23 in the Mediterranean; 10 in the Baltic; and 3 at Constantinople.

Fresh construction ensured that, despite losses, at least submarines would be available for the rest of The campaign was initially a great success, nearly , tons of shipping being sunk in both February and March, and , tons in April, when Britain's supplies of wheat shrank to 6 weeks worth. In May losses exceeded , tons, and in June , Germany had lost only 9 submarines in the first three months of the campaign. On 3 February, in response to the new submarine campaign, President Wilson severed all diplomatic relations with Germany, and the U.

Congress declared war on 6 April. The new policy of unrestricted submarine warfare was initially a success. In January , prior to the campaign, Britain lost 49 ships; in February, after it opened, ; and in March, At first, the British Admiralty failed to respond effectively to the German offensive. Despite the proven success of troop convoys earlier in the war, the Channel convoys between England and France, and the Dutch, French, and Scandinavian convoys in the North Sea, they initially refused to consider widespread convoying or escorting.

Convoying imposed severe delays on shipping, and was believed to be an own goal, amounting to a loss of carrying capacity greater than the loss inflicted by the U-Boats. It was disliked by both merchant and naval captains, and derided as a defensive measure. It was not until 27 April that the Admiralty endorsed the convoy system, the first convoy sailing from Gibraltar on 10 May. He was dismayed to be informed by the Admiralty that Germany would win the war if its submarines went unchecked, and cabled Washington to have USN destroyers despatched to Queenstown, Ireland, from where they were to patrol to the west.

As merchantmen from Allied countries were sunk, Brazilian ships took over routes that had been vacated. However, this led the Brazilian vessels into waters patrolled by U-boats. When coupled with Germany's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, the result was that Brazilian ships were soon lost, which drove the country closer to declaring war on the Central Powers.

In May and June a regular system of transatlantic convoys were established, and after July the monthly losses never exceeded , tons, although they remained above , tons for the remainder of Convoying was an immediate success; on whichever routes it was introduced it resulted in a drop in shipping losses, with the U-boats seeking out easier prey. It also brought warships escorting the convoys in contact with attacking U-boats, leading to an increase in U-boats destroyed.

German submarine losses were between 5 and 10 each month, and they soon realized the need to increase production, even at the expense of building surface warships. However, production was delayed by labour and material shortages. At the end of Allied shipping losses stood at over 6 million GRT for the year overall. However monthly shipping losses had dropped to around , GRT per month, and never rose to the levels suffered in spring From 48 boats lost in the years up to February , a further 61 were lost by the end of the year.

The logical response to the convoy system, which concentrated forces for the defence, was to similarly concentrate the attacking force. The U-boat arm did not succeed in World War I in developing such a response. They encountered several home-bound convoys and succeeded in sinking 3 ships, but at the loss of 2 of their number, including U , which was rammed by the troopship Olympic. Rucker had found it next to impossible to exercise control from his position at sea, and the loss ratio discouraged any further experiments.

Late in the war, the German high command decided to take the submarine war to the coast of the US, using the large Type U U-boats. Seven had been built in , originally as large merchant U-boats for shipping material to and from locations otherwise denied German surface ships , such as the United States, and 6 were refitted for war duty in They were the largest U-boats of World War I.

She arrived in Chesapeake Bay on 21 May where she laid mines off the Delaware capes, and cut the submerged telegraph cables which connected New York with Nova Scotia. Rather, evidence suggests that the British planned in advanced ways of increasing the chances of American passengers dying and consequently provoking America to enter the war.

In the U. Justice Department's archives is an affidavit signed by Dr. Rettegh stated that Gaunt called him to his office on April 26, , and asked what the effect would be of sea water coming into contact with guncotton. The chemist explained that there were two types of guncotton--trinitro cellulose, which seawater would not affect, and pyroxyline, which sea water could cause to suddenly explode, as a result of chemical changes that he explained in technical detail.

The following day, Gaunt visited the Du Pont munitions plant in Cristfield, New Jersey, and Du Pont thereupon shipped tons of pyroxyline, packaged in burlap, to the Cunard wharf in New York City, where it was loaded onto the Lusitania. On Friday morning [May 7,] Edward Mandell House, President Wilson's alter ego, was preparing for an audience with King George V, a meeting that hinted of finalizing a plan to sacrifice the Lusitania in order to draw the United States into the war. As Simpson described it, House met first with Sir Edward Grey, who asked him, "What will America do if the Germans sink an ocean liner with American passengers on board?

During this dinner the news arrived of the great ship's sinking. House announced to the assembled guests that America would enter the war within the month. Bournelis 4 Because Germany created a blockade between the U. But it came with a heavier cost than money: the cost of human life. Munitions, Lies and Cover Ups Not only did the British pre-plan ways of increasing the chances of American lives being taken, they also contributed to the sinking by planting explosive munitions on board and failing to provide protection for the Lusitania during its voyage.

While the Lusitania was hit by a single torpedo, there were two explosions. See also Larson, The explosion must have been accompanied by a second one boiler or coal or powder. Navy in Washington, D. Although America declared itself to be neutral during WWI, most likely because it carried on a large trade in peacetime with both the Triple Entente Great Britain, France, and Russia and the Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey ,26 it secretly and illegally 27 supplied the ammunition.

Such explosions might have ripped open several compartments and so weakened others that they gave way under the pressure of rushing water. See Larson, Senator Robert La Follete of Wisconsin argued it was a violation of the Passenger Act of for a ship coming into or departing from a U. Moreover, the German government on May 29 transmitted an official note to the U.

The German note repeated previous assertions that the Lusitania had explosives illegally on board See Hyde, 7. Bournelis 6 British with munitions for the war, thereby violating neutrality laws at the expense of human life. Lansing had a detailed report from Malone on his desk by noon. This was political dynamite of the most damning kind. Lansing and Wilson realised that if the public learned that over a hundred Americans had lost their lives because of their abuse of neutrality, they would not survive the inevitable backlash.

The Lusitania was inspected before sailing as customary. No guns were found. But the British placed excessive [explosive] munitions on board for the sole reason of causing a bigger explosion to increase the chances of Americans dying and consequently leading the U.

Bournelis 7 Lack of Protection s As this paper has already established, the British Admiralty should share culpability for the sinking of the Lusitania because of its pre-planned agenda to intentionally load onto the ship explosive munitions to ensure that America would join them in fighting during WWI. Furthermore, the British Admiralty had also intentionally provided little-to-no protection for the Lusitania.

It was only to be used by war ships. He did not tell Turner about this,36 which suggests an intentional act to further endanger the Lusitania and sway America toward joining the British in WWI. Moreover, the British Admiralty not only intentionally slowed down the speed of the 32 Larson,