The shared use of red colour by Marlboro and Ferrari is also recognised by Philip Morris as a means of promoting brand association between Marlboro and Ferrari. Advertising is the primary means by which commercial companies promote their products and services. Advertising can be direct, as in overt paid-for space in broadcast, print and other media, or indirect, through media reporting of events or images containing direct advertising.
Both approaches have been exploited by tobacco companies for many years, but as a result of increasing restrictions on direct advertising of tobacco on television and in other media in many countries since the late s, tobacco companies have become increasingly reliant on indirect methods to promote their products. One of the most enduring and successful forms of indirect advertising, particularly in relation to promoting uptake of smoking among children, is sponsorship of sport.
Over recent decades, an increasing number of national governments have acted to prevent this method of tobacco promotion by prohibiting the display of tobacco advertising in motor racing and other sports, and in July tobacco sponsorship of cross-border events or activities was explicitly prohibited across all EU member states by the EU Tobacco Advertising Directive.
Ferrari has claimed that the barcode designs are simply part of the livery of the car, and not a marketing tool. These initially comprised motor racing, auto racing, trademark, logo and barcode, and searches on these terms identified others such as Marlboro, Philip Morris, red roof, McLaren F1 Team , Ferrari F1 Team , Penske IndyCar Team , livery, subliminal marketing, indirect marketing and dark markets, which were included in subsequent searches.
We also included the names of specific individuals identified from retrieved documents as having been involved in tobacco product marketing or in administering the sponsorship of teams or championships in motor racing. More than documents were accessed online and of these proved relevant for detailed analysis.
- Black Lies White Lies.
- The Dominion Towers Affair;
- Hiding The Truth?
- Tomas Scheckter.
- Motor racing, tobacco company sponsorship, barcodes and alibi marketing!
- Early history.
In accordance with previous recommendations, we have, where possible, attempted to triangulate industry document findings with data from other sources. The F1 World Championship for Drivers and Constructors was established in and has since been contested annually through a worldwide series of Grand Prix races. In the early years of the competition, commercial advertising and sponsorship were restricted and cars tended to race in the sport's national colours.
However, in these restrictions were lifted, and in the South African Grand Prix a car raced carrying the Rhodesian tobacco company Gunston cigarette brand livery. At the next F1 race at Jarama in Spain, Colin Chapman, who founded the Lotus F1 Team, and is credited as the pioneer of tobacco sponsorship in F1, paired Team Lotus with Imperial Tobacco's Gold Leaf cigarette brand in what proved to be the beginning of a long association between F1 and tobacco finance.
From the outset, the F1 World Championship has been contested globally.
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As prohibition of tobacco advertising and sponsorship in the EU increased, the governing body of worldwide motorsport, the Federation Internationale Automobile, began to adopt venues in European countries outside the EU, such as Turkey, and in China and Malaysia. There's been this big push to keep races in which we can run with tobacco branding.
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According to the law in Italy, for example, we can run branded there—so it means that we keep two races. Same in Germany. So we've got races that maybe we wouldn't have had otherwise. Marlboro Reds were launched in For example, in the company flew journalists to the team's French launch, at which the racing car emerged from a giant Marlboro cigarette packet, achieving widespread media publicity figure 1.
In , Philip Morris widened its F1 activities by adding Marlboro sponsorship of Ferrari, and sponsored both teams until , when the McLaren sponsorship ended. The association between Marlboro and Ferrari continues to the present day, with a current sponsorship agreement that extends to The Ferrari F1 team traditionally races in Italy's historic national motor racing colour, red.
Philip Morris documents reveal that the company has long recognised the importance of association with Ferrari, and the red colour schemes shared by Ferrari and the Marlboro brand. Only once in F1 has Marlboro made use of a colour other than red, at the Portuguese F1 Grand Prix, when McLaren ran one car in a gold and white livery. This was to promote Philip Morris' new Marlboro Lights brand of cigarettes.
The colour did not work on television and the experiment was never repeated. Although it did not come into the market, Philip Morris also researched the potential of a Ferrari cigarette brand in , 34—39 with the intention of making use of the motor racing heritage of the Ferrari trademark and capitalising on the association with motor racing. Between and , the word Marlboro was included in the Ferrari racing team name Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro , and a Marlboro logo was also incorporated into the team logo.
It [the Marlboro sponsorship] is going to comply with the rules and regulations wherever we do business. There are countries where tobacco sponsorship is obviously not allowed. In those countries we will continue to support Ferrari without branding. In due course, the word Marlboro was dropped from the team name, and the logo replaced with a barcode design figure 2. The red roof design was used extensively in the livery of McLaren's F1 cars, and on occasions the word Marlboro was substituted with McLaren figure 4 , probably in response to voluntary agreements on the sponsorship of sport by tobacco companies with various governments, which, as far as F1 is concerned, started in Germany in Also in , the word Marlboro under the red roof logo was on occasions substituted with seven black vertical stripes, as, for example, in the German Grand Prix figure 5.
The Ferrari vertical stripe design had in fact been used in association with the word Marlboro on previous cars, in red on BRM F1 cars in and in black on McLaren F1 cars in However, the example used the parallel lines without, and apparently as a substitute for, the word Marlboro. By , the modern barcode designs had completely replaced all conventional Marlboro logos on Ferrari cars, and also on drivers' racing suits and helmets in the locations specified by Philip Morris for Marlboro logos in earlier sponsorship agreements figure 7.
The use of the parallel line design as a substitute for a more conventional Marlboro logo was observed in several BAT documents, which reported that:. Current practice in the F1 environment shows that competitive brands develop alternative logos. These alternative logos are as close as legally possible to the brand logo. In the case of Philip Morris, letters are changed into straight black lines with different width. In one BAT internal note, the middle sentence is removed and replaced in handwriting with: Generally using the same colour scheme and those elements of the existing logo which are legally permitted.
Advertising and promotion are essential activities for companies seeking to maintain or increase the sales of a product, and tobacco companies have used both paid-for advertising and media coverage of sponsored activities to promote cigarettes for many years. However, the imposition of controls on the use of paid-for advertising has made alternative methods of gaining media publicity for brands and products particularly important to the tobacco industry, and sponsorship of F1 and other motorsports has proved particularly successful in this respect. Our findings demonstrate that Philip Morris has long recognised the importance of brand colours and shapes, and has in the past registered trademarks that include the red roof design without words, or with parallel lines in place of the word Marlboro.
The company has also in the past referred to the importance of the shared use of the colour red by both Marlboro and Ferrari in the development of a new tobacco product. Our findings demonstrate that the use of a parallel vertical stripe design on racing cars, either in place of or in addition to the word Marlboro , dates back to the early s, and also that the design evolved over that period into the complex logo used in the season Ferrari liveries.
The barcode logos occupy precisely the same locations on the car and on drivers' clothing, as did the conventional Marlboro logos before the EU directive. It is thus evident that the barcode logo is an alibi for the red roof trademark and Marlboro name. The likelihood is that this design is recognised and understood by consumers as a substitute for conventional Marlboro logos, and may even have come to represent a form of a shared joke between the advertiser and the consumer in an environment in which both know that overt advertising is not allowed.
It would also contravene the comprehensive ban of all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, including cross-border activities, proposed by signatories to Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Cigarette marketers have two core goals: developing brand identity and entrenching ideas and feelings related to their products. In market research, F1 is characterised by descriptors consistent with a perception that the sport is international, expensive, glamorous, challenging, fast, furious, dangerous, and associated with living life to the full and living life on the edge.
The image of Marlboro is very rugged, individualistic, heroic. And so is this style of auto racing. The tobacco industry has been both creative and active in addressing dark or restricted markets and has used dark market logos in those countries where tobacco promotion has been discouraged. This is particularly relevant in that title sponsors, such as Marlboro, usually pay for and are therefore entitled to the space in the prime positions on the race car. Piers Courage Netherlands Killed when he lost control of his car which ran up a grass bank, hit a fence and burst into flames.
He was probably dead before then as a wheel came off on the initial impact and flew into the cockpit with enough force to remove Courage's helmet.
100 Years Of Chevrolet
Jochen Rindt Italy The only man to win the drivers' championship posthumously, Rindt died during final practice at Monza when his car crashed into perimeter fencing and disintegrated. He had only just started wearing a seat belt and it is believed that as he slid down inside the cockpit it cut his throat.
He also suffered massive leg injuries. The crash was in exactly the same place that von Trips had died nine years earlier. He was unable to get out of the car as it caught fire and died of smoke inhalation. A subsequent investigation revealed none of the track-side extinguishers had been working and the incident led to mandatory in-car extinguishers as well as piped air into the driver's helmet. Roger Williamson Netherlands Williamson's car crashed and caught fire after suffering a puncture.
As he lay trapped in the overturned and burning vehicle, David Purley stopped his own car and sprinted to help, diving into the flames to try to free Williamson, who was calling out for help. As marshals stood by unable to help because of the heat, Purley ran across the track, grabbed an extinguisher and desperately tried to put out the fire before eventually being dragged away.
It took eight minutes for the fire engine to arrive by which time Williamson had died of asphyxiation. Spectators had also tried to clamber to assist Purley only to be driven back by police with dogs. Purley was awarded the George Medal for his actions. Francois Cevert USA The hugely talented Cevert's car clipped a kerb during Saturday practice at Watkins Glen and was knocked into the safety barriers, causing it to spin headlong into loose barriers on the other side of the track.
He died instantly of massive injuries. His team-mate, mentor and friend Jackie Stewart, who had already won the world title, quit there and then ahead of what would have been his final race. Peter Revson South Africa Suspension failure during a practice session led to a massive crash in which Revson was killed. His brother Doug died seven years earlier in a Formula Three accident in Denmark. Helmuth Koinigg USA A year after Cevert's death and once again insecure barriers at Watkins Glen were partly to blame as Koinigg missed a turn, ploughed through the safety fence and into a barrier.
McLaren Formula One – The Early Years
Instead of it stopping him, his car went under it and he was decapitated. Mark Donohue Austria Donohue lost control of his March during a practice session and careered into fencing. A marshal was killed by flying debris but it was thought Donohue was alright. However, he suffered from a worsening headache and the next day went to hospital where he lapsed into a coma and died from a brain haemorrhage.
It was believed his head had struck a wooden fence post during the crash. Tom Pryce South Africa As two marshals crossed the track to deal with a small fire in a stopped car, four cars, including Pryce's came round the bend. The lead car swerved to avoid the second marshal but Pryce had no chance to avoid hitting him at mph. An extinguisher the marshal was carrying was thrown in the air and struck Pryce in the head, partially decapitating him.
His car slowly coasted to a stop, eventually careering back onto the track after hitting barriers. The injuries to the marshal were so severe he was only identified when all his colleagues were called together after the race and he was the one missing. Ronnie Peterson Italy A mass collision on the first bend of the race at Monza left Peterson with severe leg injuries, although when he was pulled from his blazing car by three other drivers it seemed his injuries were serious but not life-threatening.
But as Peterson lay on the tarmac, track officials hampered attempts to get an ambulance to him and it was a quarter of an hour before medical aid arrived. There was more concern for Vittorio Brambilla, who had head injuries, and he was the first to be treated, and fortunately he made a full recovery. At the hospital surgeons, with Peterson's agreement, operated that night to stabilise ten fractures in his legs. However, during the night bone marrow went into his bloodstream through the fractures leading to him suffering full renal failure.
He died the next morning. Gilles Villeneuve Belgium At the end of qualifying, Villeneuve's car ploughed into the back of the slower-moving Jochen Mass and was catapulted into the air at around mph before ploughing into the ground and disintegrating as it spun to a stop. He was found in the catch fence, still strapped to his seat but without his helmet. He suffered a fatal fracture of the neck. Riccardo Paletti Canada In only his second race Paletti crashed at mph into the back of Didier Pironi who had stalled on the grid, suffering severe chest injuries.
Medical aid was on the scene in seconds but his full fuel tank then ignited, enveloping Paletti in flames such was the effectiveness of the fire-retardant overalls that he suffered no burns. It took another 25 minutes to cut him out of the wreckage but he died soon after arriving at a nearby hospital. Roland Ratzenberger San Marino His front wing broke during qualifying at Imola, causing him to crash into the Villeneuve corner at over mph.
He died of a basal skull fracture. Louis learnt car design whilst working for Buick and despite the lack of a formal education, by was experimenting with his own overhead-valve six-cylinder engine with financial assistance from Durant. By March , Louis was building the first prototype Chevrolet in his machine shop situated at Grand River Avenue, Detroit and three months later a factory was leased at West Grand Boulevard. The first production year, , saw a total of 2 Classic Six touring cars being built. Such was initial demand, in the same year a third assembly plant was established in New York.
Two other significant events took place in After a dispute with Durant over design, Louis left the company bearing his name — and the bowtie emblem was introduced. Two stories exist on how the badge was derived: one claimed it came from a Parisian hotel wallpaper pattern seen by Durant, the other says it was based on a logo for Coalettes, a pure carbon fuel substitute for coal. The Royal Mail Roadster and the Baby Grand touring car were added to the line-up, the first valve-in-head engine was introduced, another New York factory was purchased to meet demand, and the first branch of its wholesale selling organisation was opened, in Oakland, California.
Chevrolet was on a roll and expanding rapidly.