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Power in ocean waves originate as wind energy that is transferred to the sea surface when wind blows over large areas of the ocean. The resulting wave field consists of a collection of waves at different frequencies traveling in various directions delivering their power to near shore areas, whereas ocean tides are a response to gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun.
The limitless potential of tidal power for human use has traditionally led to proposals that employ various schemes to harness this generated power. Now, as marine and hydrokinetic resources increasingly become a part of energy regulatory, planning, and marketing activities in the United States, assessments are being conducted for future development. In particular, state-based renewable portfolio standards and federal production and investment tax credits, have led to an increased interest in the possible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic MHK technologies.
Assessment of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technology: Interim Letter Report provides an evaluation of detailed appraisals for the Department of Energy estimating the amount of extractable energy from U. In order to assess the overall potential for U. MHK resources and technologies, this report evaluates the methodologies, technologies, and assumptions associated with the wave and tidal energy resource assessments.
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For questions about using the Copyright. The Wind Vision analysis concludes that it is both viable and economically compelling to deploy U. The Wind Vision study does not evaluate nor recommend policy actions, but analyzes feasibility, costs, and benefits of increased wind power deployment to inform policy decisions at the federal, state, tribal, and local levels.
Description : The United States has more than 15, GW of technical wind resource potential, both land-based and offshore, that can be harnessed and delivered reliably into existing power networks through utility-scale and distributed installations. The U. Department of Energy recognizes that offshore wind has become prominent in Europe—reaching 6.
Nearly all scales of wind power technology are reflected in the Wind Vision study, although distributed wind applications are captured primarily within the larger land-based designation.
Making waves: DOE reboots marine hydrokinetic energy program to push commercialization
In this chapter, offshore and distributed wind technologies are highlighted. The modeling tool, Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts, illustrates the potential economic impact and number of jobs associated with fixed-bottom offshore wind technology development, and applies to areas of the country that have waters shallow enough for fixed-bottom offshore wind technology.
Description: This technical report shares the results and shows that an offshore wind industry in the United States has the potential to support thousands of jobs—even at relatively conservative levels of deployment and domestic supply chain growth. The fixed-bottom offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts JEDI model is one of several user-friendly National Renewable Energy Laboratory JEDI models that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the state and local levels. Tegen, D.
Keyser, F. Flores-Espino, J. Miles, D. Zammit, and D. Description: Oceana, an international organization focused solely on protecting oceans, produced an analysis which finds that the economic benefits of offshore drilling in the Atlantic projected by the oil and gas industries appear to be exaggerated due to the inclusion of oil and gas resources that are not economically recoverable, thereby inflating the potential benefits.
Industry estimates also rely upon an assumption of a state revenue-sharing system that does not exist. The report includes fact sheets for seven Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern states including Georgia. Reference: Andrew Menaquale Description: The main objective of this paper is to establish an economic modelling of wave energy through a Geographical Information System GIS. Furthermore, this method has been tested for the particular case of the Portuguese coast.
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It determines the best sea areas to install wave energy converters in this region, using spatial analysis of the Levelized Cost of Energy LCOE. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been performed by varying the discount rate in three different scenarios. Several types of physical restrictions have been taken into account: bathymetry, submarine electrical cables, seabed geology, environmental conditions, protected areas in terms of heritage, navigation areas, seismic fault lines, etc.
Spatial operations have been carried out to complete the procedure, using Model Builder of GIS software. Results indicate the most suitable areas in economic terms in Portugal to install wave energy devices. Justino Description: The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U. This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U. This report includes the following major sections:. Prepared by Navigant Consulting for the U.
While global installations of tidal stream and wave power are set to grow to MW and 21MW respectively by the end of this decade, this latest forecast represents a downward revision from the figures of MW for tidal stream and 74 MW for wave that Bloomberg New Energy Finance published a year ago. The emergence of marine renewable energy technologies is taking longer than expected, due to a variety of reasons including the difficulty of deploying devices in marine environments.
Reference: Tidal stream and wave power — a lot still to prove Sarah Bryce. Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Description: The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.
Prepared by Navigant Consulting, Inc. Document number: DE-EE Description: From Fiscal Year to , the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office provided research and development funding across eight broad areas: conventional hydropower projects; marine and hydrokinetic projects; offshore wind projects; wind turbine projects; wind integration projects; environmental impacts of wind projects; wind market acceptance projects; and wind workforce development projects.
The breakdown of Wind and Water Power Technologies Office funding is presented in a series of reports that showcase the projects funded in each of the eight above mentioned areas. Description: Offshore wind power developed rapidly in Northern Europe in the first decade of the 21st century and is expected to spread to Southern Europe, North America and Asia before To date, no projects have been built offshore North America because of the high development costs and economic risk and uncertain profitability.
The purpose of this paper is to review the development cost of constructing offshore wind farms to inform the U. The capital expenditures of a reference class of 18 European wind farms constructed after with monopile foundations are normalized to proxy U. Regression models are developed to investigate the physical features that influence expenditures.
Capital costs increase with increasing water depth and steel prices. For most farm components, capital expenditures are expected to be similar in Europe and the U. Kaiser and B. Marine Policy , 36 5 , The report addresses a the benefits of a buyers network, including its potential effect in reducing the cost of OSW; b financial tools that can be used by the network to address OSW financing challenges; c potential approaches to implementing such a network; and d recommendations for the design of an effective procurement process.
The report confirms the value of aggregated procurement in achieving significant cost reductions for OSW. Description: This report is the first comprehensive annual assessment of the U. Major sections include: key data on the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the U. It also aims to facilitate efficient government oversight to ocean energy systems development by expanding baseline knowledge of environmental effects and monitoring methods. The Annex released their State of the Science report in April this year, and also supports international conferences and events, focusing on new environmental research and data on interactions among marine animals, habitats, and marine energy devices.
Description: This report summarizes the state of the science of interactions and effects of marine renewable energy MRE devices on the marine environment, the animals that live there, and the habitats that support them. The State of the Science report summarizes and places in context information about the environmental effects of MRE development, to the extent that the information is publicly available.
As single device deployments continue and development of the first commercial arrays is on the horizon, several critical interactions between MRE devices and marine animals continue to concern regulators and stakeholders: collision, underwater sound, and electromagnetic fields. Reference: Copping, A. You may download the State of the Science report, Executive Summary, and one page summaries, from the links below. Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility. There are several possible risks posed to seabirds from marine renewable energy installations MREIs and many knowledge gaps still exist around the extent to which seabird habitats can overlap with MREIs.
In this study, underlying seasonal and interannual variation in seabird distributions was investigated using kernel density estimation KDE to identify areas of core habitat use. This allowed the potential interactions between seabirds and a wave energy converter WEC to be assessed. The distributions of four seabird species were compared between seasons, years, and in the presence and absence of WECs.
Although substantial interannual variation existed in baseline years prior to WEC deployment, the KDEs for all four species analyzed were closer to the mooring points in the presence of a WEC in at least one season. The KDEs of the northern fulmar and great skua overlapped the mooring points during spring in the presence of a device.
The density of observations close to the mooring points increased for great skua, northern gannet, and northern fulmar during summer in the presence of a device. These results suggest that none of the four species analyzed have shown avoidance or an extreme change in distribution as a result of the presence of a WEC. The continued monitoring of seabirds during WEC deployments is necessary to provide further data on how distributions may change in response to the presence of WECs. Reference: Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility Kirsty J.
Lees, Andrew J. Guerin, and Elizabeth A. Marine Policy, —44; DOI Description: This study was intended to help address environmental barriers to offshore wind energy development in the mid-Atlantic region and promote the incorporation of environmental data into siting and permitting processes. The study goal was to provide regulators, developers, and other stakeholders with comprehensive baseline ecological data and analyses that could help address environmental permitting requirements for current and future projects, and would serve as a starting point for more site-specific studies.
In particular, the study produced information that could be used to identify: 1 important wildlife areas, 2 data gaps, and 3 approaches for collecting and incorporating natural resource data into decision making. To address this goal, project funders and collaborators from a range of academic institutions, non-governmental organizations, federal agencies, foundations, and private companies came together to study bird, sea turtle, and marine mammal distributions, densities, and movements on the mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf between and Reference: Williams K.
Description: Offshore wind farms have been proliferating in the North Sea, with more huge projects planned. Reference: Fred Pearce Yale Environment April 28, Sound exposure in harbour seals during the installation of an offshore wind farm: predictions of auditory damage. Description: [Summary by authors] 1 With ambitious renewable energy targets, pile driving associated with offshore wind farm construction will become widespread in the marine environment.
Many proposed wind farms overlap with the distribution of seals, and sound from pile driving has the potential to cause auditory damage. Pile driving data and acoustic propagation models, together with seal movement and dive data, allowed the prediction of auditory damage in each seal. Further, M-weighted cumulative sound exposure levels [cSELs Mpw ] were calculated and compared to permanent auditory threshold shift exposure criteria for pinnipeds in water exposed to pulsed sounds. Comparison to exposure criteria suggests that half of the seals exceeded estimated permanent auditory damage thresholds.
These include how sound propagates in shallow water environments and the effects of pulsed sounds on seal hearing; as such, our predictions should be viewed in this context. We predicted that half of the tagged seals received sound levels from pile driving that exceeded auditory damage thresholds for pinnipeds. These results have implications for offshore industry and will be important for policymakers developing guidance for pile driving. Developing engineering solutions to reduce sound levels at source or methods to deter animals from damage risk zones, or changing temporal patterns of piling could potentially reduce auditory damage risk.
Future work should focus on validating these predictions by collecting auditory threshold information pre- and post-exposure to pile driving. Ultimately, information on population-level impacts of exposure to pile driving is required to ensure that offshore industry is developed in an environmentally sustainable manner. Reference: Sound exposure in harbour seals during the installation of an offshore wind farm: predictions of auditory damage Gordon D.
Hastie, Deborah J. Journal of Applied Ecology , 52, — doi: Reference: Fred Pearce. The cumulative impact of tidal stream turbine arrays on sediment transport in the Pentland Firth. Description: [Abstract] This contribution investigates the impact of the deployment of tidal stream turbine arrays on sediment dynamics and seabed morphology in the Pentland Firth, Scotland.
The Pentland Firth is arguably the premier tidal stream site in the world and engineering developments are progressing rapidly. Therefore understanding and minimizing impacts is vital to ensure the successful development of this nascent industry. Here a three dimensional coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport numerical model is used to investigate the impact on sediment transport and morphodynamics of tidal stream arrays.
The aim of the work presented here is twofold: firstly to provide prediction of the changes caused by multiple tidal stream turbine array developments to some of the unique sandy seabed environments in the Pentland Firth and secondly as a case study to determine the relationship between impacts of individual tidal stream farms and cumulative impacts of multiple farms. Due to connectivity in tidal flow it has been hypothesized that the cumulative impact of multiple arrays on sediment dynamics might be non-linear.
This work suggests that, for the Pentland Firth, this is not the case: the cumulative impact of the four currently proposed arrays in the area is equal to the sum of the impacts of the individual arrays. Additionally, array implementation only has minimal effect on the baseline morphodynamics of the large sandbanks in the region, smaller more local sandbanks were not considered.
These two results are extremely positive for tidal stream developers in the region since it removes the burden of assessing cumulative impact from individual developers and suggests that impacts to sub-sea morphodynamics is insignificant and hence is unlikely to be an impediment to development in the Pentland Firth with the currently proposed levels of extraction. Reference: The cumulative impact of tidal stream turbine arrays on sediment transport in the Pentland Firth Fairley, I. Masters, and H. Renewable Energy — Description: [Abstract] Recognized as one of the most mature renewable energy technologies, wind energy has been developing rapidly in recent years.
Many countries have shown interest in utilizing wind power, but they are concerned about the environmental impacts of the wind farms. The continuous growth of the wind energy industry in many parts of the world, especially in some developing countries and ecologically vulnerable regions, necessitates a comprehensive understanding of wind farm induced environmental impacts. The environmental issues caused by wind farms were reviewed in this paper by summarizing existing studies.
Available mitigation measures to minimize these adverse environmental impacts were discussed in this document. The intention of this paper is to provide state-of-the-art knowledge about environmental issues associated with wind energy development as well as strategies to mitigate environmental impacts to wind energy planners and developers. Reference: Environmental issues associated with wind energy — A review Dark green electricity comes from the sea: Capitalizing on ecological merits of offshore wind power? In this differentiation, the large potential of wind energy is recognized.
More specifically, North Sea countries prefer to plan wind arrays far out at sea. This article offers a review of the main arguments for offshore wind energy, described in comparison with its onshore counterpart. Applying an informational governance framework, this article further assesses whether this dark green message has been exploited through further differentiation of the electricity market, and provides an analysis of why this is not yet the case.
It is concluded that the dominant discourse in onshore wind power development hinders a favorable ecological differentiation toward offshore wind power. Reference: Dark green electricity comes from the sea: Capitalizing on ecological merits of offshore wind power? Hilde M. Toonen, and Han J. Lindeboom; Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews — Great skua Stercorarius skua movements at sea in relation to marine renewable energy developments.
Description: [Abstract] Marine renewable energy developments MREDs are an increasing feature of the marine environment. Owing to the relatively small number of existing developments and the early stage of their associated environmental monitoring programs, the effects of MREDs on seabirds are not fully known. Our ability to fully predict potential effects is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding movements of seabirds at sea.
We used GPS tracking to improve our understanding of the movements at sea of a protected seabird species breeding in Scotland, the great skua Stercorarius skua , to better predict how this species may be affected by MREDs. We found that the overlap of great skuas with leased and proposed MREDs was low; particularly with offshore wind sites, which are predicted to present a greater risk to great skuas than wave or tidal-stream developments.
Failed breeders overlapped with larger areas of MREDs than breeding birds but the overall overlap with core areas used remained low. Overlap with wave energy development sites was greater than for offshore wind and tidal-stream sites. Comparison of data with historical data indicates that distances travelled by great skuas have likely increased over recent decades. This suggests that basing marine spatial planning decisions on short-term tracking data could be less informative than longer-term data.
Reference: Great skua Stercorarius skua movements at sea in relation to marine renewable energy developments Wade, E. Masden, A. Jackson, C. Thaxter, N. Burton, W. Bouten, R. Furness; Marine Environmental Research 69— Assessing environmental impacts of offshore wind farms: lessons learned and recommendations for the future. Description: [Abstract] Offshore wind power provides a valuable source of renewable energy that can help reduce carbon emissions.
Technological advances are allowing higher capacity turbines to be installed and in deeper water, but there is still much that is unknown about the effects on the environment. Here we describe the lessons learned based on the recent literature and our experience with assessing impacts of offshore wind developments on marine mammals and seabirds, and make recommendations for future monitoring and assessment as interest in offshore wind energy grows around the world. The four key lessons learned that we discuss are: 1 Identifying the area over which biological effects may occur to inform baseline data collection and determining the connectivity between key populations and proposed wind energy sites, 2 The need to put impacts into a population level context to determine whether they are biologically significant, 3 Measuring responses to wind farm construction and operation to determine disturbance effects and avoidance responses, and 4 Learn from other industries to inform risk assessments and the effectiveness of mitigation measures.
As the number and size of offshore wind developments increases, there will be a growing need to consider the population level consequences and cumulative impacts of these activities on marine species. Strategically targeted data collection and modeling aimed at answering questions for the consenting process will also allow regulators to make decisions based on the best available information, and achieve a balance between climate change targets and environmental legislation.
Reference: Assessing environmental impacts of offshore wind farms: lessons learned and recommendations for the future Description: There is currently an unprecedented expansion of marine renewable energy developments MREDs , focused on European waters, with large-scale developments covering thousands of square kilometers being planned.
This report highlights the fact that the impact assessment process is currently based on only very limited knowledge on both cetacean populations and the impacts of MREDS on the marine environment. Vicki James; Whale and Dolphin Conservation. Negative long term effects on harbor porpoises from a large scale offshore wind farm in the Baltic—evidence of slow recovery. Description: Offshore wind farms constitute a new and fast growing industry all over the world.
This study investigates the long term impact on harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena , for more than 10 years —12 from the first large scale offshore wind farm in the world, Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, in the Danish western Baltic Sea. The wind farm was brought into full operation in December At six stations, acoustic porpoise detectors T-PODs were placed inside the wind farm area and at a reference area 10 km to the east, to monitor porpoise echolocation activity as a proxy of porpoise presence.
A modified statistical BACI design was applied to detect changes in porpoise presence before, during and after construction of the wind farm. The results show that the echolocation activity has significantly declined inside Nysted Offshore Wind Farm since the baseline in —2 and has not fully recovered yet. Reference: Negative long term effects on harbor porpoises from a large scale offshore wind farm in the Baltic—evidence of slow recovery Jonas Teilmann and Jacob Carstensen; Environ.
Effects of pile-driving on harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena at the first offshore wind farm in Germany.
An Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments
Description: The first offshore wind farm in the German North Sea was constructed approximately 45 km off the German coast in using percussive piling for the foundations of 12 wind turbines. From to , visual monitoring of harbor porpoises was conducted prior and during construction and operation by means of a sampling survey using 15 aerial line transect distances.
Additionally, static acoustic monitoring SAM with echolocation click loggers at 12 positions was performed. During aerial surveys, 18, km of transect lines were covered in two survey areas and harbor porpoise sightings were recorded. Lowest densities were documented during the construction period in The spatial distribution pattern recorded on two aerial surveys three weeks before and exactly during pile-driving points towards a strong avoidance response within 20 km distance of the noise source.
Modeling of the SAM data showed a negative impact of pile-driving on relative porpoise detection rates at eight positions at distances less than Increased detection rates were found at two positions at 25 and 50 km distance suggesting that porpoises were displaced towards these positions.
A pile-driving related behavioral reaction could thus be detected using SAM at a much larger distance than a pure avoidance radius would suggest. Reference: Effects of pile-driving on harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena at the first offshore wind farm in Germany Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife—a generalized impact assessment.
Resource Characterization and Physical Effects
Description: Globally, marine management plans express high expectations for the development of offshore wind energy. However, marine renewable energy production creates potential conflicts with other uses of the marine landscape, as well as conservation interests. The present study synthesizes the current state of understanding on the effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife, in order to identify general versus local conclusions in published studies.
The results were translated into a generalized impact assessment for coastal waters in Sweden, which covers a range of salinity conditions from marine to nearly fresh waters. Hence, the conclusions are potentially applicable to marine planning situations in various aquatic ecosystems. The assessment considered impact with respect to temporal and spatial extent of the pressure, effect within each ecosystem component, and level of certainty.
Research on the environmental effects of offshore wind farms has gone through a rapid maturation and learning process, with the bulk of knowledge being developed within the past ten years. The studies showed a high level of consensus with respect to the construction phase, indicating that potential impacts on marine life should be carefully considered in marine spatial planning.
Potential impacts during the operational phase were more locally variable, and could be either negative or positive depending on biological conditions as well as prevailing management goals. There was paucity in studies on cumulative impacts and long-term effects on the food web, as well as on combined effects with other human activities, such as fisheries. These aspects remain key open issues for sustainable marine spatial planning. Reference: Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife—a generalized impact assessment A spatial conservation prioritization approach for protecting marine birds given proposed offshore wind energy development.
However, integrating complex ecological information to guide OWED siting remains a substantial challenge. The authors developed spatial distribution models of marine birds from aerial surveys that were conducted from to throughout a 3, km2 area off the coast of Rhode Island. For seven groups of marine birds, they constructed either a density surface model or a presence—absence model that incorporated relevant environmental covariates. They integrated the spatial models, along with uncertainty, using spatial conservation prioritization SCP software.
This identified sites with high marine bird conservation priority that aided evaluation of proposed OWED sites. The authors found that shallow nearshore waters had the highest conservation priority overall, but they also detected key offshore areas of high priority. Hypothetical OWEDs placed in conservation priority areas significantly reduced the overall distribution of focal species. Currently proposed OWED sites are located in areas of relatively low conservation priority and so would not substantially reduce the overall distribution of marine birds.
This SCP approach when combined with quantitative models of bird distribution given relevant environmental covariates provides a robust framework that satisfies the principles of ecosystem-based MSP. Thus, this combined SCP-distribution modeling framework should be extremely helpful to decision makers as they evaluate proposed siting locations of OWEDs in the context of a dynamic marine system.
Reference: A spatial conservation prioritization approach for protecting marine birds given proposed offshore wind energy development Kristopher J. Winiarski, David L. Miller, Peter W. Paton, Scott R. McWilliams; Biological Conservation Description: A new generation of hydropower technologies, the kinetic hydro and wave energy conversion devices, offers the possibility of generating electricity from the movements of water, without the need for dams and diversions.
The Energy Policy Act of encouraged the development of these sources of renewable energy in the United States, and there is growing interest in deploying them globally. The technologies that would extract electricity from free-flowing streams, estuaries, and oceans have not been widely tested.
Consequently, the U. We review the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems, and we describe recent national and international developments. Fisheries 32 4 : Description: Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of non-polluting alternatives to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. Two emerging categories of renewable energy technologies, hydrokinetic and wave energy conversion devices, offer ways to tap the energy of moving water without impoundment dams or diversion required by many conventional hydroelectric facilities.
These technologies include devices designed for deployment in natural streams, tidal estuaries, ocean currents, and constructed waterways, as well as devices designed to capture the energy of ocean waves. On October , 54 representatives from government, non-governmental organizations, and private business met to:. These Workshop Proceedings include detailed summaries of the presentations made and the discussions that followed. Washington, DC. October , Susan Savitt Schwartz ed. Description: Abstract Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy.
Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking.
Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible.
Frid, E. Andonegi, J. Depestele, A. Judd, D. Rihan, S. Rogers, E. Environmental Impact Assessment Review , 32, Description: Abstract In this paper, the authors critically review present knowledge of the life cycle environmental impacts of wind power. Total emissions of onshore and offshore wind farms are comparable.
An evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's marine and hydrokinetic resource assessments
The bulk of emissions generally occur in the production of components; onshore, the wind turbine dominates, while offshore, the substructure becomes relatively more important. Strong positive effects of scale are present in the lower end of the turbine size spectrum, but there is no clear evidence for such effects for megawatt-sized units. The authors identify weaknesses and gaps in knowledge that future research may address. This includes poorly understood impacts in categories of toxicity and resource depletion, lack of empirical basis for assumptions about replacement of parts, and apparent lack of detailed considerations of offshore operations for wind farms in ocean waters.
Arvesen and E. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 16 8 , Description: A primary issue of concern of regulatory and resource agencies is how the operation of hydrokinetic turbines will affect local and migratory fish populations. In particular, two major concerns are the potential for fish to be killed or injured if they pass through one or more turbines and the potential for fish movements and migrations to be disrupted or blocked if fish are reluctant or unwilling to move past operating turbines. This collection of three reports describes desktop and laboratory flume studies that provide information to support assessment of the potential for injury and mortality of fish that encounter hydrokinetic turbines of various designs installed in tidal and river environments.
Behavioral responses to turbine exposure also are investigated to support assessment of the potential for disruptions to upstream and downstream movements of fish. Paul T. Jacobson, Stephen V. Description: Abstract Because marine hydrokinetic turbine technologies are still in their infancy, their impacts on the environment remain largely unknown. This paper discusses fish, mammal, bird, and benthic organism interactions with marine hydrokinetic devices and other man-made structures that may be analogous to these marine hydrokinetic technologies.
No data on mammal, sea turtle, or bird interactions with marine hydrokinetic turbines were available, but other types of anthropogenic mortality and traumatic injuries to these groups of animals have been well documented. Collisions with ships and fishing gear have greatly impacted most groups of marine mammals. Large whales that inhabit shallow coastal waters and diving birds that use sight to pursue prey underwater are at risk for collision. However, many devices have a positive impact on fish or benthic organism populations because they act as fish aggregation devices or artificial reefs.
Reference: Marine hydrokinetic turbine technology and the environment: Device-biota interactions Crevison, Ye Li, and R. Thresher; Oceans , September , Seattle, Washington. Description: Abstract A number of review articles have synthesized current expert opinion regarding interactions of ocean energy generation technologies with environmental parameters and their potential effects and impacts. This paper discusses how the perceived risk or impact of ocean renewable energy development on coastal communities both human and marine biological is a function not only of actual physical interactions but also depends on the regulatory environment and how potentially impacted coastal resources are valued by stakeholders.
In this paper, the authors review potential environmental effects of ocean energy, identify applicable federal regulations that address potentially affected ecological components, and highlight observations about stakeholder concerns from experiences in Oregon. Understanding the societal lens through which potential environmental effects are viewed is important for developers to move forward as it will be the regulators and local communities who will determine if projects are permitted.
Henkel, F. Conway, and G. Proceedings of the IEEE , 4 , Description: This report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1 the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines; 2 the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals; and 3 the effects of energy removal on physical systems. Each case study contains a description of environmental monitoring efforts and research studies, lessons learned, and analysis of remaining information gaps.
Copping, L. Hanna, J. Whiting, S. Geerlofs, M. Grear, K. Blake, A. Coffey, M. Massaua, J. Brown-Saracino, and H. Description: The Ocean Energy System OES brings countries together to advance research, development and demonstration of conversion technologies to harness energy from all forms of ocean renewable resources, such as tides, waves, currents, temperature gradient, and salinity gradient for electricity generation, as well as for other uses, through international cooperation and information exchange.
The OES currently consists of 20 member countries including the U. Annex IV is an OES project designed to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects.
Description: Tethys is a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to support the U. It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies.
The primary function of Tethys is to facilitate data sharing and the exchange of information on the environmental effects of marine hydrokinetic and offshore wind technology. This view allows panning and zooming, while results can be narrowed by keyword searches. The draft PEIS will help inform future decisions about whether, and if so where, offshore energy leasing would be appropriate in these areas. Description: This report provides a framework to characterize and understand the important elements of climate and energy-water-land EWL system interactions.
It identifies many of the important issues, discusses our understanding of those issues, and presents a long-term research program research needs to address the priority scientific challenges and gaps in our understanding. Much of the discussion is organized around two discrete case studies with the broad themes of 1 extreme events and 2 regional intercomparisons. These case studies help demonstrate unique ways in which energy-water-land interactions can occur and be influenced by climate.
Skaggs, K. A Hibbard, P. Frumhoff, T. Lowry, R.
Middleton, R. Pate, V. Tidwell, J. Arnold, K. Averyt, A. Janetos, R. Izaurralde, J. Rice, and S. Rose Report No. Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework. Description: [Abstract] The emerging ocean energy industry, which seeks to utilize waves and tides to generate electricity, is developing in many jurisdictions. The UK, and Scotland in particular, is strongly interested in these technologies, and has made considerable efforts to reform its marine governance processes to better meet the needs of innovative new marine industries.
This paper provides an industry perspective on this regulatory framework, reporting on the experiences of ocean energy project and technology developers. Semi-structured interviews with companies with practical experience with Scotland's regulatory framework provide evidence of a number of legal and regulatory challenges, as well as interesting insights into how developers are interacting with new marine governance systems.
The paper details the findings of these interviews and offers some suggested directions for future research. Reference: Glen Wright Marine Policy Description: With several offshore wind farms currently under consideration off the U. Atlantic seaboard, offshore wind has the potential to be an abundant source of renewable, low-carbon electricity. Island communities throughout New England are leading the way in developing effective approaches for engaging with offshore wind developers.
The report highlights key insights for designing good community engagement processes and demonstrates these best practices through case studies from Block Island Rhode Island , Martha's Vineyard Massachusetts , and Monhegan Maine. Island Institute, Rockland, ME. Description: [Abstract] The literature on ocean energy has, to date, largely focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects.
Legal and regulatory factors have received far less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. Key directions for future research structured around the core themes of marine governance: i international law; ii environmental impacts; iii rights and ownership; iv consenting processes; and v management of marine space and resources were identified. Reference: Establishing a legal research agenda for ocean energy Marine Policy , doi Description: On September 28, , the White House hosted the Summit on Offshore Wind, a gathering of leading federal, state and industry stakeholders committed to the long-term and sustainable development of offshore wind in the US.
By , offshore wind is projected to supply 22, megawatts of clean and abundant energy to cities and communities in America enough to power 4. In addition, the White House is announcing the following actions in support of the development of offshore wind:. The factors affecting stakeholders' acceptance of offshore wind farms along the western coast of Taiwan: Evidence from stakeholders' perceptions.
Description: [Abstract] Stakeholder participation is an important concept in marine environmental management; thus, their acceptance and opinions might influence policy decision making and effectiveness. This paper explores the factors that affect stakeholders' traditional ocean users, including fishers and aquaculture farmers acceptance and conducts an empirical analysis to determine the relationship among stakeholders' perceptions and acceptance.
A total of respondents completed a survey that was conducted in six coastal counties in western Taiwan. We used principle component analysis and two logistic regression models for the analysis: one model does not consider perception factors, while the other model estimates perception factors. The empirical results reveal that three perception factors related to the benefits of offshore wind farms significantly affect stakeholders' acceptance.
Furthermore, the explanatory power, goodness-of-fit, and the predicted probability are greater when perception factors are considered in the logistic model. As a result, stakeholders' perceptions are important factors that influence their acceptance of OWFs along the western coast of Taiwan. According to our findings, recommendations are offered to resolve the user conflicts regarding OWF turbine construction and operation, including 1 communicating effectively and integrating stakeholder participation and 2 offering benefits to ocean users and local communities.
Reference: The factors affecting stakeholders' acceptance of offshore wind farms along the western coast of Taiwan: Evidence from stakeholders' perceptions Marine governance in an industrialized ocean: A case study of the emerging marine renewable energy industry. This is placing the oceans are under intense pressure, and the ability of existing marine governance frameworks to sustainably manage the marine environment is increasingly being called into question.
Emerging industries are challenging all aspects of these frameworks, raising questions regarding ownership and rights of the sea and its resources, management of environmental impacts, and management of ocean space.
Clean energy: The U.S. Energy Department’s priorities for wave, tidal and hydropower resources
This paper uses the emerging marine renewable energy MRE industry, particularly in the United Kingdom UK , as a case study to introduce and explore some of the key challenges. The paper concludes that the challenges are likely to be extensive and argues for development of a comprehensive legal research agenda to advance both MRE technologies and marine governance frameworks. Marine governance in an industrialized ocean: A case study of the emerging marine renewable energy industry; Marine Policy 77— Description: Abstract Traditionally, offshore energy exploitation has occurred through production of fossil fuels.
However, increasing attention is being focused on various forms of offshore renewable energy as it can reduce fossil fuel emissions, create green jobs, lead to local economic returns for coastal communities, and facilitate movement towards a low-carbon economy. Recent research indicates the presence of significant offshore energy in the form of winds, waves, currents, and tides. Spurred by the promising potential of these resources and an improving policy environment, efforts are under way in different offshore areas to assess resource potential, examine various technical approaches, and install renewable energy devices.
Obstacles to development of this industry remain, and include technical difficulties, potential environmental impacts, and lack of funding. These obstacles must be overcome before the industry can become a viable alternative to carbon-based energy sources. Policy alternatives to overcome these obstacles, to stimulate offshore renewable energy development, and to level the playing field for these resources are discussed.
Reference: Encouraging renewable energy in the offshore environment Description: Abstract The existing permitting process places significant burdens on MHK testing and prototyping that are significant impediments to technological progress. These permitting processes do not adequately consider the reduced risk from the very small physical scale of current projects, and are also influenced by the sheer uncertainty associated with novel technologies.
A more nuanced application of the precautionary principle in applying biodiversity protection statutes to permitting MHK devices is warranted.
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Reference:Lindsay Dubbs, Andrew G. Description: Tidal-power development presents technical, environmental, and social challenges. This paper discusses how the Maine Tidal Power Initiative is working to develop a cooperative framework that integrates stakeholders, developers, and policy makers for a pilot project currently underway in Maine. The authors found that better information conveyed to the general public, especially to local community members, is key to allowing productive dialogue and decision making about the risks and benefits of tidal power.
Johnson, and G. Maine Policy Review , 21 1 : Description: This law review article discusses the intersection of ocean regulatory and management initiatives and offshore wind development. It explains how the government and the private sector can work together in informed, open, inclusive management processes in offshore wind development, which helps revitalize working waterfronts.
It discusses the complex environmental rulemaking and review process, and the legal requirements for Wind Energy Areas WEA and individual projects. Finally, the authors provide recommendations of how the different governmental bodies can work with offshore wind developers in a new ocean industry. Frulla, G. Hagerman Jr. Roger Williams University Law Review , Description: Marine hydrokinetic MHK energy offers a promising new source of renewable ocean energy.
However, the young industry is faced with significant challenges. Most notable is the challenge of regulatory uncertainty that is thought to hamper the successful deployment of new tidal energy technologies. Adaptive management may be one approach to deal with uncertainty and inform permitting decisions for hydrokinetic projects. In this study, the authors apply the concept of adaptive management to the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project in Maine to better understand and inform permitting decisions.
Using a social science approach of observation, interviews, and document analysis, they examine 1 agency roles and authority, 2 agency interactions, 3 regulatory change, and 4 challenges faced in the regulatory and permitting process for MHK development at the federal and state level. The authors found four institutional factors favorable to an adaptive approach.
These include experimentation and learning, institutionalized choice to correct avoidable error, a strong commitment to interagency coordination, and an emphasis on early proactive engagement with project developers. They also identified institutional challenges or vulnerabilities. These include conflicting agency cultures, high financial costs, and long timeframes associated with baseline data collection. Lessons learned from this study can assist regulators, policymakers, and project developers design and implement an actively adaptive management approach that can move new renewable ocean energy development forward in a way that is socially acceptable and environmentally responsible.
Jansujwicz and T. Estuaries and Coasts , With energy production, some of the biggest externalities are the social, health, and environmental effects of pollution. Description: Abstract Despite the many societal benefits associated with renewable energy, it is used to generate only about five percent of the electricity needs of the U. The bulk of governmental efforts to rectify this situation have disproportionately impacted private actors. This Article argues that the federal government should expand its efforts to more fully capture the gains that can be achieved by targeting both private and public actors, particularly federal agencies.
Federal agencies have enormous purchasing power that can be channeled toward using electricity and fuels derived from renewable energy. Federal agencies are some of the largest consumers of electricity. Federal agencies manage millions of acres of lands with ample renewable energy potential. Federal agencies stand to serve as models for the rest of the country through their support of renewable energy.
Perhaps most importantly, the government is able to direct agencies to promote renewable energy with a power that it cannot exert on states or private actors. This Article evaluates a number of recent efforts to direct federal agencies to consume, produce, or facilitate the development of renewable energy, and highlights significant considerations associated with enlisting federal agencies to advance the nation's ambitious renewable energy goals.
Reference: Renewable Energy through Agency Action Amy L. Stein; 84 U. Description: Abstract This article presents a background on the efforts to regulate hydrokinetic wave energy projects in the Pacific Northwest. It discusses the legal background of the shared offshore jurisdiction between state governments and the federal government, and then explores the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission procedures relating to offshore hydrokinetic wave projects.
The licensing regimes in Washington, Oregon, and California are reviewed along with preliminary conclusions that can be drawn from the analysis of state regimes. The article goes on to discuss regional efforts and comparative insights, as well as the long-term sustainability of offshore hydrokinetic energy. Rachael Salcido; 5 Golden Gate Univ. Description: Abstract This Article provides a brief history of wave energy development, examines the status of hydrokinetic projects undertaken at a state and local level, and navigates the overlapping, and often competing, jurisdictional mandates confronting U.