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  1. Creating Memories for False Autobiographical Events in Childhood: A Systematic Review
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Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to psychological stress and memory in middle-aged women: High responders exhibit enhanced declarative memory performance. Psychoneuroendocrinology 27 , — Effects of pre-learning stress on memory for neutral, positive and negative words: different roles of cortisol and autonomic arousal.

Payne, J. The impact of stress on neutral and emotional aspects of episodic memory. Memory 14 , 1—16 Learning under stress impairs memory formation. True or false? Memory is differentially affected by stress-induced cortisol elevations and sympathetic activity at consolidation and retrieval. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33 , — Elzinga, B. Stress-induced cortisol elevations are associated with impaired delayed, but not immediate recall. Psychiatry Res. Andreano, J. Glucocorticoid release and memory consolidation in men and women.

Rasch, B. A genetic variation of the noradrenergic system is related to differential amygdala activation during encoding of emotional memories. Vukojevic, V. Epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene is linked to traumatic memory and post-traumatic stress disorder risk in genocide survivors.

Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood. Hippocampus 22 , — McIntyre, C. Amygdala norepinephrine levels after training predict inhibitory avoidance retention performance in rats. Buchanan, T. Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 26 , — Cahill, L. Nature , — Hermans, E. Dynamic adaptation of large-scale brain networks in response to acute stressors. Trends Neurosci. Stress-related noradrenergic activity prompts large-scale neural network reconfiguration. Science , — Strelzyk, F. Tune it down to live it up? Rapid, nongenomic effects of cortisol on the human brain. Henckens, M. Stressed memories: how acute stress affects memory formation in humans.

Weymar, M. Stress sensitizes the brain: increased processing of unpleasant pictures after exposure to acute stress. Strange, B. Interacting noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems shift human brain activation patterns during encoding. Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Wiegert, O. Timing is essential for rapid effects of corticosterone on synaptic potentiation in the mouse hippocampus.

Creating Memories for False Autobiographical Events in Childhood: A Systematic Review

Dynamically changing effects of corticosteroids on human hippocampal and prefrontal processing. Brain Mapp. Time-dependent effects of corticosteroids on human amygdala processing. Enhanced resting-state connectivity of amygdala in the immediate aftermath of acute psychological stress. Neuroimage 53 , — Epinephrine enhancement of human memory consolidation: Interaction with arousal at encoding. Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: Interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding. Beckner, V. Stress facilitates consolidation of verbal memory for a film but does not affect retrieval.

Roozendaal, B. Amygdaloid nuclei lesions differentially affect glucocorticoid-induced memory enhancement in an inhibitory avoidance task. Glucocorticoids interact with emotion-induced noradrenergic activation in influencing different memory functions. Neuroscience , — Glucocorticoid enhancement of memory requires arousal-induced noradrenergic activation in the basolateral amygdala. Barsegyan, A. Glucocorticoids in the prefrontal cortex enhance memory consolidation and impair working memory by a common neural mechanism. McGaugh, J. Involvement of the amygdala in memory storage: Interaction with other brain systems.

USA 93 , — Stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory. Quaedflieg, C. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38 , — Impaired memory retrieval correlates with individual differences in cortisol response but not autonomic response.

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Quesada, A. Psychosocial stress exposure impairs memory retrieval in children. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37 , — Hupbach, A. Moderate stress enhances immediate and delayed retrieval of educationally relevant material in healthy young men.

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Psychoneuroendocrinology 34 , — Kuhlmann, S. Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men. The context counts: congruent learning and testing environments prevent memory retrieval impairment following stress. Tollenaar, M. Immediate and prolonged effects of cortisol, but not propranolol, on memory retrieval in healthy young men. The hippocampus mediates glucocorticoid-induced impairment of spatial memory retrieval: dependence on the basolateral amygdala. De Quervain, D. Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of declarative memory retrieval is associated with reduced blood flow in the medial temporal lobe.

Preventive effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockade on glucocorticoid-induced memory retrieval deficits. Psychiatry , — Dudai, Y. The restless engram: consolidations never end. Nader, K. Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval. A single standard for memory: the case for reconsolidation. Reconsolidation of human memory: brain mechanisms and clinical relevance. Psychiatry 76 , — Schacter, D. Memory and law: what can cognitive neuroscience contribute? Sandrini, M.

Causal role of prefrontal cortex in strengthening of episodic memories through reconsolidation. Cai, W. Postreactivation glucocorticoids impair recall of established fear memory. Wang, X. Stress impairs reconsolidation of drug memory via glucocorticoid receptors in the basolateral amygdala. Bos, M. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory. Psychoneuroendocrinology 46 , — Coccoz, V. The enhancement of reconsolidation with a naturalistic mild stressor improves the expression of a declarative memory in humans.

Neuroscience , 61—72 Stress impairs the reconsolidation of autobiographical memories. Loftus, E. Reconstruction of automobile destruction: an example of the interaction between language and memory. Verbal Learning Verbal Behav. Hoscheidt, S. Encoding negative events under stress: High subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure. Schmidt, P. Stress reduces the incorporation of misinformation into an established memory. Wingard, J. The amygdala and emotional modulation of competition between cognitive and habit memory.

Brain Res. Poldrack, R. Competition among multiple memory systems: Converging evidence from animal and human brain studies. Neuropsychologia 41 , — Memory formation under stress: quantity and quality. Packard, M. Amygdala modulation of multiple memory systems: hippocampus and caudate-putamen. Corticosteroids operate as a switch between memory systems. Vogel, S. Cognitive adaptation under stress: a case for the mineralocorticoid receptor. Elliott, A.

Intra-amygdala anxiogenic drug infusion prior to retrieval biases rats towards the use of habit memory. Stress modulates the use of spatial versus stimulus-response learning strategies in humans. Stress increases behavioural resistance to extinction. Psychoneuroendocrinology 36 , — Stress modulates the engagement of multiple memory systems in classification learning. Blocking the mineralocorticoid receptor in humans prevents the stress-induced enhancement of centromedial amygdala connectivity with the dorsal striatum.

Neuropsychopharmacology 40 , — Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevents stress-induced modulation of multiple memory systems in the human brain. Psychiatry 74 , — Balleine, B. The role of incentive learning in instrumental outcome revaluation by sensory-specific satiety. Concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behaviour from goal-directed to habitual control. Simultaneous glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity disrupts the neural basis of goal-directed action in the human brain. Seehagen, S. Stress impairs cognitive flexibility in infants.

Braun, S. Acute stressor effects on goal-directed action in rats.

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Vanaelst, B. Prevalence of negative life events and chronic adversities in european pre- and primary-school children: Results from the idefics study. Public Health 70 , 26 Valizadeh, L. Investigation of stress symptoms among primary school children. Caring Sci. Corticosteroid effects in the brain: U-shape it. Trends Pharmacol. Smith, A. HSE , Thorne, K. Relations among children's coping strategies and anxiety: the mediating role of coping efficacy.

Making lasting memories: remembering the significant. USA Suppl 2, — Ochsner, K. Are affective events richly recollected or simply familiar? The experience and process of recognizing feelings past. Godden, D. Context-dependent memory in two natural environments: On land and underwater.

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Pacak, K. Chronic stress modulates the use of spatial and stimulus-response learning strategies in mice and man. Download references. This work was supported by the University of Hamburg. Both authors are supported by the University of Hamburg. Both authors approved the final version of the manuscript for submission. Correspondence to Lars Schwabe. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

International Journal of Social Robotics International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health Unterrichtswissenschaft Vocations and Learning Article metrics. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Hippocampus Human behaviour Stress and resilience. Abstract Exams, tight deadlines and interpersonal conflicts are just a few examples of the many events that may result in high levels of stress in both students and teachers.

Full size image. Figure 2 The effects of stress on memory depend on the specific memory process investigated and the temporal proximity between the stressful event and this memory process. Time-dependent effects of stress on memory quantity Emotionally arousing events are typically very well-remembered. Stress and the dynamics of memory Very often, students are not only required to recall study material, but to integrate new information into existing knowledge structures. Figure 4 Stress reduces the integration of new information into existing memories. Stress alters the way we learn: effects on memory quality Most studies investigating the effects of stress on memory encoding, retrieval or updating focused on memories encoded by the hippocampus.

Figure 5 Stress shifts the balance between multiple systems underlying learning and memory. Conclusion and outlook Stress has far-reaching consequences on our ability to learn and remember, with major implications for educational settings. References 1. PubMed Article Google Scholar 2. PubMed Article Google Scholar 3. PubMed Article Google Scholar 5. PubMed Article Google Scholar 7. Google Scholar PubMed Article Google Scholar The Philosophy of Disenchantment.

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    Some Problems of Philosophy Illustrated. The Laws of Habit and the Association of Ideas. The Letters of William James Complete. The Will To Believe Illustrated. Essays in Radical Empiricism. The Constitution and What It Means. What is an Emotion? George F. On a Certain Blindness in Human Beings. William James on Psychology and Philosophy Illustrated. Come scrivere un'ottima recensione. La recensione deve essere di almeno 50 caratteri. Il titolo dovrebbe essere di almeno 4 caratteri. Il nome visualizzato deve essere lungo almeno 2 caratteri.

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