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  1. Mineral Nutrition of Rice
  2. Introduction
  3. Mineral Nutrition of Rice - Scitus Academics
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Mineral Nutrition of Rice

Comment title. You have entered an invalid code. Submit Cancel. Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. Please check for further notifications by email. View Metrics. Email alerts New issue alert. Advance article alerts. Therefore, the effects of the two systems were evaluated for each element as the translocation ratios from soil to grains, and from shoot to grains. In , translocation from the soil to grain was significantly increased for Mn, Cd, and Ba, and significantly decreased for Fe and Cr translocation in the ORF system.

Heat-map showing the relative changes in the translocation ratio of each element from shoot to grain and fro soil to grain in rice grown under ORF compared with CR CR: conventional rice planting system; ORF: organic rice-frog coculture system. The translocation ratio for each element is the ratio of the concentration in grains to the concentration in the straw and the uptake ratio is the ratio of the concentration in the grains to the available concentration in the soil. For soil, concentrations of 0. The red color represents the relative increase and green color the relative decrease.

The contents of protein and 19 mineral elements in the rice grain were affected by different cultivation patterns; therefore, these data were subjected to a PCA Fig. The 20 original variables were converted to a set of two linearly uncorrelated PCs that contributed The sample scores of systems reflected the loading score of protein or elements in PCA. CR: conventional rice planting system; ORF: organic rice-frog coculture system. Frog burrowing in soil can increase the activity of soil enzymes and improve soil aeration, thus increasing the number and growth of soil microbes 32 , 33 , In our previous study, we reported that the ORF system could effectively control N and P losses from paddy fields, compared with CR system In another field study conducted at the same time site as our study, introducing frogs into paddy field improved soil nutrient status, and increased the contents of soluble protein, chlorophyll, and soluble sugars in rice leaves, thus increasing rice grain yield In the present study, we further compared rice yields and elemental composition of rice grain between the ORF and CR systems.

As reviewed by Li et al. The large quantities of pesticides applied to agricultural fields and the accumulation of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides residues have resulted in serious environmental deterioration. Therefore, substituting frogs for pesticides is an important strategy to prevent the accumulation of pesticide residues in soil.

Moreover, in the ORF system, the use of organic instead of chemical fertilizer is better for the environment. In China, the overuse of chemical N fertilizers has caused environmental problems due to atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin 4 , 5 , 8 , 9 , The ORF system in this study represhents a feasible strategy to reduce the application of agro-chemicals.

The higher P content in the grain was related to the higher available P concentration in soil in the ORF system, and the increased translocation rate of P from straw to grain Fig. The lower P availability in soil in the CR system might be related to the lower soil pH, because available P is rapidly transformed into immobile forms under low pH Several studies have shown that the application of organic material can increase P solubility and improve the P status of plants, as compared with chemical fertilizer 37 , 38 , 39 , In the present study, the increase in available P in soil in the ORF system may be because the organic matter added to soil led to a high concentration of organic acids which reduced P sorption in the soil and increased P availability 40 , Teng reported that the ORF system increased the total P content and phosphatase activity in paddy fields The Ca availability in the paddy soils was reduced in the ORF system, leading to significantly decreased Ca concentration in the rice grain.

The decreased Ca availability resulted in lower lower Ca uptake, and a lower translocation rate from straw to grain Fig. The lower soil Ca availability might be due to the high concentrations of other cations in the soil. Because Ca is readily replaced by other cations from its binding sites at the exterior surface of the plasma membrane, the Ca requirement increases with increasing concentrations of other cations The higher soil pH in the ORF system might be another reason for the decreased Ca availability in the soil.

The ORF system significantly affected the availability of some micronutrients. The ORF system decreased Mn availability in soil, but did not affect the Mn accumulation in rice plants. The difference in Mn availability between the CR and ORF systems might be related to soil pH, because Mn is abundant in soils and its availability is mainly controlled by soil pH and redox conditions The ORF system significantly increased Fe, Zn and Mo accumulation in the grain in one or both years, and increased their concentrations in soil in both years.

The lower Fe and Zn concentrations in the grain in the CR system might be because of lower Fe and Zn availability in the soil, resulting from herbicides application.


Studies on the effects of herbicides on crop growth have shown that some chemicals, e. In another study, herbicides had a stronger inhibitory effect on the uptake of nutrients that enter plant roots mainly by diffusion than on the uptake of nutrients that move mainly by mass flow Thus, using frogs instead of pesticides and herbicides to control weeds and pests has some advantages in terms of the nutritional status of the rice crop.

2. Critical Growth Stages: Tales of Ryza -- The ABCs of proper nutrition for rice plants

Adding Zn-rich organic fertilziers may increase the concentration of Zn in crops, because Zn in soil is readily available to plants. The ORF system resulted in higher Mo contents in grain in both years. The ORF system increased Mo availability in soil, and promoted the Mo uptake, and increased its translocation rate from straw to grain Fig.

Plants take up Mo in its anion form, and the formation of anion form is negatively correlated with soil pH. Because organic fertilizers gernerally contain very low concentrations of Mo, the effect of organic fertilizers may be negligible unless the soil pH is affected. Na, Se and Al are generally considered as beneficial elements because they stimulate plant growth, but are not essential. In the current study, the Na contents in soil and straw were significantly enhanced by the ORF system in The Na concentration in straw and grain was much higher in than in in both cultivation systems.

The rainfall during the growing season was much higher in than that in , and this may have increased the availability of some minerals in the soil. In , the rainfall deficit may have reduced the effect of organic matter on soil Na availability, leading to the similar Na status in plant and soil between CR and ORF systems. The decreased Se concentration in the straw was related to the high Se translocation rate from straw to grain Fig. Although Se is mainly in organic forms in organic fertilizers, it is mineralized to selenite and selenate when organic matter decays, which may explain the increase in Se availability in soil.

The effects of organic amendment on crop Se concentrations were paradoxical in previous studies. Some studies reported low bioavailability of Se in organic fertilizers and strong retention of Se by soil organic matter 28 , In other studies that used animal manure as a method to increase crop Se content, there were positive correlations between organic matter input and Se uptake in mineral soils The paradox with respect to the impact of organic matter input on Se uptake may related to competition between S and Se for uptake by plant root, since sulphate is also present in organic fertilizers.

We did not measure the S contents in plants and soil in this study, so we can only speculated that mineralized selenite and selenate derived from organic fertilizer competed with S for root uptake. The higher Al concentration in soil and grain in the CR system is likely due to the lower soil pH.

Cadmimum, Sr, Ba, Cr, and As are generally considered as toxic elements for plant growth. Although these nonessential metal loid s have no known biological functions in plants, they are taken up via essential metal uptake systems In the current study, the ORF system significantly increased the Ba concentration in the straw and grain in , but did not affect the availability of Ba in soil. The increased Ba uptake by crops might be related to competition between Ca and Ba, since they are chemically similar and share the same translocation pathways A similar competitive relationship exists between Zn and Cd.

The opposite patterns were observed for Zn contents in soil and plants. Zinc and Cd compete for ion adsorption and desorption by clay soils, and plant roots can alter the forms of metals e. Because Zn and Cd are chemically similar and readily available to plants in soil, they complete for uptake by the roots — this can explain their opposite patterns of uptake in the ORF system.

A previous study also reported paradoxical effects of organic amendments on Cd accumulation. Thus, the main effect of ORF system on grain was to increase the concentrations of P and trace metal loid s. The addition of trace elements in organic fertilizer and removal of agro-chemicals were the main reason for variations in the elemental composition of rice grains.

Biofortification strategies to increase the concentrations and bioavailability of the elements that are lacking in human diets are a main research focus. Low bioavailability of trace elements in soil is the bottleneck for biofortification 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , The ORF system in this study is one biofortification to increase the micronutrient concentrations in the edible parts of rice.

Mineral Nutrition of Rice - Scitus Academics

The ORF system could maintain rice yield without excessive use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides, or pesticides. However, the ORF system also increased the concentration of Cd, a potentially toxic elment, in the rice grain, as well as its transport from the soil to the grain. Therefore, ORF system has great potential for sustainable sustainable agriculture development and for preserving resources. However, if this system is adopted for long-term use, more attention should be paid to the risks of higher Cd concentrations in the soil and grain.

This is the first study to compare the ionome variations in plants and soil between a rice—frog coculture ecosystem and a conventional farming system. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Wu, W. A review of the system of rice intensification in China.

Integrated nutrient management INM for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: A review. Li, H.

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Zhou, J. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands. You, L. Xu, X.

Effects of nitrogen and biochar amendment on soil methane concentration profiles and diffusion in a rice-wheat annual rotation system. Bouwman, A. Lessons from temporal and spatial patterns in global use of N and P fertilizer on cropland. Smith, L. A comprehensive review of constraints to improved management of fertilizers in China and mitigation of diffuse water pollution from agriculture. Zhao, Z. Guo, J. Significant Acidification in Major Chinese Croplands. Hu, L. The productivity of traditional rice-fish co-culture can be increased without increasing nitrogen loss to the environment.

Xie, J. Ecological mechanisms underlying the sustainability of the agricultural heritage rice-fish coculture system. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production? Zheng, H. Mineral Nutrition of Rice brings together a wealth of information on the ecophysiology and nutrient requirements of rice. Compiling the latest scientific research, the book explains how to manage essential nutrients to maximize rice yield.

The book examines 15 essential or beneficial nutrients used in irrigated, upland, and floating rice across a range of geographic regions.