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Use of virtual measurement campaigns in transmission development. Test validation of chassis a basis for the optimization of soil protection and energy efficiency of tractors and agricultural machinery. System dynamic assessment of the future availability of energy resources for new drive concepts in commercial vehicle technology.

Product Processes based on Digital Twin. Industrie 4. Hybrid-optimized manufacturing of load-bearing components by combining of conventional and additive manufacturing processes. Short-time-procedures for characterization of the fatigue behaviour of additively manufactured metallic structures. Concept for identifying potentials of additive manufacturing in commercial vehicle production.

Cloudbased Usage-Validation of customer-trailers in field trials. Sources for Fatigue Load Data. Development of new rolling bearing for heavy-duty truck applications. Design of mobile floating bridge systems and working platforms. Pina Vina, Thorsten Weyh. Simulation-based dimensioning of highly diverse pneumatic commercial vehicle brake systems. Optimised development process for prevention of chatter vibration in trailer disc brakes. How to ensure high quality results in commercial vehicle simulation. Development of a hybrid powertrain for heavy duty trucks with electrified trailers in a consistent simulation environment.

Physics-based virtual environments for autonomous earthmoving and mining machinery. Articulated Hauler Load Simulations - Recent developments. Alexander Nevsky 1 is a true story of the heroic. For this movie, which is to be his first sound film, Eisenstein secures talents of the famed Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev. The resulting symphonic score serves as a reference for the masterful montage of the picture.

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Ivan Gromy In the wake of the German dominance of Europe, Alexander Nevsky meets with the highest international and domestic praise. However, when the Soviets sign the Nonaggressjon Pact with the Nazis in ,. Now in good standing with the establishment, Eisenstein embarks on a huge project. The movie is unanimously hailed for its artistic perfection and ideological correctness. This magnificently composed film is banned and the footage for Part III completely destroyed.

His health deteriorating after a heart attack, Eisenstein dies in , never to see his final masterpiece in its entirety. Fritz Lang enters the sound period with great confidence — M 1 is a dark story of a child murderer being hunted by the bloodthirsty mob. This moody and disturbing picture draws a very thin line between individual and collective madness and adroitly parallels German society at the gates of Nazism. Mabuse Das Testament des Dr.

Mabuse, , a sequel to his silent Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler , deals with a master criminal ruling the underworld from a mental hospital. Justifiably suspecting that the insane tyranny of Dr. Mabuse has been patterned after Hitler, the Nazis ban the movie when they come to power in Lang decides to leave Germany for France, and later America, while his wife and collaborator Thea von Harbou stays in the country and becomes an ardent Nazi.

Controlled by Josef Paul Goebbels since , German film as well as other arts , gradually abandons the deeply rooted Jewish heritage and focuses on trivial, escapist production like Viktor und Viktoria dir. Reinhold SchnOtzel, , a musical comedy, or Hltlerjunge Quex dir. Hans Steinhoff, , a propaganda picture. Goebbels 63 Hitler commissions a young German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl b. The result, Triumph of the Will Triumph des Willens, , is a staged propaganda picture which endows Hitler with a mythical, godlike presence while reducing his followers to pliable geometrical masses.

One of the pro-Fascist pictures of importance is the historical spectacle Sclpio Afrlcanus dir. On the average, however, the Italian cinematography provides its audiences with mindless, unchallenging movies designed to relieve pressures of the economic duress. P4I Fejds , back in Hungary after a brief career in the U. Another notable picture, Hortobdgy 1 , directed by the German filmmaker Georg Hoellring, is a poignant study of the peasant life.

The Polish cinema of the s focuses on such commercially viable pictures as the comedies and musicals starring the versatile and charismatic Adolf Dymsza and his frequent partner Eugeniusz Bodo The best Polish-Jewish production, The Dybbuk Dibuk, Michal Waszynski, 1 , is a beautifully made story of unfulfilled love, told in the cabalistic tradition.

Plagued by the lack of funds, the Yugoslavian cinema produces a minimal number of films between The first Bulgarian sound film is Graves Without Crosses Beskrastni grobove , by Boris Grezhov, a politically committed historical picture depicting the White Terror of Both films utilize the long take and sparse editing which allow Mizoguchi to depict the action unhurriedly and objectively.

Sisters of Gion The Only Son Hitori Musuko, 1 , the first talkie by Yasujiro Ozu 1 , is one of the brighter examples of the gendal-geki genre which deals with everyday problems of modern Japan. Some of the gendai-geki pictures belong to the tendency-film movement which criticizes the established norms of Japanese society. The Only Son The other major genre, jidai-geki, deals exclusively with historical topics. Man-slashing, Horse-piercing Sword Zanjin zamba ken, , directed by the tendency-film theoretician Daisuke Ito, is one of the few jidai-geki that question the moral legacy of feudal Japan.

His next project , Modern Times 1 , is also basically a silent picture with synchronized sound except for a nonsensical song performed by Chaplin. Deeds Goes to Town , and the more serious Mr. Smith Goes to Washington , which features James Stewart as a young senator trying to preserve his integrity' in the scoundrel-ridden capital. Smith Because of its tremendously prolific output and popularity with worldwide audiences, the period of pre-WWII American cinema can be classified as the Golden Years of the Studio Era. The latter features Greta Garbo in her first comedic performance as a Soviet envoy in Paris on a mission to cash in on crown jewels.

Warner Bros, centers on economically safe production which involves simply told, hard-hitting movies. Mervyn LeRoy, and Black Fury dir. Michael Curtiz, The first hand-tinted movies appear as early as ; each frame is elaborately painted under a magnifying glass. Around Paths introduces stencil-coloring of film positives PathScolor , Up to six stencils are manually cut for individual colors which are to be applied in selected areas of the frame.

This painstaking method is soon mechanized, -but to make it profitable, about copies of each film must be printed. Paths changes its name to PathSchrome in and continues to reap profits from this stencil process until well into the next decade.

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Handschiegl applies his lithographic expertise to this multiple color matrix procedure, which results in a somewhat realistio rendition of natural hues. Among other films, the Handschiegl process is used for such movies as Joan, the Wbman dir. De Mille, , Greed dir. Julian, , and The Big Parade dir. Vidor, — one of the most successful films of the s. As an alternative to dying the already developed film, the Belgian company Gevaert introduces colored celluloid to be used as film base.

This process gives the effect of more evenly distributed hues. The principles of color photography, developed in by James Cleric Maxwell , the Scottish physicist, are slowly applied to cinematography. Maxwell proved that practically all natural colors may be reproduced by mixing red, green, and blue light. In , Britons F. Marshall Lee and Edward R. Himer patent a color camera with rotating red, green, and blue filters placed in front or behind the lens. The system is called Kinemacolor.

After a complex chemical procedure, two film positives are devel- oped: one dyed orange-red, the other— green. The positives are then cemented together for projection resulting in a good quality color image. Some of the more prominent movies including sequences shot in this fashion are The Ten Commandments dir.

De Mille, and Merry Widow dir. Herbert Kalmus , one of the founders of Technicolor, with his improved two-color camera One of the drawbacks of the early Technicolor is the shifting registration of colors. By , however, a new, three-color camera is developed: it is perfected by the end of the decade. Becky Sharp dir. Mamoulian , the first full-length live-action feature, follows in Jekyll and Mr. There, only 16, he is cast in a wide range of adult roles for which he receives a uniformly rave reviews. It is there where his talents for innovative staging and bold interpretation of classic literature come to bloom.

His Harlem adaptation of Macbeth, influenced by the Haitian voodoo rituals, becomes legendary. In the mean time his career in radio as a performer, writer, and director reaches a new level with the enormously popular Shadow series and First Person Singular adaptations of literary works. The live broadcast of the show causes panic in the streets and brings an instant national fame for the young actor-director- producer. He is then given a green light to begin work on American— a movie based on the life of William Randolph Hearst, the newspaper magnate.

Mankiewlcz is ready to be filmed under the title of Citizen Kane. Structure The story of Charles Foster Kane is told in flashbacks, through a variety of points of view. The plot-motivating metaphor Rosebud is introduced in the first scene of the film and explained in the last.

All of the narrative elements fall into place with perfect timing and every subplot is resolved before the movie reaches its conclusion. Gregg Toland 2. An established professional in his field Les Miserables, Grapes of Wrath, Wuthering Heights , Toland brings to the project deep-focus photography, maturity of camera angles and framing. His low-key lighting technique, in the finest Kammerspiei tradition, gives Kane an unprecedented depth of space and nearly tangible atmosphere. His stylish sketches greatly influence. Bernard Hermann in action 6.

Kane to life, Everet Sloane 7. The editor of the picture, Robert Wise b. Nothing is left to chance. Sound As a radio genius, Welles intuitively understands how essential sound is in creating the Kane universe. Elaborate sound effects are created specifically for the film the usual studio practice is to rely on stock sound library , actors are cast for their voices, and high-ceiling sets built to amplify their speeches.

Sound recording is engineered by James G. Stewart and mixed by Bailey Feslelr, a veteran of both film and radio. Special Effects The main reason for the unusually extensive use of special effects on Citizen Kane is financial. Many scenes require large, extravagant sets which are too expensive to build, but possible to achieve through trick photography. Linwood Dunn, the optical printer pioneer, is in charge of providing Kane with most of its elaborate backdrops and foregrounds city blocks, exotic locations, crowds, complex interiors , as well as wipes, fades, optical zoom effects, and extreme close-ups.

Director Given such unprecedented complete creative control over Citizen Kane, Welles manages to personally oversee every single aspect of production, lending it his unerring sense of artistic unity. His involvement in planning the movie, the actual shooting and postproduction result in an ideally balanced film — a masterpiece whose individual parts each superb in its own right enhance the brilliance of the whole.

As a result, the picture is a financial disaster. Its instant success with the critics cannot save ' Kane from being systematically denied access to the screens across the nation. Never again will Orson Welles have the opportunity to control his own movie project to such degree as Citizen Karie. Welles loses the rights to the final cut of the picture, which is truncated almost by half by the studio. Despite a new, hastily added and absurdly optimistic ending, Ambersons dies at the box office.

Deep-focus photography in The Magnificent Ambersons Welles comments on his career pattern: 77 In , John Ford directs Stagecoach, the much admired western which makes wonderful use of the natural landscape of Arizona most films of that period are shot in studio-built sets and displays some very dramatic indoor lighting techniques. Orson Welles studies Stagecoach prior to the shooting of Citizen Kane. Before Hollywood turns its attention to WWII, several socially conscious movies appear in the early s.

Based on the John Steinbeck novel, this depression drama portrays the poverty and desperation of migrant workers with great realism and uncompromising detail. How Green Was My Valley , a story of a Welsh mining village set in the last years of the 19th Century, establishes Ford as one of the most respected prewar Hollywood directors. Lifeboat marks Hitchcock's first direct involvement with the subject of war. After December 7th, , through the efforts of the War Department, many documentary and narrative filmmakers join their forces in creating a series of documentaries depicting the U.

Michael Curtiz, remains one of the most romantic and memorable films of the 1 s. The film is co-directed by David Lean The first period of the American anti-Nazi movies is characterized by exaggerated nationalism and formulaic plots. Lewis Milestone is one of the more prolific filmmakers on the subject of occupation and resistance: Edge of Darkness takes place in Norway and North Star in the Soviet Union.

His later combat films deal with the realities of war in a more direct and unglamorous manner: Purple Heart revolves around the trials of American pilots shot down over Japan; A Walk in the Sun portrays the U.

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Other notable films which take a personal approach to combat include Destination Tokyo dir. Delmer Daves, , Sahara dir. Zolten Korda, , and the moving Story of G. Joe dir. William Wellman, Robert Mitchum in Story of G. The film deals with the doomed attempts of Italian freedom-fighters to escape a Gestapo gridlock.

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The colorful Technicolor and heavily stylized sets are designed to resemble Renaissance etchings. The patriotic and militaristic glory of the film tjoosts British morale in the final year of the war, just as Alexander Nevsky had done for the Russians a few years earlier when the Germans had attacked the Soviet Union. Laurence Olivier in Henry V David Lean tackles Charles Dickens twice in two years: the exceptionally designed and performed Great Expectations and Oliver Twist 1 establish new cinematic canons for literary adaptations.

Both films employ low camera angles, low-key lighting, precise composition of shots and an increasing tempo of editing — a technical arsenal openly borrowed from Orson Welles. As a tribute, Reed casts Welles in The Third Man in a role tailor-made to fit his screen personality — a shady character of great power whose evil ways ultimately bring him a well deserved punishment. The most enduring partnership of the postwar period belongs to The Archers: Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger , who write, direct, and produce such great and extravagant pictures as the romantic fantasy A Matter of Life and Death Stairway to Heaven in U.

Robert Hammer, , a brilliantly conceived comedy, showcases the multiple talents of Alec Guiness b. French movie critics apply the modified term film noir to a group of dark and cynical American crime movies which emerge in the first half of the 1 s. Noir movies are almost invariably set in an urban environment and display high-contrast lighting which produces hard and unfriendly shadows.

Characterized by the sense of impending disaster and utter fatalism, these pictures find their roots in the German cinema of the 1 s and the early 1 s. Frank Tuttle, anticipate the more pessimistic outlook of such film noir classics as Double Indemnity dir. Billy Wilder, and Out of the Past dir. Jaques Tourneur, The pronounced negativism of Double Indemnity is accentuated by the theme of moral corruption and adultery- vices never before presented on the American screen with such relentless accuracy.

Out of the Past shatters all illusions of human loyalty and trust, throwing its hapless hero into the abyss of multiple betrayal. The low-budget Detour dir. Edgar E. Ulmer, remains true to the noir aesthetic in its persistent adherence to the subject of nihilistic and predetermined fate. Orson Welles, , femmes fatales fulfil their murderous destiny with unprecedented premeditation. Raoul Walsh, 1 , portraying a psychopatic fugitive with a death wish.

Richard Widmark in The Night and the City 85 The corrupted world of boxing serves as a metaphor for good vs. Robert Rossen, and The Set-Up dir. Robert Wise, In Force of Evil , Abraham Polonsky b. The generally negative feel of film noir counteracts with the self-deiuding attitudes of the postwar American society. The great international appeal of these movies proves that mendacity is quite a universal phenomenon in a world trying to shake off the all-too-recent memory of war. In Hall the Conquering Hero , Sturges questions the American stereotypes of patriotism in a playful and superficially innocent manner.

This spectacular and superbly acted picture focuses on the rivalry between a father John Wayne and his adopted son Montgomery Clift during the great cattle drive of 1 Alfred Hitchcock recruits Salvador Dali to design a surreal dream sequence for his first postwar thriller, Spellbound In the intense The Rope 1 , Hitchcock experiments with single-take moviemaking. The movie features mature, believable characters involved in realistic situations — a precedent by Hollywood standards. Gregg Toland provides the crisp deep-focus photography.

In , after the commercially disappointing The Lady From Shanghai, Orson Welles is forced to accept the services of a lesser studio, Republic Pictures, in order to produce, direct, and star in his expressionistic adaptation of Macbeth. Disillusioned, Welles goes into exile in Europe. The movie, shot exclusively on location in the Italian countryside, tells a tragic story of sexual submission and murder. Again, the film is shot on location and deals with the lives of common soldiers and civilians trapped in tragic, often paradoxical circumstances. Some of the performers are nonprofessional actors hired to enhance the realism of the movie.

Paisa 89 Cesare Zavattini , a Marxist screenwriter, becomes the key theoretician of neorealism. Rejecting commercial cinema, he calls for accurate representation of everyday life: people, things, and facts. The two have been collaborating on movie projects since the 1 s. Their next film, Bicycle Thieves Lardi di biciclette, , becomes the most mature exponent of neorealism.

A simple story of a bill poster who searches for his stolen bicycle turns into a moving, lyrical portrait of a father-and-son relationship and, on a larger scale, becomes a profound study of the roots of poverty and desperation in postwar Italy. The key roles in Bicycle Thieves are played by amateur actors, and the action is presented in a linear, nearly real-time fashion.

The film chronicles the downfall of an old government clerk who is unable to sustain his existence in a boarding house. Umberto D. Photographed by G. Aldo Umberto D. Un giorno neijo via, 1 Neorealist cinema represents only a small fraction of the Italian film production of the era. With a very few exceptions, neorealist films are financial failures domestically, and their depressing themes contribute to the premature decline of this sensitive genre.

Luckily, the huge international impact of neorealism will greatly influence the next generations of filmmakers worldwide. Alt Sjoberg directs his allegorical They Staked Their Lives Med livet som insats, 1 , a grim tale foreshadowing the upcoming Nazi invasion of Sweden. In Scandal Skandalen , 1 , Sjoberg juxtaposes the conformist attitudes of the older generation with the inextinguishable spirit of youth. Carl-Theodor Dreyer returns to Danish cinema with Day of Wrath Vredens dag, , a 17th century story of witchcraft, love, and human solitude.

Ingmar Bergman directs Prison Fangelse, , a contemporary drama with metaphysical themes. It is his first movie based on his own screenplay. The latter is a poetic love story set against the backdrop of 19th century Parisian theatre. His Orphee is a post-apocalyptic, metaphorical adaptation of the Greek myth of Orpheus. In both films the leading man roles are performed by Jean Marais b.

A diverse group of losers undertakes the dangerous task of transporting a cargo of nitroglycerine to a remote oil refinery on fire. Clouzot's last great movie is the suspenseful psychological horror Diabollque Les Diaboliques, The Saga of Judo Sanshiro Sugata, After the surrender, Kurosawa makes Drunken Angel Yoidore tenshi , 1 , a bleak portrait of the postwar Japanese man. His socially-aware detective drama Stray Dog Nora-inu , leaves little doubt about the complex problems of urban Japan. All ten are sentenced to one year in prison and prevented from again working in motion pictures.

Some of the condemned writers eventually manage to find employment under assumed names until, over a decade later, the blacklisting slowly dissipates. Generally, careers of prominent writers and directors are shattered; some of the accused actors lose their lives as a result of stress John Garfield , other simply cannot find work Paul Muni , and others decide to leave the country Joseph Losey, Jules Dassin.

Elia Kazan, Bud Schulberg. In addition to witch-hunting and the increasing popularity of foreign films, another direct threat to American movie business is the advent of television. By , it becomes quite clear that this new, ubiquitous medium is here to stay. The movie theatre attendance drops significantly, forcing major companies to develop new strategies for survival.

The main invention of the 1 s to revolutionize the way films are being shot is the anamorphic lens. The anamorphic lens on the camera squeezes an image onto a standard 35mm film stock. During projection, the image is stretched back to its original format with the help of an anamorphic lens of the projector. The process is called Cinemascope. Cinemascope offers 2. The chief advantage of the anamorphic process is its easy adaptability to the existing film equipment. The only component requiring replacement is the lens.

The first film shot in Cinemascope is The Robe dir. Henry Koster, 1 , a costume drama starring a young British stage star Richard Burton In the various versions of the 3D process spectators are required to wear special goggles which yield an illusion of depth. Horror star Vincent Price in 3D goggles In Cinerama, a three-camera setup captures continuous action; the image is then displayed through a muitiple-projector unit on a semicircular screen.

The resulting picture is three times as wide as the traditional format. Technically, Cinerama is an advanced version of Polyvision— the process used by Abel Gance on Napoleon in 1 Originally used for exotic documentary spectacles, Cinerama slowly makes its way into narrative cinema, culminating in 1 with the extremely costly How the West Was Won and The Wonderful World of Brothers Grimm.

The process is abandoned shortly thereafter due to its financial impracticality. The main competition of Cinemascope and Cinerama becomes the increasingly popular widescreen process which relies on a wide stock negative. A 70mm stock is developed by Michael Todd and used successfully in Oklahoma! Fred Zinnemann, and South Pacific Joshua Logan, , among other films, providing the sharpest image to date ratio 2. Another important addition to the expanded film image is stereophonic sound recorded on a magnetic tape for greater mixing possibilities.

Other rival widescreen systems are Panavision and Ultra Panavision. The latter uses an anamorphic lens to squeeze a panoramic picture onto a 65mm negative which, in projection, produces an astounding format of 2. Directors begin to utilize horizontal space the same way depth of field has been explored in the s.

Editing becomes secondary to shooting long, uninterrupted scenes. Each frame is now wide enough to simultaneously display a close-up, a medium shot, and a wide-angle. Madeleine or Judy? In A Star Is Born , George Cukor uses widescreen symbolically to emphasize its visual triumph over the restrictions of television. Anthony Mann reaches for epical themes to fill the sweeping widescreen frames of his The Last Frontier 1 and ElCid The versatile Richard Fleischer b.

Before turning to action-driven pictures The Magnificent Seven, , John Sturges directs such eloquent, character-driven westerns as Gunfight at the O. Defying the usual racist attitude of most mainstream' westerns, Broken Arrow dir Delmer Daves, and Run of the Arrow dir. Samuel Fuller, take a more sympathetic view of the American Indians. Shane dir. George Stevens, , a tense and entertaining morality play, depicts an unlikely alliance between an errant gunslinger Alan Ladd and a cattle-raising family man Van Heflin who unite their efforts against a greedy neighbor.

The main studio responsible for some of the most entertaining and innovative song-and-dance movies is MGM, largely thanks to the producing genius of Arthur Freed Astaire in The Band Wagon In American in Paris, Minnelli creates a unique visual aesthetic by integrating the abstract lighting and imaginative scenery with the brilliantly staged dan.

The latter is an excellent adaptation of the book by a classic noir writer Mickey SpNIane, whose famous protagonist, private eye Mike Hammer, is frequently portrayed in movies. Communist threat becomes the focal point of such blatantly propagandistic pictures as The Red Menace dir. Springsteen, , The Atomic City dir. Jerry Hopper, , A Bullet for Joey dir.

Leo McCarey, Among the best are The Enforcer dir. Bretaigne Windust, , The Big Heat dir. Fritz Lang, 1 , The Big Combo dir. Joseph E. Lewis, , The Brothers Rico dir. Phil Karlson, , and Murder, Inc. Stuart Rosenberg, Other notable examples of the heist genre are the excellent race track robbery film The Killing dir. Stanley Kubrick, , Odds Against Tomorrow dir.

Robert Wise, 1 , Seven Thieves dir. Henry Hathaway, , and The League of Gentlemen dir. Basil Dearden, The results of these restrictions are often more graphic than the acts themselves. The most emblematic picture to reflect the twilight of Hollywood glamour is Sunset Boulevard , directed by the Austrian- born Billy Wilder.

His triumphal adaptation of Agatha Christie's Witness for the Prosecution remains one of the best courtroom thrillers ever made. Wilder confirms his versatile talent with such comedies as Sabrina , Love in the Afternoon 1 , and the gender-bending, fast-paced gangster parody, Some Like It Hot 1 Always a shrewd commentator of the double standards of American life, Wilder analyzes the male-female dynamic with a humorous eye in The Apartment Jack Lemmon; he likes it hot Already famous for his theatre work in New York, Elia Kazan emerges as the dominant figure in the film drama genre with his excellent adaptation of Tennessee Williams' Streetcar Named Desire 1 95 1.

Because of the unique acting talent and charisma of James Dean, East of Eden , a loose adaptation of the Steinbeck novel, is a timeless story of youthful rebellion. In A Face In the Crowd 1 , Kazan tackles the roots of mass manipulation by the media, and, on a larger scale, exposes the totalitarian potential of a passive, pliable society. The Man with the Golden Arm depicts a heroin addict Frank Sinatra who tries to find a fresh beginning. Otto Preminger Otto Preminger should also be remembered for giving the first screen credit to a blacklisted writer, Dalton Trumbo, for Exodus and ending a decade of the HUAC repressions some argue it was Kirk Douglas who had given Trumbo his first credit for Spartacus, also released the same year.

Both Preminger and Douglas are equally audacious individuals and deserve to share the credit for breaking the blacklist. This superb Civil War drama is drastically recut by MGM to eliminate all traces of moral ambiguity the conflict in Korea has just begun. Other American directors to imprint their style on the drama genre of the period include Stanley Kramer b.

Ernest Borgnine as Marty, the butcher with a golden heart Sydney Lumet b. The realistic yet tightly organized composition of this intense courtroom movie is a result of the great working relationship between Lumet and his veteran cinematographer Boris Kaufman, and opens new narrative possibilities for cinema. United Artists, a distribution company, becomes involved in releasing some of the most artistically accomplished independent productions of the period.

Among them are the powerful anti-war drama Paths of Glory Stanley Kubrick, and The Night of the Hunter , the only directorial effort of Charles Laughton Robert Mitchum in The Night of the Hunter Charles Chaplin not a Method actor completes his last great film, Limelight in 1 , only a few months before his political convictions force him to leave America permanently. The movie is a bitter and deeply personal account of the last days of a past-his-prime vaudeville down. Despite tremendous technical difficulties and an ongoing lack of completion funds, the film is a sheer triumph of cinematic ingenuity.

Welles returns to the U S. This stunning black-and-white thriller set on the American-Mexican border is widely considered the last masterpiece of film noir. Unfortunately, its poor box office performance eliminates any possibility of a future for Welles in Hollywood. The man who helped to shape the modern American cinema will never be able to make an American film again. Welles as Othello Every artist has his muse: Rock Hudson becomes one for Slrk The Danish-born Douglas Sirk carves an interesting niche for himself as the director of such melodramatic and artifice-rich hits as All That Heaven Allows , Written on the Wind 1 , and Imitation of Life , all featuring Rock Hudson The war film of the s veers away from the heroic, nationalistic themes and becomes increasingly preoccupied with the impact of military conflicts on individual human life.

Samuel Fuller, , From Here to Eternity dir. David Lean, Danny Kaye scores big hits with his merry The Court Jester dir. Norman Panama, and jesting Merry Andrew dir. Michael Kidd, Norman Z. McLeod, The pervasive fear of atomic holocaust and the increasing possibility of interplanetary travel'are reflected in the newly refurbished science-fiction genre.

Robert Wise, , The Thing dir. Christian Nyby, , War of the Worlds dir. Bryon Haskin, , and Forbidden Planet dir. Fred M. Wilcox, One of the most profound psychological sci- fi movies, On the Beach dir. Stanley Kramer, , depicts a grim vision of Earth after a nuclear attack. Little Fugitive foreshadows the upcoming aesthetic of the French New Wave, especially its landmark films, Breathless and Blows. Aside from shamelessly showcasing the youthful beauty of Alain Delon b. The highly popular cloak-and-dagger subgenre of the costume film finds its great exponent in Fanfan-la-tulipe dir.

Christian- Jaque, , starring the charming and irresistible Girard Philipe Collectively known as cin6phlles film lovers the Cahiers group becomes famous for theoretical writings on world film — the first such undertaking in postwar film critique. Their ideology embraces two aspects of filmmaking: 1. Cinephiles become cineastes — filmmakers with an artistic agenda.

The movie becomes the most celebrated picture among the cindastes themselves, and enjoys a great commercial success worldwide. A young Parisian hoodlum Jean-Paul Belmondo with no respect for the authorities falls for an American student Jean Seberg , who betrays him to the police.

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Godard molds this trivial plot into a deliberately chaotic sequence of events shot mostly with a hand-held camera and on location. French Comedy In the macabre The Red Inn L'Auberge rouge, Claude Autant-Lara, , the famous French comedian Fernandel creates the most memorable role of his long career— a monk who involuntarily becomes a confessor to the murderous inn keepers. Inspired by the best traditions of silent burlesque, the brilliant French entertainer JaquesTati creates his blundering Monsieur Hulot screen persona. Hulot, a walking or, rather, stumbling anachronism, becomes entangled in the trappings of modern society in such comedic masterpieces as Mr.

In addition to performing the title character, Tati visually conceives his films in minute details and directs them with a clockmajpr's precision. The cinema of Finland offers the beautifully stark The White Reindeer Valkoinen peura, , written, photographed and directed by Erik Blomberg. The film is an adaptation of the mythical Lapp story shot with an impeccable sense of composition on location in the Arctic Circle.

Ingmar Bergman receives international recognition with The Seventh Seal Det sjunde inseglet, , an allegorical tale of the struggle between forces of life and death, set in Medieval Europe. A dying science professor engages in a memory game, eavesdropping on the ghosts from the past and remembering those still alive — every person that mattered in his long and rich life. In the role of the protagonist, Bergman casts his master and mentor, the legendary Swedish director Victor Sjostrom.

In the moving anti-war drama Ballad of a Soldier Ballada o soldate, , Chukhrai focuses on an accidental war hero who, on a brief leave, travels back home to see his mother. This poetic movie becomes an instant classic and the first international triumph of postwar Soviet cinema. This highly unusual film, conceived as pro-Castro propaganda, is shot in a pseudo-documentary style and contains arguably the most outstanding black and white photography and camera work of its time by Sergei Urushevski. Because the political agenda is overwhelmed by the sheer beauty of images, I Am Cuba is shelved for nearly thirty years.

In Canal Kanal, , Wajda portrays the hopeless struggle of the Home Army soldiers in the last stage of the Warsaw uprising. Kanal becomes the first major international success for Polish cinema. Perfectly composed and rich in allegory, the film becomes an instant classic with Polish audiences and gradually secures a permanent place as one of the great masterpieces of world cinema.

After the engaging, dark and deliberately ambiguous psychological drama Baltic Express Pociag , Kawalerowicz directs Mother Joan of the Angels Matka Joanna od aniolow, 1 , an astonishing tale of a nun possessed by the Devil in a 1 7th century Polish convent. In the most expensive polish movie to date, Pharaoh Faraon, , based on the Boleslaw Prus novel, Kawalerowicz meticulously recreates the world of ancient Egypt and its political structure. Andrzej Munk completes merely three features before his untimely death in an auto accident, but they remain an enduring legacy to his artistic vision.

His first feature, Man on the Track Czlowiek na torze, , analyzes individual attitudes of the Stalinist society. The satirical Eroica presents the traditional Polish myth of heroism at all cost in a less glorified light. Bad Luck Zezowate szczescie, 1 features the great Polish actor Bogumil Kobiela as a weasly opportunist capable of adapting to any political and economical circumstance. Even in this uncompleted version, The Passenger is a highly effective film about the nature of pain — those we receive and those we cause.

A samurai is killed in the woods; his wife, a captured bandit, and a woodcutter all witnessed the murder. Questioned by the authorities, all tell conflicting stories about the gruesome event. Seven Samurai Shichinin no samurai, , a jidai-geki of epic proportions, tells a story of vagabond samurai warriors for hire who take a job protecting poor villagers from the terror of local bandits.

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  • Toshiro Mifune in The Throne of Blood For Ken i Mlzoguchi, the decade of the s proves to be the most rewarding in terms of artistic accomplishments. The lives of prostitutes become the central theme of his The Life of Oharu Saikaku ichidai onna, 1 and Street of Shame Akasen chitai, Both are shot with a great sense of humanism and compassion.

    Ugetsu Ugetsu monogatari, 1 is a 1 2th century story of a pair of potters who abandon their families to pursue fame and fortune. Simultaneously realistic and fantastic, Ugetsu speaks out against materialistic ambitions of man and presents spiritual solace as the only meaningful reward in life. Like most of the Mizoguchi films, Sansho is photographed by the brilliant cinematographer Kazuo Miyagawa. An undisputed master of composition, Ozu often utilizes off-screen. The recent memory of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki holocaust echoes in the extremely popular disaster thriller Godzilla Gojira , , shot in a stark black-and-white by Inoshiro Honda In , Fellini writes and directs La Strada, a poetic yet relentlessly brutal story of Gelsomina Gulietta Masina , a simpleminded country girl who is sold to the bestial Zampano Anthony Quinn , a travelling circus strongman.

    Ultimately, her unconditional devotion awakens the human being in Zampano. Anthony Quinn as Zampano in La Strada Fellini's next picture, The Swindle II bidone, , a lyrical tale of two small-time crooks, is enshrouded in an atmosphere of loneliness and despair. Human compassion is contrasted with ubiquitous egoism in The Nights of Cabiria Le notti di Cabiria, 1 In The Girl Friends Le amiche, , Antonioni analyzes relationships of bourgeois women from Turin, presenting their professional lives and emotional crises with subtle observation and a metaphorical use of scenery.

    The tragic and unsentimental The Cry II grido, 1 tells the story of a factory worker wondering across the barren landscape of the Po Valley with his daughter. Abandoned by his wife, unable to find personal happiness, the protagonist returns to the starting point of his journey only to take his own life. Ealing Studios produces such hits directed by Charles Crichton b.

    The last one stars one of the greatest comedians of the screen, Peter Sellers , who, with his multiple roles in The Mouse That Roared dir. Jack Arnold, , becomes the heir apparent to Alec Guinness. By day, the movie's protagonist Mark, played with an eerie conviction by Carl Boehm Karl-Heinz Bohm , is a focus puller for a major film studio.

    In his spare time, he engages in production of amateur snuff films, in which the victims are forced to look at their own agony in a strategically placed mirror. Powell, who, along with Emeric Pressburger, was responsible for reinvigorating the British film industry after the lean war years Black Narcissus, The Red Shoes is practically banned from his profession and goes into exile. Organizing a series of six film programs shown in London, Free Cinema devotes itself to supporting noncommercial movies which display a high degree of individuality.

    In a broader sense, Free Cinema refers to a series of low-budget documentaries influenced by Italian neorealism, which focus on everyday life. Tony Richardson adapts for the screen the rebellious hit play by John Osborne, Look Back in Anger , in which he effectively presents dissatisfaction of the working class with the British establishment. Room at the Top dir. Woodfall Films becomes the most influential studio of the New Wave movement. Furie, and Richardson himself. With its nervous, jittery editing and frequent flashbacks, Loneliness becomes one of the most celebrated examples of the "kitchen sink" cinema.

    Furie, , considered the last important Woodfall film, focuses on a group of young rebels confined to a dead-end existence by the grim economic reality of England. The movie becomes notorious for its depiction of a homosexual relationship. Here he begins to edit documentary war films for the Museum of Modern Art and also becomes a Spanish language consultant for Hollywood studios. After a brief stint as a commercial director in Mexico in the late s, Bunuel creates his first masterpiece. The Forgotten Ones Los olvidados, Shot in an utterly realistic style and strongly reminiscent of the neorealist aesthetic, the movie presents problems of troubled Mexico City youth.

    Unable to rise above the surrounding poverty and filth, the forlorn children turn to violence and crime. Like most of this director's Mexican films, Nazarin is photographed with great sensitivity by Gabriel Figueroa b. Another important Mexican picture, Roots Raices, Benito Alazraki, , is composed of four film novellas depicting lives of Mexican people with nearly ethnographic descriptiveness. Juan Antonio Bardem's b. The next two installments, The Unvanquished Aparajito, and The World of Apu Apur sansar, are slightly less cohesive in terms of theme and style, but, nonetheless, manage to paint a complex portrait of Indian society inseparably connected to its beautiful, if sometimes cruel, landscape.

    The Apu trilogy: childhood, young adulthood, and maturity Aaejay Kardar creates the first masterwork of the Pakistani cinema— The Sun Raises Over Bengal Jago hua savera, , which portrays a symbiotic relationship between man and nature. A former television actor, Cassavetes directs his first movie, Shadows, for thirty thousand dollars with a 16mm camera.

    Shot in but re-edited and blown up to 35mm stock a year later for distribution, Shadows evolves as a series of spontaneous, non-scripted scenes portraying mulatto siblings as they attempt to assimilate into the hip scene of the New York bohemia. At once a study of interracial dynamics and a moving family drama, Shadows anticipates the maturity of cinematic themes in the 1 s. Both movies are shot almost exclusively indoors, with an intrusive, documentary-style camera work, and rely heavily on the extreme close-up to convey maximum emotional intensity of the characters.

    In addition to writing and directing, Cassavetes does his own camera work and editing. He thus fully deserves to be named the premier American auteur After directing the multimillion Hollywood production of Spartacus , Stanley Kubrick b. Itself a product of sophisticated technology blue screen, travelling mattes, scale models, front projection , the movie deals with the potentially disastrous effects of artificial intelligence on human life. Philosophically, however, becomes an astute, almost nonverbal essay on the ageless question of the origin and destination of our journey as a human kind.

    It is Lumet who givps Sean Connery b. This rather traditionally shot story of a deaf and mute child's road to improvement is graced by the exquisite performances of Anne Bancroft b. Mickey One , an offbeat film featuring Warren Beatty b. Bonnie and Clyde is co-produced by Beatty and directed by Penn with a gusto unprecedented in American cinema.

    George Roy Hill, 1 and Easy Rider dir. Dennis Hopper, become the most popular ones. Easy Rider, a low-budget independent movie with no recognizable stars, features a pair of social outcasts on a cross-country motorcycle trip. The free spirited outlook of the movie and its clearly defined counterculture attitude strike a chord with audiences worldwide.

    Another direct descendant of Bonnie and Clyde, The Wild Bunch , parallels the issues of Vietnam war atrocities in an allegorical, yet quite to the point manner. All this proves too much for Warner Bros, which tones down the movie several times before distribution. An early archetype of an antihero can be found, in The Hustler dir. Robert Rossen, , where Newman portrays a young, talented pool-shark who takes on an aging king of the pool halls Jackie Gleason.

    His feature film debut, Rachel, Rachel , a small town story of a primary school teacher on the verge of spinsterhood, becomes the sleeper hit of the year. Joanne Woodward b. One of the most charming of the rebellious pictures of the late 1 s is the subversively religious Cool Hand Luke dir. Paul Newman plays a thinly disguised Christ figure confined to a Southern prison for disorderly conduct. His persistent defiance of the authorities and frequent escape attempts bring a spark of life and hope to the fellow inmates.

    Don Siegel, 1 , The Great Escape dir. John Sturges, , The Cincinnati Kid dir. Norman Jewison, , and Nevada Smith dir. Jack Smight, 1 and Bullitt dir. Peter Yates, 1 , respectively. The latter becomes the first major Hollywood production to be shot entirely on location San Francisco. Paul Bogart, , in which James Garner b. John Frankenheimer b. Rock Hudson in Seconds Mike Nichols b. This largely static film showcases the brilliant talents of Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor as the ceaselessly feuding intellectual couple who find escape from reality in alcohol and elaborate, self-deluding mind games.

    This inspired tragicomedy tells a simple story of the complicated love triangle between a recent college graduate Dustin Hoffman , an older woman Anne Bancroft , and her daughter Katharine Ross. The former features James Cagney in his last role before retirement. This horse-wrangling drama co-stars Clark Gable in his last screen appearance before death of a heart attack and Montgomery Clift. John Huston In the s, focused more on literary than cinematic pursuits, Elia Kazan directs sporadically, though each time the results are outstanding. His Splendor In the Grass , adapted from the William Inge play, describes psychological effects first sexual experiences have on young people.

    Kirk Douglas successfully creates one of his most textured performances. Later in the decade, Aldrich scores his greatest financial hit with the relentlessly brutal anti-war movie, The Dirty Dozen Lancaster in Elmer Gantry After the superior adventure western The Professionals , also starring Lancaster, Brooks and screenwriter Truman Capote make the most devastating crime-and-punishment movie of the decade if not the century.

    In Cold Blood is the chilling, true account of two murders— one committed by a couple of small time crooks, the other by the state in its execution of the killers. Initiated with Dr, No dir. Terrence Young, , the James Bond series becomes the most profitable and longest running franchise in the history of cinema and a source of numerous less fortunate spin-offs. The original five Bonds, all starring the progressively bored with the part Sean Connery, are produced by Albert R.

    This blood-and-guts update of Romeo and Juliet displays some of the most visceral and energetic dance numbers In , Wise returns with The Sound of Music, the true story of a musical family escaping the Nazi regime in Austria. The movie, starring the sensational Julie Andrews, becomes the highest grossing film to date in the history of cinema. Other popular titles of the genre include The Music Man dir. Morton da Casta, , My Fair Lady dir. William Wyler, 1 The first one, In the Heat of the Night dir. Norman Jewison , is a superb thriller in which Poitier plays an urbane Philadelphia detective sent to Mississippi to assist with an investigation being led by a racist cop Rod Steiger.

    Stanley Kramer — a family drama dealing with issues of cross-racial marriage. One of the first is Medium Cool. The real-life riots during the 1 Democratic National Convention in Chicago serve as a backdrop of Medium Cool — a disturbing movie about the impersonal but potentially manipulative nature of media coverage of political events. Haskell Wexlsr b. Another highly innovative X-rated picture of the new American cinema is Midnight Cowboy 1 , directed by the recently transplanted to America John Schlesinger. The film focuses on the relationship between a male prostitute Jon Voight and a consumptive bum Dustin Hoffman as they try to survive the dehumanizing chaos of s New York.

    Anthony Perkins, fresh from his demented role in Psycho , is cast as Joseph K. Unable to find producers in the U. He appears in TV commercials, talk shows, and numerous movies of varied quality, working intermittently on several of his own projects, weiies as Falstaff none of which is ever brought to a fully realized form.

    Ray Harryhausen b. Franklin Schaffner, , in which Charlton Heston's spacecraft crashes onto a planet populated by a highly organized fascist society of primates.

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    • Surprisingly, Alphaville displays a strong, nearly traditional for Godard narrative format and rather restrained editing. Pierrot le fou is a gangster drama with only the traces of a plot and an abundance of accidental events. Oskar Werner in Fahrenheit Truffaut's fascination with Hitchcock results not only in a book-sized interview with the British-American master, but also in the choice of his new movie— The Bride Wore Black Mariee etaiten noir, , a well crafted thriller starring the exquisite Jeanne Moreau b. Stolen Kisses Baisers voles, brings back the hero of Blows, Antoine Doinel Jean-Pierre Leaud , who now experiences the emotional tribulations of young adulthood.

      Eluding all classifications, the film recreates fluidity of thought and memory through the abstract juxtaposition of characters in a geometrically composed environment. On a political level, Muriel is one of the most eloquent pictures to question the morality of French involvement in the Algerian war. In the even more politically committed The War is Over La Guerre est fini, 1 , Resnais presents a middle-aged Spanish revolutionary whose visit to Paris results in a sudden re-evaluation of his strategies, both as an activist and a human being.

      Sidetracked by several purely commercial projects, Claude Chabrol makes his Nouvelle Vague comeback with The Does Les Biches, , an audacious lesbian story, and The Unfaithful Wife La Femme infidele, , an insightful analysis of adultery and its consequences. Like every true cindaste, Chabrol elevates Hitch to the Pantheon of cinema gods. The Fire Within Claude Lelouch b. On the lighter side of the French cinematic spectrum, Phillipe de Broca b. The first two installments of the cycle are short films; the remaining four— feature-length. In his next two films, Demy pays a tribute to the American musical genre.


      The Umbrellas of Cherbourg Les Parapluies de Cherbourg, is an inventive, elegantly decorated film with no spoken dialogue — every word is sung.