She looked really scared. She was crying. Before the next court hearing, we met with the judge in chambers, and he told us that he was going to grant it. Another courageous decision. When the judge formally dismissed the case in open court, he stated on the record that the only witness to the crime was Daniel, whose testimony was not going to be contradicted.
He sympathized with Daniel being in this terrifying situation and agreed with my analysis of the law. He said,. I think that the testimony that was given to me in this preliminary hearing is overwhelming to show that the killing of the deceased in this manner was done in self-defense and was so overwhelming that I'm going to rule, as a matter of law, that this killing was done as a matter of self-defense and I'm hereby dismissing the murder charges against the defendant.
After the preliminary hearing, the district attorney's office appealed this decision to the trial court. The issues were fully briefed by both sides and the trial court denied the appeal. Beth was lucky. Lucky to be released without bail to assist in her own defense. Lucky to appear before two judges who did not pass the buck to a jury and run the risk of facing adverse political consequences judges in Nevada are elected. I believe that the deputy district attorney who prosecuted this case was sympathetic to Beth's plight. She was moved when I showed her an old photograph of Beth sitting on the tub in a bathroom in one of her previous marital homes with blood streaming down her face from a busted nose and a thick big-buckled belt that Steven used for sadistic beatings.
I did not learn about the rapes and other sexual degradations until after I read the manuscript for this book. In most cases, when unarmed abusers are killed by their partners, strong sentiments for the deceased and his family coexist with those for the defendant. There are at least two sides to almost any story.
A typical homicide case is examined and judged from the first levels of investigation, through the charging and plea bargaining processes, and through contested court hearings by an array of people in authority who are charged with the responsibility of making tough decisions. Sometimes, on review, these decisions appear to be arbitrary and capricious, especially in a death penalty context. Patience, understanding, diligence, and resources are necessary. Money is required for many services. The National Clearinghouse for the Defense of Battered Women in Philadelphia —— is a center that provides information and resource material to attorneys, battered women's advocates, and expert witnesses who are assisting battered women charged with crimes.
This was a relatively clear-cut case of self-defense. Most others are not so simple. Nevada has a rule of evidence Nev. The trend in this country is to admit such evidence in court. The extent to which it can mitigate a murder charge down to justifiable homicide or even manslaughter is uncertain. Defense attorneys and other advocates should be alert to develop the potentially powerful argument that sustained psychological abuse can be as much if not more threatening and devastating than immediate or imminent physical attack.
The laws that govern the legal defense of self-defense in most states are still predicated on contemporaneous physical threats only. Changes in these laws by legislatures are needed to empower juries to render more humane verdicts. Throughout this country, participants in our criminal justice system are becoming increasingly aware of the enormous toll that violence in the home exacts from our society. While education, intervention, and prevention are worthy endeavors, we who work in this system are presented too often with a fait accompli.
We then must strive to achieve what is fair and just for both the living and the dead. I believe that what happened to Beth in court was about as fair and just as she should have expected. Without luck, however, her story might not have had such a bittersweet, happy ending. Given that this generation has grown up with the Harry Potter series, the Twilight series, and The Hunger Games series, they are often understandably skeptical. However, I have yet to have a student who was not moved by this book, and those who do not read the book prior to the class discussion of the material always do so afterward.
Before they begin reading, I tell my students that it will not be an easy read—I have read this book no fewer than 18 times since it was published, and it never becomes easy—that it will be difficult and heart wrenching at times. I warn them in advance that the violence described is graphic and all too real. I encourage them to put the book down if necessary—to not read it all at once, because it can be overwhelming—and I encourage them to talk with me if they are struggling with the topics covered in the book.
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- I Am Not Your Victim: Anatomy of Domestic Violence.
I spend time discussing university and local resources for assistance in each of my courses, and sometimes, this book has triggered students to reach out for assistance. With all of this as preamble, students are impressed and inspired by I Am Not Your Victim; they do indeed read it cover-to-cover and, to my joy, most often without complaint! I first used this book in my Family Violence course and, given the success with which it was received by my students, I then began using it in Sociology of Gender, Violence and Victims, and some years Social Problems.
Those students who plan to enter the field of criminal justice, law, and victim advocacy have been particularly responsive to this book. They are most drawn to an analysis of the institutional breakdown in response to Beth and, in particular, how Beth was mistreated by law enforcement, military personnel, and the juvenile court system. Students who have an interest in pursuing advanced degrees in social work have been interested in Beth's interaction with mental health professionals and how members of her social network, including her biological family, failed to respond to her in supportive ways.
There are several common questions that arise every time that I teach this book:. Why does she stay? As those who work with or study women who are victimized by their partners will attest, this is the most frequently asked and hated question about battered women. Historically, it was presumed that battered women stayed with their partners for a variety of reasons, including their own psychopathology, low self-esteem, and masochism.
Theories such as the Battered Women's Syndrome, which portray women as helpless victims caught in a cycle of violence, have been offered in explanation of why some women make the decision to stay Walker, Indeed, simplistic explanations that blame women for staying often fail to recognize the complexities involved in why many battered cannot leave their abusers—fear, lack of resources, economic constraints, threats of losing their children, religious convictions, and love for their abuser, to name only a few of these complex reasons.
One of the most compelling reasons is indeed fear of what will happen to themselves and their children if they do leave. As Beth's story indicates, all too often, the violence increases during times of separation and divorce. Beth wrote about what happened after she was separated from Sam:. Sam still came around as he pleased. He would tell me how my body belonged to him, how he could do anything with it any time he wanted, and that I'd better not forget it. In teaching this book, I focus on Beth's amazing resilience and the creative strategies she used to protect herself and her children.
In spite of the horrific physical, emotional, and sexual violence she suffered at the hands of Sam, Beth was able to obtain her driver's license, finish a degree, work at multiple jobs, and raise her children. Rather than focusing on her victimization, I encourage students to examine her strategies for survival and her resiliency—how, despite the violence and failures of the medical, criminal justice, and military institutions, Beth survived.
Why does he abuse? The second most frequently asked question in teaching this book is about Sam's behavior and why he was violent. Many will argue that Sam must have suffered from mental illness in order to behave so violently. As a large body of research in the field of violence against women has documented, the vast majority of men who abuse their partners do not suffer from mental illness.
Instead, many men abuse their partners because they believe that they have a right to do so. There is frequently a sense of entitlement in this patriarchal culture, in which abusers feel legitimized in using physical, emotional, and sexual abuse to control their partner's behavior. This sense of entitlement is particularly problematic when it is supported and reinforced by peer groups and institutions, as we see in Beth's story. When Beth shared her experiences with her family, Sam's family, Sam's friends, his military commander, and various other individuals, she was met with disbelief and was often blamed for her failures.
This served to justify and legitimate Sam's violence against Beth and reinforced his sense of entitlement, that he had a right, as her husband, to control her. This was particularly true throughout Beth's story whenever she challenged Sam's authority or questioned him about how their money was being spent. If the military had wanted me to have a wife, they would have issued me one.
This quote epitomizes Sam's sense of entitlement, his controlling attitude, and his belief that the Air Force would endorse his mistreatment of his wife because she was perceived as a nonentity. Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men. This book provides important insight into the coercive and controlling patterns of behavior that abusive men employ with their partners. As Bancroft argues, it is almost like someone hands abusers a playbook on how to control their partners—isolate them, demean them, convince them they are worthless, try to manipulate them into thinking they are crazy.
This is exactly what Sam does to Beth, and in many ways, he is a classic case study of an abusive man. Reading about the tactics of abusive men and the rationale for why some men abuse is essential when teaching this book in order to shift attention solely from Beth and her reactions or inability to react to Sam. This is particularly important for identifying the root of violence against women not in the mental illness of the abusers or some other form of psychopathology but in focusing on power and control.
When that sense of power and control is threatened, we see an escalation in the violence. This was certainly the case in Beth's story, as she experienced an escalation from verbal abuse on her wedding night to physical abuse and sexual violence. The violence intensified both in frequency and severity for Beth as she fought to gain her independence and Sam increasingly lost control over her over the course of their year relationship. Some answers to this frequently asked question are provided with the interview that Claire Renzetti and Jeff Edleson conducted with Beth for this new edition.
Beth continues to be a resilient survivor, as do so many women who have been abused by their partners. She lives her life with those whom she loves best surrounding her, including the animals to whom she has always been drawn, and those, like Bill, who have offered her love and companionship. It is important to consider the variety of ways in which women are impacted by violence. While not necessarily specific to Beth, many women who suffer extreme violence at the hands of their intimate partner suffer long-term effects including post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, disordered sleep, depression, substance abuse, and suicidal behavior.
Other health consequences commonly include chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders, problems with the immune system, and poor general health. When reading this book, it is impossible not to question the implications for Beth's children, whose lives were directly impacted by Sam's violence. There is a growing body of literature that examines the effects of witnessing abuse for children see Edleson, Children may directly witness experiences of violence, as was often the case for Beth's sons in this story, or they may hear violence taking place through walls or see the implications of the violence in the aftermath in the form of bruises, lacerations, tears, and broken objects.
In this book, Beth's sons not only witnessed the violence, but they were also frequently victimized themselves by Sam. In two of the more extreme cases, Matt suffered a severed artery after he was kicked out of a window, and Daniel was in the home when Beth killed Sam in self-defense. In her story, Beth recounts a variety of ways in which the boys responded to the violence in their home, including behavioral problems in school, running away from home, interactions with law enforcement, anxiety, depression, disordered sleep, and aggression with peers and partners.
As research indicates, children who are exposed to violence in their homes have a variety of responses and experience short- and long-term effects. Beth's children are certainly not alone in witnessing experiences of violence in the home. In conclusion, students and faculty are moved and inspired by Beth's story. Importantly, it is not only a fascinating read, but it has a profound effect on many who read it.
When I teach this book, I always find that it is specifically mentioned in course evaluations as one that students find important to their learning experiences. Some students have stated clearly that while they did not enjoy reading it, they think that it was important that they did. For some, this realization comes after they leave the classroom. Such a case is exemplified by one of my former students who recently paid a visit to my office.
She had been a student in my seminar on family violence, and in talking about her life since graduation, she shared with me how this is a book that she held onto and continues to think about.
It has helped her in her own life to understand some of her experiences and has been useful with friends and family members who were experiencing intimate partner violence. She has purchased several copies of the book to give to people who she thought could benefit from it. I have done the same on many occasions. In Beth Sipe's account of her moving and pain-infused experience, she speaks to a variety of complex issues intimately connected to domestic violence, including the impact of domestic violence on her three boys, Matt, James, and Daniel.
Their experience of child exposure to domestic violence CEDV , which is defined broadly as the multiple experiences of children not only witnessing or seeing violence but hearing and observing the aftermath of the violence Edleson, ; Edleson et al. Currently, prevention and intervention efforts to address CEDV are framed as a fundamental area of research in the larger field of domestic violence and have grown into a specific and active field of study for researchers and practitioners alike.
The following commentary briefly presents the current literature on several key areas: 1 the prevalence of CEDV, 2 the complicated nature of assessing the impact of CEDV, 3 measuring CEDV, 4 the debate over defining CEDV as child maltreatment, 5 health outcomes for children exposed to domestic violence, and 6 responding and intervening. Recently, the U.
This national random sample survey of 4, households showed that one in 15 children 6. Overall, out of the sample of 3, female caregivers of children reported to child protective services because of suspected abuse or neglect and who maintained their children at home, While the NSCAW and the NatSCEV both provide a larger national view of the lifetime prevalence of CEDV in the population, issues regarding the overall methodologies used in research to assess not only the prevalence of CEDV but also the impact of it on children continue to plague the field and will be discussed in the next section.
Despite these limitations, both of these national studies highlight the overwhelming number of children, like Beth's boys, who are exposed to domestic violence and, for some, other adverse experiences in their lives as well. When reflecting on the experience of Matt, James, and Daniel, it is readily apparent that their exposure to their father's violence toward their mother was not the only source of trauma they experienced. Their lives were truly complex on many levels. In addition, there was an increase in the prevalence of every category of ACE as the frequency of witnessing domestic violence increased Dube et al.
These findings point to the importance of assessing the frequency of children's exposure in addition to assessing the existence of co-occurring adverse or traumatic experiences as well as the protective and other risk factors present in a child's life. Moreover, the ACE Study findings demonstrate the long-term impact of CEDV, building more evidence for the need for increased understanding and intervention efforts.
Faced with the growing knowledge of CEDV's prevalence and impact, one of the important and current areas of scholarship has been the development of scales to measure child exposure to domestic violence from child self-reports. One example of a child-report measure is the CEDV Scale, a item tool that provides a standardized and multidimensional method to measure child exposure to domestic violence by Edleson and his colleagues Edleson et al. The introduction of the CEDV Scale provides a tested measure of children's exposure to domestic violence. Following this process, the 42 items from the CEDV Scale were categorized into six subscales: 1 level of violence in the home, 2 level of exposure to violence in the home, 3 level of exposure to other forms of community violence, 4 level of child involvement in violent events, 5 risk factors in the child's home life, and 6 other victimizations the child has experienced at home Edleson et al.
Although relatively new to the field, the CEDV Scale has been used by researchers throughout the world, including published studies in South Africa Makubela, Continued refinement of the measures used to assess CEDV must persist, including increased evaluation of the scales' internal and external reliability and validity.
Even without a formal CEDV child report assessment, reading about Matt, James, and Daniel's experiences of exposure to domestic violence may evoke [Page ] deep feelings, even feelings of doubt about whether Beth or Sam were parents who could safely protect and care for the boys, leading a reader to question whether involving child protective services may have been appropriate at an earlier time than after Sam's death.
Readers' internal debates are an external reality in the current public and policy debate about whether CEDV should be legally defined as child maltreatment Edleson, Defining CEDV as maltreatment from a child welfare perspective presents a way of bringing welfare system responses into the arena of intimate partner violence, thereby protecting children and assuring their safety by legislating exposure to violence as a form of child maltreatment. However, domestic violence advocates argue that mothers are often blamed or held accountable e.
These concerns regarding blaming and revictimizing the mother are important and relevant in this discussion; they must not sway practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike to actively avoid a means to creatively and fairly address issues of children's safety, a point discussed in the following section. In addition to the issues of how different professionals view the significance of framing CEDV as child maltreatment, there are major challenges faced by child welfare systems in states that have legally defined CEDV as maltreatment and thereby created mandatory reporting.
Looking at child welfare approaches that already exist, Cross et al. Differential response as a national approach does not seek to substantiate the allegations of low to moderate abuse or neglect but, instead, works to assess the strengths within a family and provide voluntary services to mitigate risks. While research on problems associated with CEDV has provided clear documentation of both the presence of internalized and externalized behavior problems, there are several key areas that remain the subjects of debate.
One of these key areas is the specific influence of the child's developmental stage during exposure. Some research suggests that development matters when assessing the impact of domestic violence on children Martin, ; McIntosh, In a review of the literature on the impact of exposure to violence on children's health and developmental well-being, Holt et al.
For example, early exposure may create more severe problems for children, as it occurs at the crucial pattern-setting phase of development. However, when Wolfe and colleagues Wolfe, Crooks et al. This was possibly due to the great variability in the studies' methodologies. While CEDV research may be perceived as separate from the lived experiences of children and their families, the core purpose of this empirical work is driven most often by scholars who were or are currently actively engaged in the larger movement to end domestic violence, violence against women, and child maltreatment.
Therefore, the push to continue rigorous, methodologically sound research that includes large-scale longitudinal studies Wolfe, Crooks et al. There is a clear need for women's advocacy organizations, child welfare organizations, criminal justice systems, and health care systems to work together for the common good of all family members Cross et al. For the children affected by exposure to domestic violence to have the opportunity to heal and develop resilience, the systems that surround them will need to develop and sustain coordinated and comprehensive treatment pathways that address the multiplicity of issues faced by children and their caregivers.
Several intervention initiatives have emerged over the last two decades that directly address this need, such as the Greenbook and Safe Start Initiatives. Six national Greenbook Initiative demonstration sites received federal funding from the U. Departments of Justice and Health and Human Services to implement the recommended practices. However, fewer intra-system implementations of Greenbook practices were seen in both the court system Malik, Silverman et al.
This evidence speaks to the difficulty in changing ingrained patterns of practice and how, even with funding and extensive technical assistance to support innovative practice, long-term changes were difficult to achieve. Additional, and perhaps different, strategies are needed to address the lack of change in the court and domestic violence systems. In addition to the Greenbook Initiative, the Safe Start Initiative, another federally funded initiative, is designed to encourage the shaping of systems to address children's exposure to violence, including domestic, family, and community violence Safe Start Center, , Funded through the OJJDP, Safe Start projects encompass a variety of efforts grounded in the two goals of the Initiative: 1 to provide families with the most evidence-based practice for children and other family members who are exposed to violence and 2 to conduct high-quality research to test the effectiveness of the practices to improve the services for children and their families who are exposed to violence.
Models of specific group interventions have also been developed, including the evidence-supported group program, the Kids' Club Graham-Bermann, , , which aims to nurture resilience and to augment children's recovery [Page ] from effects of CEDV through separate support groups for the children and their mothers. Recent findings from a study of the Superheroes program for children ages 6—11 who were exposed to domestic violence showed a decrease in participants' symptoms of psychosocial impairment, depressive symptomology, and several problematic behaviors Lee et al.
Overall, from the community and system-wide initiatives to small groups led by social workers in schools, the response to children exposed to domestic violence must include an awareness of the complexity and uniqueness of their particular situation. Responses need to be tailored to individual children, be developmentally appropriate, and build on resiliency factors in a child's life Holt et al. Child exposure to domestic violence is inescapably yoked to violence between their caregivers.
To be committed to preventing, intervening, and stopping domestic violence, one requires inclusion of the other. Understanding the impact of CEDV can lead to prevention and intervention efforts to end violence against both children and adult victims and benefit children, parents, families, and communities. There is a need to argue for the allocation of new resources and time for services focused on CEDV.
If children like Beth's boys are to grow up in safety and with an intact sense of well-being and self-efficacy, then we must challenge ourselves to learn, implement, and refine our skills of advocacy, research, and practice to holistically address the social reality of domestic violence. The more things change, the more they remain the same.
Reading Beth Sipe's story of her interactions with police, prosecutors, and the court system provides an opportunity to take stock of the changes to the criminal justice system over the past 25 years and to ask just how different Beth's experiences would be today. Beth's first mention of the police comes after an incident around Christmas , when Sam beat Beth so severely that he broke two of her teeth which she swallowed , split her lip, and broke her nose.
Sam kicked Beth in the ribs and hit her over the head with a metal lamp, causing her to pass out. When she returned home, she confided to a neighbor what had happened; the neighbor urged her to call the police.
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Worse because of the consequences for [Page ] bringing the power of the state to bear against Sam. But worse, too, because of how little the intervention of the criminal justice system had to offer women at that time, even women as badly beaten as Beth was during those incidents. In , the standard police response to a domestic violence call was to advise the husband to take a walk around the block to cool down before returning home—guidance that was actually included in police training manuals.
In the unlikely event that an arrest was made in a case involving domestic violence, prosecution was by no means guaranteed; rates of prosecution were ridiculously low, with prosecutors claiming that they could not bring domestic violence cases to court successfully, given the reluctance of women to testify against their husbands. This was the backdrop against which Beth Sipe initially made decisions about calling the police. The criminal justice system's response to domestic violence would not change significantly, in fact, until the city of Torrington, Connecticut, was held liable for its inaction in the face of violence similar to that faced by Beth Sipe.
Like Beth, Tracy Thurman's husband, Charles, had physically attacked and repeatedly threatened her; unlike Sam, Charles Thurman was convicted of breach of the peace for breaking Tracy's windshield. He received a six-month suspended sentence and a two-year conditional discharge and was ordered to stay away from Tracy in November of Notwithstanding the court's order, Charles Thurman repeatedly threatened his wife between December of and May of Tracy Thurman, in turn, repeatedly requested that the police arrest Charles for violation of his probation.
The police took no action. On June 10, , Charles found Tracy in a friend's home. Tracy called police, who did not come immediately, and after about 15 minutes, Tracy went outside the home to try to protect her son, Charles Jr. In response, Charles Thurman repeatedly stabbed Tracy Thurman in the chest, neck, and throat, then, in the presence of the officer who arrived 25 minutes after her initial call, kicked Tracy twice in the head.
Three additional officers arrived, but no one took Charles into custody until he again approached Tracy while she was lying on a stretcher, bleeding. Tracy Thurman sustained injuries that have left her paralyzed to this day. In the wake of Thurman v. City of Torrington, municipalities began to adopt mandatory arrest laws, requiring that police make an arrest in domestic violence cases whenever probable cause existed to do so.
Rather than allowing police to exercise discretion in determining when to arrest, mandatory arrest laws presumed arrest. Mandatory arrest laws were designed to ensure that men were held accountable for their violence against their wives through the intervention of the criminal justice system. Mandatory arrest laws played an important expressive function as well; declaring that domestic violence was a serious enough crime for all men who abused to be arrested sent the message that society would no longer tolerate violence against women, whether that violence played out in public or in the private sphere of the home.
And to the extent that success is measured by an increased number of arrests since the passage of the laws, mandatory arrest laws have been successful: Arrest rates have gone up significantly since the adoption of mandatory arrest laws. Mandatory arrest laws never fulfilled advocates' expectations for police response, however, and Beth Sipe's story illustrates several of the manifestations of that failure. Although both Colorado and Nevada had mandatory arrest laws during the time when Beth and Sam were living in those states, police circumvented the requirements of the mandatory arrest laws by simply refusing to respond to Beth's calls.
On one occasion, police told Beth they could not respond because she had left the home; on numerous others, because she called in response to Sam's increasingly violent threats rather than when she was actually being beaten, the police claimed they could not intervene.
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Beth recalls,. He has to be inside? How many times had I tried to call for help when Sam was beating me, only to have him jerk the phone out of the wall? Police continued to give Beth this response even after Sam had been arrested and released on bail in early Even when, after calling the police himself, Sam hit Beth in front of the police in Denver in June, , he was not arrested. The failure of police to respond to calls or to make arrests reinforced Beth's sense that they would not be helpful, discouraging her from seeking assistance and thus depriving her of one potential resource for addressing Sam's abuse—the very problems that mandatory arrest was meant to address.
But it has never been clear exactly how much arrest really does to deter men from continuing to terrorize their partners. Research on the impact of arrest in Minneapolis bolstered the initial support for mandatory arrest. Studies conducted in — by Lawrence Sherman and others linked arrest to lower rates of recidivism among perpetrators of domestic violence, suggesting that arrest deterred men who abused their partners from committing further acts of violence.
Attempts to replicate the Minneapolis study validated Sherman's caution, however. Further studies in six additional cities found deterrent effects in some locations, no effect in others, and, problematically, an increased risk of future violence in other jurisdictions. Sam Sipe's experience bears out Sherman's caution as well; although he was not arrested for all of the abuse he perpetrated, he was arrested twice, which did little to deter his violence against Beth.
It is an open question as to whether arrests on more than those two occasions would have made a significant difference in Sam's treatment of Beth. One pernicious unintended consequence of mandatory arrest laws has been the increase in the number of dual arrests and arrests of women subjected to abuse. Again, Beth's story is instructive. Beth's first interaction with police precedes the implementation of mandatory arrest laws in Virginia but bears a striking resemblance to the stories of women arrested under these laws. During a particularly horrific incident in April, , Beth pointed a gun at Sam, who laughed at her and took it away.
Sam left the home but returned with the military police. After Sam led them to the gun, Beth was taken into custody, despite the obviously severe injuries she had sustained, including a broken finger. The police refused to take her to have her injuries treated and refused to allow Beth to press charges against Sam for the abuse. Handcuffed in front of her children [Page ] and led from the home, Beth was taken to Richmond State Mental Hospital, where she was held overnight with 20 other women before being released the next day after a psychiatrist recognized that she was a victim of abuse.
Although the police intervention in this case did not lead to criminal justice consequences for Beth, the willingness of police to take Beth into custody despite the evidence of abuse is consistent with the stories of women arrested in mandatory arrest regimes. Worse, some officers threaten to take both parties into custody, telling women subjected to abuse that child protective services agencies will be called as a result of their arrest.
Faced with the consequence of losing their children, women subjected to abuse agree to withdraw their allegations if their partners will as well. Mandatory arrest laws are also problematic because they deny women like Beth the ability to make calculations about the impact of arrest on their safety and on other aspects of their lives: their ability to economically support their children, the reactions of their supportive communities, and the like.
Beth, like many women, called the police at those times when she most needed their help and determined that the risk of calling was outweighed by other factors—for example, her desperation in November, , when Sam took James from the home, was sufficient to spur her to call police, who escorted Sam back from the state border and returned James to Beth. On the two occasions when Sam was arrested in mandatory arrest jurisdictions, it was not Beth who called the police. In April, , Beth believed that neighbors must have called the police after a particularly brutal beating; early in , Sam was arrested after James called Neither time could Beth make a calculation as to whether her needs—for safety, for economic support, for stability for her children—would be best met by police intervention.
In a mandatory arrest regime, women are in theory, if not always in practice offered only one outcome when police respond and, knowing that to be the case, may choose not to ask for assistance at all. Sam Sipe was never prosecuted for his abuse of his wife. Even after the number of arrests for domestic violence began to grow as a result of mandatory [Page ] arrest policies, prosecution in cases involving domestic violence remained rare. Prosecutors argued that they could not successfully prosecute without the assistance of the victim—assistance that, in many cases, was not forthcoming, as women often refused to testify against their partners or recanted their claims.
In response to the frequent unavailability of the only witness who could substantiate the prosecution's claims, prosecutors adopted two kinds of policies.
Some began to build their cases as though there would be no victim able to testify, basing cases on evidence other than the victim's testimony physical evidence, statements to police, medical records, and the like —a policy known as victimless prosecution. Jurisdictions also began to adopt no-drop prosecution policies, which committed prosecutors to pursuing cases whenever they had sufficient evidence to do so.
The failure to prosecute cases involving domestic violence was deeply problematic, sending the message to Beth and other women subjected to abuse that the criminal justice system did not take their injuries seriously and did not care about protecting them or punishing their abusers. But policies like no-drop prosecution swing too far in the other direction, substituting prosecutorial goals, judgments, and decisions for those of women subjected to abuse and depriving women of agency in choosing how to respond to abuse.
Researcher David Ford has argued that women can use the threat of prosecution as a tool for equalizing power imbalances within a relationship—but only if they can control how that tool is used. Mandatory interventions deny women subjected to abuse that power. Beth was taken into custody shortly after she shot Sam on April 9, Despite her visible injuries, she was not taken to a hospital. After being questioned by detectives—and denied counsel—she was told that her case looked like self-defense and she was released.
Nonetheless, after several further conversations with detectives, Beth was rearrested on Thursday, May 5, , and her children were taken into state custody. She spent Mother's Day weekend in jail, not appearing in court for arraignment until the following Tuesday, when she was charged with first-degree murder. Despite the prosecutor's assertion that she was a flight risk, the judge released her on her own recognizance, based on the abuse she had suffered. Casares, Rick Star running back for the Chicago Bears Cash, June Carter Grammy-winning scion of one of country music's pioneering families and wife of Johnny Cash Cashen, Frank Former Mets general manager Cassady, Carolyn Writer and friend of Jack Kerouac Cassese, Antonio Renowned international law expert prosecuted war crimes Castillo, Kendrick Hero ran towards gunman in Colorado school shooting saving lives Castor, Jimmy Funk and soul saxophonist, singer and songwriter Cathey, Reg E.
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First black lawyer in Selma, Alabama, was prominent in civil rights cases Child, Julia Whose warbling, encouraging voice and able hands brought the intricacies of French cuisine Chiluba, Frederick Zambia's first democratically elected president Chisholm, Shirley An advocate for minority rights who became the first black woman elected to Congress Chopra, Yash Bollywood movie mogul Christensen, Todd Professional football player and sportscaster Christian, Linda Hollywood starlet who became the first Bond girl Christopher, Sybil Theater producer and ex-wife of Richard Burton Church Shooting Victims, Charleston Pastor, 8 others fatally shot at church Ciccone, Don Singer-songwriter who was a member of the Four Seasons Cirillo, Nathan Canadian soldier guarding war memorial Claiborne, Liz Fashion designer's styles became a cornerstone of career women's wardrobes Clancy, Gil Boxing trainer who helped lead Emile Griffith to welterweight and middleweight titles Clark, Guy Country singer-songwriter won a Grammy Award Clark, Huguette Montana copper heiress once lived in the largest apartment on Fifth Avenue Clark, Kelly Attorney fought for childhood victims of sexual abuse Clark, Kenneth B.
An educator and psychologist who spent his life working for racial integration Visionary science fiction writer won worldwide acclaim with more than books Clarke, Robert J. Clarke, Ron Australia's greatest middle distance runner Clarke, Warren British actor Clarke, William "Bunny Rugs" Husky-voiced reggae singer Clauson, Bryan Popular dirt track racer Clements, Bill Former Texas governor Clerides, Glafcos Former Cyprus president Cliburn, Van Internationally celebrated pianist helped thaw the Cold War Coachman Davis, Alice First black woman to win Olympic gold Coase, Ronald Oldest Nobel Prize winner Coates, Anne V.
House member in North Carolina Cochran, Johnnie L. Who became a legal superstar after helping clear O. Cockburn, Alexander Longtime columnist for The Nation magazine Cocker, Joe Award winning British singer Coe, George Veteran film and TV character actor Coe-Jones, Dawn Canadian hall of fame golfer Coffey, J.
Cogdill, Gail Former Detroit Lions wide receiver Cognito, Ian British comedian died on stage during stand-up routine Cohen, Avi Liverpool defender and first Israeli to play in England''s top soccer league Cohen, Carla Co-owner of popular D. Cohen, Leonard Legendary singer-songwriter penned "Hallelujah" Cole, George Veteran British actor known best for "Minder" Cole, Natalie Grammy-winning singer Coleman, Jerry Hall of Fame broadcaster Coleman, Ornette Innovative jazz saxophonist and composer Collapse Victims, Mecca Crane More than 65 people killed in crane accident at mosque Colledge, Cecilia Innovative figure skater was the youngest athlete to compete in the Winter Olympics Collier, Jason Atlanta Hawks center Collins, Bud Sportscaster provided decades of tennis commentary on TV Collins, Jerry Former All Blacks rugby player Collins, Marva Innovative Chicago educator Colmes, Alan Radio and TV political talk show host Colvin, Marie Respected American war reporter Commoner, Barry Scientist and one of the pioneers of the environmental movement Como, Perry Crooning baritone barber known for his relaxed vocals, cardigan sweaters and TV specials Compton, Lynn D.
Kennedy's limousine Acclaimed author of twin novels "Mrs. Bridge" and "Mr. Conner, Bruce Beat-era artist made groundbreaking avant-garde films Connors, Mike Actor starred on the detective series "Mannix" Connors, Tom Country-folk singer and one of Canada's biggest cultural icons Conrad, Paul Political cartoonist who won three Pulitzer Prizes Conroy, Pat Best-selling author drew upon rough childhood experience as military brat Cooley, Denton Surgeon performed world's first artificial heart implant Cooley, E.
Cooper, Henry Heavyweight boxer once knocked down Muhammad Ali Cooper, Jackie Won a best actor Oscar nomination at the age of Cope, Myron Screechy-voiced announcer's colorful catch phrases became symbols of the Pittsburgh Steelers Cordice, John W. Surgeon was part of the medical team that saved Martin Luther King Jr Corey, Mary J.
First woman to hold the top editorial post at The Baltimore Sun newspaper Corliss, Richard Time magazine longtime film critic Cornelius, Don "Soul Train" creator and longtime host Coryell, Don NFL coach and a founding father of modern passing game Coryell, Larry Jazz guitarist was known as the Godfather of Fusion Jon Corzine Cossette, John Longtime executive producer of the Grammy Awards Cossiga, Francesco Former President of Italy Costanza, Margaret Veteran political activist and women's rights champion Cotton, Dorothy Civil rights pioneer worked alongside the Rev.
Cotton, James Legendary blues harp player won a Grammy in Courreges, Andre French fashion designer and miniskirt pioneer Court, Hazel English actress starred in popular horror movies of the s and '60s Courtenay, Bryce Best-selling Australian author Covey, Joy Former Amazon executive Covey, Stephen R. Covington, Joey Former Jefferson Airplane drummer Cowan, George Manhattan Project scientist Cowden, Gordon W.
Craig Lewis, Joyce Female Philadelphia firefighter dies in house fire Craighead George, Jean Newbery Medal-winning author Cramer, Richard Ben Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author Crane, Phil Former Illinois congressman Crash Victims, Colombia Plane 75 people, including many soccer players, are killed Crash Victims, Colorado Van Amtrak train-van collision leaves 5 dead Crash Victims, Flydubai All 62 people onboard the aircraft have died Crash Victims, Georgia Southern Five students killed in multiple vehicle crash Crash Victims, Philly Amtrak Eight dead after train derailed Craven, Wes Iconic film director whose name is synonymous with horror Crenchaw, Milton One of the last original Tuskegee Airmen instructors Crewe, Bob Wrote string of hits for the Four Seasons Crews, Harry Author and cult favorite whose hard and crazy times inspired his brutal tales Croker, C.
Crough, Suzanne "The Partridge Family" child star Crowder, Eddie Spent nearly half a century as U. Crumley, James Crime novelist whose hardened detectives worked cases in dingy Montana bars Cullen, H. Jay Trooper died in helicopter crash at white nationalist rally in Charlottesville.. Cummings, Bart Legendary Australian racehorse trainer Cunningham, Merce Avant-garde dancer and choreographer who revolutionized modern dance Cuomo, Mario Former governor or New York Curran, Jack High school coaching great Curtis, Ann Swimmer won three medals at the Olympic Games Cygan, John Actor played a detective on "The Commish" D'Amico, Cecchi Screenwriter of classic Italian neo-realist films Dahl, Sandy Widow of pilot of United Flight 93 dies Dailey, Janet Romance writer whose books sold more than million copies Daily, Bill Comedic TV sidekick Dal Canton, Bruce Former teacher had a lengthy career as a major league pitcher and coach Dale, Dick "King of the Surf Guitar" Dale Oen, Alexander World champion swimmer from Norway Daley, Maggie Former Chicago first lady Dalla, Lucio Italian singer-songwriter sold millions of records worldwide Daly, Mary Radical feminist theology professor Dana, Bill Famed research test pilot Dana , Paul Indy Racing League driver, and former motorsports journalist Daniels, Paul British magician and entertainer Dankworth, John British jazz composer, saxophonist and band leader Danto, Arthur C.
Groundbreaking art critic Darcel, Denise French-born actress known for vampy roles Dark, Alvin Longtime manager and star shortstop Darling, Jean Child actor in the "Our Gang" comedy film series Davenport, Lee Developed radar that helped U. David, Hal Legendary songwriter partnered with Burt Bacharach Davidson, Bill Detroit Pistons owner and noted philanthropist Davidson, Gordon Film, theater director founded L. Davidson, Michael J.
Cardiac surgeon who was fatally shot Davies, Howard Acclaimed British theatre director Davies, John Howard Cherubic child actor became influential British television producer Davis, Ann B. Actress on "The Brady Bunch" Davis, Jack Champion hurdler won two Olympic silver medals in the s Davis, Jo Ann Virginia's first woman elected to Congress Davis, Kevin J.
Member of the Navy Blue Angels died in a crash while performing Davis, Michael Bassist of influential late s rock band MC Davis, Ossie An actor distinguished for roles dealing with racial injustice on stage, screen and in real life Davis, Shaniya 5-year-old had been missing for one week Davis, Steve Former Oklahoma quarterback Dawkins, Darryl NBA player known for his thunderous dunks Dawkins, Jimmy Chicago bluesman Dayan, Assi Iconic Israeli filmmaker Dayton, Bruce Retailer built family's company into what became Target De Laurentiis, Dino Prolific film producer and entrepreneur Dean, Jimmy Country music legend and sausage entrepreneur Dean, Millvina Last survivor of the "unsinkable" Titanic Deaver, Michael Close adviser to Ronald Reagan DeBakey, Michael Cardiovascular surgeon who pioneered heart bypass surgery DeBerry, Lois Longtime Tenn.
DeBruin, Lynn Associated Press sports writer DeCarava, Roy Photographer who captured Harlem's everyday life DeCrow, Karen Women's rights movement leader Dee, Paul Former University of Miami athletic director Dee, Ruby Beloved actor and civil rights activist Dee, Sandra The blond beauty who attracted a large teen audience in the s Del Pozo, Jesus One of Spain's most influential style modernizers Della Casa, Lisa Opera diva widely acclaimed as one of the finest sopranos of her generation The innovative automaker who left a promising career in Detroit to develop the stainless steel-skinned Delp, Brad Lead singer for the band Boston Demps, Benjamin Former Kansas City school superintendent Denktash, Rauf Former Turkish Cypriot leader Denmark, Leila Oldest practicing physician in the world Dennis, Herman D.
Denver, Bob Whose portrayal of goofy first mate Gilligan on the s television show "Gilligan's Island" made him an iconic figure Derby, Pat 'Flipper,' 'Lassie' trainer-turned-activist Derr, Allen Idaho lawyer won landmark anti-discrimination case Derwinski, Edward First U. Desio, Alfred Broadway veteran invented a form of electronically enhanced tap dancing called Tap-Tronics Dewdney, Anna Best-selling children's author was known for her "Llama Llama" stories Di Stefano, Alfredo Real Madrid soccer great Di Stefano, Giuseppe One of the greatest tenors of the 20th century Dickens, Hazel Folk singer and bluegrass musician who advocated for coal miners Dickens, Jimmy Oldest Opry Member Diddley, Bo Rock 'n' roll innovator inspired with distinctive "shave and a haircut, two bits" rhythm Didlake, Emma A Michigan woman believed to be the nation's oldest veteran Dienstbier, Jiri Czech dissident who helped topple Communist regime Dietrich II, William S.
Steel executive-turned-philanthropist who pledged major gifts to universities Diller, Phyllis Pioneering standup comic Dillon, Denis Former D. DiLorenzo, Francis X. Roman Catholic clergyman served as bishop of Richmond, Virginia, for 13 years Dingell, John Longest-serving Congressman in U. DiPaolo, Frank Political mentor to former U. Patrick Kennedy Disney, Roy Walt Disney nephew who twice led shareholder revolts Senator of Illinois Dixon, Jessy Gospel singer and songwriter Djerassi, Carl Widely considered the father of the birth control pill Doar, John Notable civil rights lawyer Dobbs, Quail Beloved rodeo clown Dobson, Tamara Tall, stunning model-turned-actress who portrayed Cleopatra Jones Doctorow, E.
Best-selling novelist who penned "Ragtime," "Billy Bathgate" Doerflein, Thomas Zookeeper gained fame for hand-rearing Knut the polar bear Doherty, Denny One-quarter of the s folk-rock group the Mamas and the Papas Doig, Ivan Award-winning author from Montana Dolby, Ray Audio pioneer founded Dolby Laboratories Doll, Dora German-born actress whose film credits include "Julia" Dolman, Nancy Actress and wife of actor Martin Short Donaldson, George Celtic Thunder's principal singer Dorman, Lee Bassist for psychedelic rock band Iron Butterfly Dorn, Joel Grammy-winning record producer whose career spanned 40 years Douglas, Diana Actress, model, and mother of Michael Douglas Douglas, Ellen Author of the acclaimed novel "Apostles of Light" Douglas, Mike Who drew on his affable personality and singing talent during 21 years as a talk show host Douglass, Dexter Attorney who represented Al Gore during the election recount of Dow, Nancy Actress-model was the mother of actress Jennifer Aniston Drake, Evelyn and Gilbert Couple married 78 years dies within 48 hours of one another Drake, Larry Emmy-winning actor from "L.
Drew, Ronnie founding member of the Irish folk group The Dubliners Dreyfus, Lee Sherman Former Wisconsin governor was known for his businesslike approach to politics Drowning Victims, Refugee At least 34 people dead while trying to sail away from Turkey Drummond-Webb, Jonathan A heart surgeon whose work was the focus of a four-part television series Dryden, Spencer The drummer for legendary rock band the Jefferson Airplane Dubrow, Kevin Lead singer for the s heavy metal band Quiet Riot Ducommun, Rick Actor and comedian known for his role in the film "The 'Burbs" Duke, George Grammy-winning jazz keyboardist and producer Dulbecco, Renato Shared Nobel Prize in medicine for his cancer research Duncan, Lois Author known for writing suspense novels for young adults Duncan, Michael Clarke Academy Award nominated actor Duncan, Thomas Patient diagnosed with Ebola virus in Dallas Dunham, Katherine A pioneering dancer and choreographer, author and civil rights activist Dunham, Madelyn Grandmother of Barack Obama was the cornerstone of her family Dunn, Holly Former country singer had two No.
Dunn, Jennifer Former Republican Congresswoman represented Seattle's east-side suburbs for six terms Dunn, Katherine Author penned the best-selling novel "Geek Love" Dunne, Dominick Journalist and best-selling author of crime stories Dunsworth, John Actor best known as Mr. Dural Jr. Durbin, Deanna Early Hollywood superstar Duren, Ryne All-Star pitcher known for his fastball, occasional wildness and thick glasses Senator from New Hampshire Durning, Charles "King of character actors" Dussourd, Maryetta Mother exposed clergy abuse Dwyer, Joseph Photo of former Army medic carrying an injured boy received international media attention Dysart, Richard Veteran actor starred on "L.
Eagleburger, Lawrence S. The only career foreign service officer to rise to the position of secretary of state Eagleton, Thomas Former U. Earnhardt, Dale Auto racing's "Intimidator" Earthquake Victims, Indonesia At least 97 people dead in Aceh province Earthquake Victims, Italian At least people have died in an earthquake in central Italy Easterling, Ray Former Atlanta Falcons safety Ecker, James Prominent Pittsburgh defense attorney Economaki, Chris Regarded as the authoritative voice in motorsports Edelman, Daniel J.
Built one of the world's top public relations companies Edelman, Marek The last surviving leader of the Warsaw ghetto revolt against the Nazis Edgar, Robert W. Represented Pennsylvania for six terms in the House of Representatives Edmiston, Walker Actor was the voice of many cartoon and puppet characters, including Ernie the Keebler elf Representative from California Edwards, Elizabeth Attorney and author was married to politician John Edwards Edwards, Geoff Hosted game shows including "Jackpot!
Edwards, Kenny Original member of the Stone Poneys country-rock band Edwin Edwards Edwards, Robert Nobel prizewinner for pioneering in vitro fertilization research Egypt A member of Egypt's last royal family Ehrhardt, Karl The sign man of Shea Stadium Ekberg, Anita 'La Dolce Vita' actress Ekvall, Eva Former Miss Venezuela Elias, Buddy Holocaust diarist Anne Frank's last close kin Eliot, Valerie Widow of T.
Eliot and zealous guardian of the poet's literary legacy Elizabeth, Queen Mother A symbol of courage and dignity during a tumultuous century Elkabetz, Ronit Israeli actress won multiple film awards Ellen Mark, Mary Legendary documentary photographer Elliott, Bob Half of the famous Bob and Ray comedy team Elliott, Patricia Tony-winning actress and TV soap star Ellis, Albert Considered by many to be among the most influential figures in modern psychology Ellis, Alton Reggae pioneer enjoyed a recent career revival after hits in the s Ellis, David R.
Actor-turned-stuntman-turned-director of "Snakes on a Plane" Ellis, Dock Went with a 3. Ellis, Jimmy Ex-boxing champion Ellison, Lillian Professional wrestling's Fabulous Moolah Ely, Jack "Louie Louie" singer Emmons, Bobby Legendary Nashville studio musician English, Kim Gospel and house music singer Entwistle, John Founding member of and bassist for the rock band The Who Erbakan, Necmettin Former Turkish prime minister Erde, Betty Skelton Auto racing pioneer who was once the fastest woman on Earth Erickson, Roky Pioneering psychedelic rocker Ermey, R.
Ertegun, Ahmet Atlantic Records founder helped define American music Erwin, Bill Character actor known for his role as the grumpy old man on "Seinfeld" Escalante, Jaime The high school teacher who inspired the movie "Stand and Deliver" All I knew is that I had to see him again. I hired her to fix my company, to bring Marks Lingerie back to life. The first rule of business is to never touch your employees. Ellis Renois is at the top of the fashion world and has built the Renois Company into a success that dominates the runways of the world. Ellis loves creating clothes, and she loves the beautiful women who wear them.
While Ellis deals with design, she leaves the business aspect to others. Rocket science is no problem. At twenty-three, Poe Montgomery is going nowhere. Nothing fazes Taylor Donovan. In the courtroom she never lets the opposition see her sweat.
Even if he is the Jason Andrews. New York Barons tight end Gavin Brawley is suspended from the team and on house arrest after a video of him brawling goes viral. In the City of Light, one dancer must confront her fears about love and loss before she can step into a brighter future. New department, new case and a new partner. Smart, athletic and handsome, Jameson Walker is twelve years his junior. I can offer her the world… but will she accept it?
Cameron Duke the Fourth is fleeing Earth to escape all the unwanted attention from the masses. The first standalone romance by New York Times and 1 international bestselling author Christina Lauren Beautiful Bastard is a sexy, compulsively readable romantic comedy that dives headlong into the thrill and doubt of modern love. Michael, the Duke of Hadlow, has the liberty of enjoying an indiscretion. But when it comes time for him to take a proper bride, he ultimately realizes he wants only one woman: Edwina Cheltam. This door happens to lead to paradise.
And a man I can never, ever have. This is forbidden love at its finest. Elle McCray has a plan. Work hard. Be the best. And do it alone. So when trouble personified, Lane Cannon, dares to flirt with her, she shuts him down cold. Too gorgeous. Too cocky. No, thank you. Constance Chen is not the demure kind of librarian.
Sure, her high-horsepower ride is Big Bertha the Bookmobile, but Con swears a blue streak, does her own home improvement, and wears steel-toed boots. She has a tight circle of friends, a demanding, beloved sprawl of a Chinese-American family, and a strict hookups-only policy when it comes to men. Her life is just how she wants it. Wrong for some hands-on inspiration. Lettie Osbourne has lived her whole life by the book. Now Harriet has to work with Marcus. The key to how corporate lawyer Alexandra Knight manages her busy life.
However, lately all her precisely drawn lines are getting blurred. Blame it on her out-of-control biological clock that is ignoring her single status…and on Ethan Stone. This from the guy who avoids all commitment? Really, really attracted.
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Gavin: Ellie Montague is smart, sensitive, and so gorgeous it hurts to look at her. The office of the Prime Minister of Canada. The PM. New York Times bestselling author Mary Balogh invites us into an intoxicating world — a select academy for young ladies — and introduces two unlikely lovers: a truly marvelous heroine, music teacher Frances Allard, and the man who seduces her with a passion no woman could possibly forget … They meet in a ferocious snowstorm.
She is a young teacher with a secret past. He is the black-caped stranger who comes to her rescue. Matt Caldwell must be the hardest-hearted man in the Lone Star State. The last thing he wants to do is open up to a woman—let alone trust her! She should be spending her junior year in France, eating pastries and sharpening her foreign language skills. Savannah Morrison is the new athletic trainer for the Moncton Ice Cats, a professional hockey team in the wilds of New Brunswick.
The last thing on earth she would do is date one of them. A brand new standalone romance from NYT Bestselling author Lauren Blakely Let me count the ways why falling into forbidden love is not my wisest move… 1. She works with me every single day. She works in my home. Playing with my five-year-old daughter. Teaching my little girl. Cooking for my princess. Which means… 3. But is he willing to lose his? Matthew Hamilton was handsome, polished, and intelligent. Three … Continue reading Mr. An ambitious intern. A perfectionist executive.
And a whole lot of name calling. A Beautiful Bastard. Ellie Manuel is a hopeless romantic, stuck in a cubicle all day. His well-publicized divorce was a disgrace, so Charles is sure an affair with his bewitching nanny would bring his family even more infamy. Ethan Vance has just played his last game as a collegiate soccer star. She has faith in her own scientific theories and is willing to work hard to prove them. Scott is looking for a wife. Erin Brewster is nervous enough on her first day of teaching at Hawthorn Hill.
But the way Zach Shepherd looks at her with his dark and dreamy blue eyes really throws her off her game. He simply has to walk past her to send her heart racing. Debut author Sally Thorne bursts on the scene with a hilarious and sexy workplace comedy all about that thin, fine line between hate and love. Nemesis n. Widowed young and left with two small children, the manager of the Kensington location of the illustrious tea shop is besieged on all sides between the bakery and family matters.
If only his remarkably efficient shop assistant, Betsy Popham, could manage his home life, too! Bastian Talbot and self-proclaimed sex goddess Charlie Pierce heat up the air waves with their flirty banter as radio hosts Dr. Hot and the Honeypot. He wants Charlie—in bed, and forever. Bridget Flanagan knows how to assess risks, but are the consequences of exposing her heart too dangerous?
Bridget has a passion for safety and in the world of oil refineries that makes her great at her job. So when her big promotion goes to someone else, she heads out on the town to forget her troubles. Jack Gibbs seems like the perfect man to distract her. Geeky meets kinky in this first deliciously sexy novel in the Slices of Pi series by RITA-nominated author Elia Winters, which follows the romantic rendezvous of the employees at PI Games, a gaming company based out of sultry Florida.
As a design manager at PI Games, Isabel Suarez is no stranger to the struggles of being a woman in a male-dominated industry. Show no fear. Overnight billionaires, the Beaumont brothers are thrust into life in the fast lane with exotic cars, private jets. A commanding presence in the boardroom and the bedroom, Deacon Beaumont has come to save the failing company French Kiss.
He was born to be boss in this glamorous new world of lacy lingerie and stunning supermodels. Gigi is no longer an innocent teen. Only an unexpected proposal and an awkward wardrobe malfunction mean that this is certainly going to be a night to remember… for all the wrong reasons! Unbeknownst to her, however, he arranges to have her work as the new publicist for his young, upscale resort and casino, Royal Courts.
Valentine Napier, the Duke of Montgomery, is the man London whispers about in boudoirs and back alleys. A notorious rake and blackmailer, Montgomery has returned from exile, intent on seeking revenge on those who have wronged him. But what he finds in his own bedroom may lay waste to all his plans.
World-renowned polo player and global face of Ralph Lauren, Nacho Figueras dives into the world of scandal and seduction with a new fiction series set in the glamorous, treacherous world of high-stakes polo competition. Georgia never wanted to be a jetsetter. A plain old country vet was fine for her. Lou is a hurricane.
A walking disaster.