Power tools appear to be everyday devices, but these tools can improve the human experience and build a reality that is constructed on a firm foundation of core values.
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Learn why you are here, how to use your thoughts to construct a richer reality, and how to create success in relationships, business, wealth and health. She developed InnerSpeak - a powerful tool for releasing blocks from the past to enable realization of life goals. She lives in Atlanta Georgia and her website is www. Table of Contents Introduction 1 Why Me? Why You? See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly.
This collection builds on this idea, generating both knowledge about empowerment evaluation and specific tools to build capacity in this area. In addition, self-assessment and accountability are pervasive concerns in society and around the world, in government, business, foundations, nonprofits, and academe. Empowerment evaluation has provided a philosophy, theoretical framework, and methods to address systematically these concerns. This collection [Page ix] brings us to an important stage in the evolution of empowerment evaluation, refining theory and practice.
This collection has been a team effort. Three editors brought their unique talents to this effort and worked diligently to make this dream a reality. Our contributors produced manuscripts of high quality under tight time lines. They responded to our critiques, incorporating our suggestions and in some cases using our comments as a catalyst for additional self-critique and improvement.
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In turn, they helped to shape our thinking about what empowerment evaluation is in theory and practice, often forcing us to rethink and revise our conception of the state of the art. We have come together from very different starting points. We come from academe, government, nonprofits, and foundations; some of us are academics, others are practitioners.
Our areas of focus are as diverse as our roles and affiliations, including public education, substance abuse prevention programs, battered women's shelters, and programs for individuals with disabilities, for HIV prevention, and for adolescent pregnancy prevention. We share a commitment to evaluation as a tool to build capacity and foster self-determination and program improvement. We have benefited greatly from the support and critique of colleagues including Karen Kirkart, past president of the American Evaluation Association, and Daniel Stufflebeam, from the Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University.
In their own way, each served to sharpen our conception of evaluation use and standards. The hazard in acknowledging our intellectual debt is that valued colleagues will be omitted, as an exhaustive list is not possible. Nevertheless, we want to acknowledge a few colleagues who have [Page x] been laboring in these same fields for years, well before this conception of evaluation had crystallized.
Jennifer Greene, Jean King, Mark Jenness, and Zoe Barley have made enormous contributions to the area of collaborative and participatory evaluation. Their work and that of colleagues who trace back to action research activity laid the groundwork for empowerment evaluation.
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The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention of the Department of Health and Human Services has been at the forefront of much of this work and should be recognized for its efforts and support of empowerment evaluation and this collection. The California Institute of Integral Studies has adopted this approach as part of its accreditation self-study and in so doing has created fertile ground for experimentation and knowledge development in this area. Stanford University, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and the University of South Carolina have been focal points for training and development of empowerment evaluation knowledge and tools.
Program participants and community coalition members from across the United States and abroad have used empowerment evaluation to improve their own lives. As is the case in the adoption of any new approach, however, there has been some risk, and the dedication of all those involved in making this approach work is greatly appreciated.
The Human Sciences Research Council and the Independent Development Trust in South Africa provided generous support to disseminate this approach and build capacity throughout their country. David Fetterman would like to acknowledge the efforts of Deborah Waxman, his lifelong companion, who devoted many hours helping him refine his thinking, writing, and practice in this new field and in developing this collection.
He also appreciates his entire family's support and encouragement. This personal odyssey has taken him in the United States from inner cities to Washington, D. He also appreciates their tolerance of an onerous traveling schedule, a seemingly endless series of long late-night telephone calls, and weekend workshops, training, [Page xi] and facilitation. Empowerment evaluation is personally rewarding, but it is also a time-consuming and often labor-intensive process.
Throughout it all, their support has been invaluable. Shakeh Kaftarian would like to acknowledge several people who have been instrumental in crystallizing, propelling, and supporting the developmental processes of her empowerment evaluation ideas in general and this book in particular. She would like to express appreciation to Elaine Johnson, the director of the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, whose unwavering support of rigorous, adaptive, and empowering methods of evaluation has promoted evaluation and accountability in federal programs, as well as special appreciation for Mary Jensen's support of this book, which she recognized as a timely and valuable addition to the evaluation literature and a useful tool for academics, practitioners, and bureaucrats alike.
Shakeh would like to thank her fellow Community Partnership evaluators across the country, who have helped sharpen her interest in empowerment evaluation. They have inspired him to wrestle with the challenges of empowerment evaluation. The realities of the everyday challenges in the community, along with the needs and resources for planning and implementing programs and policies that work, have been a fertile ground for collaboratively developing knowledge and tools.
Abe would also like to thank his family for their wonderful love and support and for constructive dialogues, all of which contribute so much to who he is. Each of the authors in this collection believes that the time spent developing, cultivating, and refining this approach has been an investment in our communities and in the future. We realize that building [Page xii] capacity takes time and is a developmental process.
Similarly, the development of empowerment evaluation will continue to take time as it evolves and adapts to new environments and new populations.
Policy Analysis Program at Stanford University. He received his Ph.
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He has conducted fieldwork in both Israel including living on a kibbutz and the United States primarily in inner cities across the country. He works in the fields of educational evaluation, ethnography, and policy analysis, and focuses on programs for dropouts and gifted and talented education. He has also served as the program chair for each of these organizations and has been elected a fellow of the American Anthropological Association and the Society for Applied [Page ] Anthropology.
In addition, he has received numerous awards for his contribution to evaluation. He has consulted for a variety of federal agencies, foundations, corporations, and academic institutions, including the U. He has contributed to a variety of encyclopedias, including the International Encyclopedia of Education and the Encyclopedia of Human Intelligence. During her short tenure at the federal government, she has been instrumental in the initiation of multiple-site, comprehensive, and rigorous evaluation research projects for CSAP-sponsored community-based prevention grant programs, which involve significant conceptual, methodological, and practical challenges.
She has served on a number of national and international advisory committees for mental health promotion and substance abuse prevention. He performs research and evaluation on citizen participation in community organizations and coalitions and on interagency collaboration. He serves or has served on a number of advisory committees for prevention including the U. Recently, she spent a year in Africa studying the role of traditional medicine in African health care systems on a Thomas J.
Watson Fellowship. She has also conducted international public policy research with the Harry S. Her research interests include the applications of traditional medicine in rural health care delivery, health care financing, and public policy development in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. A social worker and community psychologist, she is a magna cum laude graduate of Duke University and completed her graduate degrees at the University of South Carolina.
She is the author of Victimization and Survivor [Page ] Services and several articles and book chapters regarding family violence prevention and community systems development. She is a licensed physician's assistant. She has over 20 years of experience in community activism, has received numerous awards for her work in this area, and is a member of a number of professional organizations and community groups. Her work involves evaluating and providing technical assistance and community research to community health initiatives. Her research interests include community psychology, adolescent health issues, and promotion of academic and personal success of African American adolescents.
She has a master's in clinical psychology from California State University, Dominguez Hills, and specializes in Afrocentric applications in mental health service delivery and research. Her current research focuses on the relationship between environmental issues and alcohol consumption patterns among African Americans. Her current projects include studies of the relationship between alcohol availability and consumption patterns in urban African American communities, malt liquor beer consumption patterns among African Americans, and the concentration of tobacco and alcohol advertisements in African American communities.
Her publications and presentations address both research and practice issues surrounding coalition effectiveness. She is a nationally recognized consultant on the development and maintenance of coalitions for immunizations; nutrition; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse prevention; and breast and cervical cancer prevention. His interests include evaluation methodology, benefits and costs of voluntary participation, and adolescent empowerment. DUGAN is the owner of Redhawk Research, a firm specializing in participatory and empowerment evaluation practices as well as prevention programming for at-risk youth.
She has held senior administration positions concerned with child advocacy and family well-being for two decades. Trained as a social psychologist, she has completed research investigation on resilience and protective factors in children of adversity. Her current research deals with children in crisis and selfassessment [Page ] evaluation. Due to the fact that the information available is usually very vast, inconsistent or ambiguous e. Therefore, they become unable to take the right course of action.
This needs to be kept in mind when developing products and services and the necessary documentation for them. Well written documentation is needed for a user to reference. Some key aspects of such a documentation are: . At times users do not refer to the documentation available to them due to various reasons, ranging from finding the manual too large or due to not understanding the jargon and acronyms it contains.
In other cases, the users may find that the manual makes too many assumptions about a user having pre-existing knowledge of computers and software, and thus the directions may "skip over" these initial steps from the users' point of view. Thus, frustrated user may report false problems because of their inability to understand the software or computer hardware. In the s, there is a lot of emphasis on user's security and privacy. With the increasing role that computers are playing in people's lives, people are carrying laptops and smartphones with them and using them for scheduling appointments, making online purchases using credit cards and searching for information.
These activities can potentially be observed by companies, governments or individuals, which can lead to breaches of privacy, identity theft , fraud , blackmailing and other serious concerns. As well, many businesses, ranging from small business startups to huge corporations are using computers and software to design, manufacture, market and sell their products and services, and businesses also use computers and software in their back office processes e. As such, it is important for people and organizations to need know that the information and data they are storing, using, or sending over computer networks or storing on computer systems is secure.
Security leaks happen, even to individuals and organizations that have security measures in place to protect their data and information e.
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The complexities of creating such a secure system come from the fact that the behaviour of humans is not always rational or predictable. Even in a very-well secured computer system, a malicious individual can telephone a worker and pretend to be a private investigator working for the software company, and ask for the individual's password, a dishonest process called " phishing ".
As well, even with a well-secured system, if a worker decides to put the company's electronic files on a USB drive to take them home to work on them over the weekend against many companies' policies , and then loses this USB drive, the company's data may be compromised. Therefore, developers need to make systems that are intuitive to the user in order to have information security and system security. Another key step to end user security is informing the people and employees about the security threats and what they can do to avoid them or protect themselves and the organization. Underlining clearly the capabilities and risks makes users more aware and informed whilst they are using the products.
Therefore, an informed user is one who can protect and achieve the best security out of the system they use. While this is targeted to a certain sector, this type of educational effort can be informative to any type of user. This helps developers meet security norms and end users be aware of the risks involved. End user undertaking EUU is a document saying who the user is, why they are using a product and where they live or where they work.
This document needs to be completed and signed by a person in a position of authority who is in the end user business. All documents should be in English or if not so accompanied by a valid English translation. Usually the EUU is sent together with the product license.