Ron Braithwaite, Skull Rack , a violent story of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, told in the form of a dialogue between an official of the Inquisition and his prisoner, a former inquisitor, whom he forces to retell the story of the conquest. Ron Braithwaite, Hummingbird God , about the Spanish conquest of Mexico, told in the form of a dialogue between an official of the Inquisition and his prisoner, a former inquisitor, whom he forces to retell the story of the conquest; sequel to Skull Rack.
Patrick Carmichael, Inca Moon , about a woman who serves as an agent for the Incan emperor; self-published. Patrick Carmichael, Eye of the Condor , about a woman on a quest for a legendary emerald; self-published; sequel to Inca Moon. Brian D'Amato, In the Courts of the Sun , a Sci-Fi thriller about a man descended from the Mayans who travels back in time from the year the last year indicated on the ancient Mayan calendar into the body of a Mayan in the year A. Philip Dickinson, New Fire , about a young Aztec warrior caught in a high priest's conspiracy against the army in the final days of a sacred calendar; self-published.
Rider Haggard, Montezuma's Daughter , an adventure story about an Englishman who reluctantly joins a Spanish expedition to the New World, where he falls in love with Montezuma's daughter and witnesses the fall of the Aztec empire to the conquistadors. Gary Jennings, Aztec , about the rise of an Aztec during the height of the Aztec civilization; 1 in the Aztec series. Gary Jennings, Robert Gleason and Junius Podrug, Aztec Fire , about a man of Aztec descent whose work as slave to a gun-maker allows him to provide guns to revolutionaries; 5 in the Aztec series.
Gary Jennings and Junius Podrug, Aztec Revenge , about the son of an Indian woman and a Spanish conquistador whose beginning as a highwayman and horse thief leads to a life in which he mingles with the wealthy and powerful; 6 in the Aztec series. James A. Michener, Mexico , about a contemporary American journalist who travels to Mexico and is swept up in the story of his Mexican ancestors from pre-Columbian times through the twentieth century. Daniel Peters, The Luck of Huemac , about an Aztec sorcerer in the years leading up to the coming of Cortes and the conquistadors.
Daniel Peters, The Incas , about the Incan Empire during the years before the coming of Pizarro and the conquistadors. Zoe Saadia, The Highlander , about a youth from the Aztec highlands who encounters trouble when he visits the lowland capital; 1 in the Rise of the Aztecs series; self-published. Zoe Saadia, Crossing Worlds , about a young man and his friend who escape to the highlands after the Acolhua emperor is killed and the city of Texcoco lost to the second Tepanec invasion; 2 in the Rise of the Aztecs series; self-published. Zoe Saadia, The Emperor's Second Wife , about a young man and his friend who return to the Aztec capital after the end of the Texcoco-Tepanec War; 3 in the Rise of the Aztecs series; self-published.
Zoe Saadia, Currents of War , about an Aztec leader considered a foreigner because of his highland birth, as the Aztec people talk of revolting against the Tepanec Empire; 4 in the Rise of the Aztecs series; self-published. Norman Spinrad, Mexica , about the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs. Marcos Aguinis, Against the Inquisition , about a Jewish man in sixteenth-century Argentina who, after his father is taken away by the Inquisition, completes his monastery education, becomes a physician, and journeys to Lima in the hope of finding his father. Nataniel Aguirre, Juan de la Rosa: Memoirs of the Last Soldier of the Independence Movement , about the Bolivian struggle for independence in the early nineteenth century.
Isabel Allende, House of the Spirits , about a South American family from the beginning of the twentieth century onward. Isabel Allende, Portrait in Sepia , about a Chilean woman's search to understand her mysterious nightmare of San Francisco's Chinatown. Stephen Bywater, Night of the Damned , a supernatural horror story about a company agent sent to a Brazilian rubber plantation in to investigate the disappearance of workers and the killing of another agent. Rosario Castellanos, Book of Lamentations , about a fictional rebellion in Mexico in that resembles historical rebellions in and Carolina de Robertis, The Gods of Tango , about a young woman in Argentina who disguises herself as a male violinist.
Barbara Kingsolver, The Lacuna , about a friend of Mexican artists Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo who stays with them during the s when Leon Trotsky is living in their house, hiding from Soviet assassins. Mario Vargas Llosa, The War of the End of the World in the original Spanish, in English , about a peasant revolt in Brazil; based on the life of a nineteenth-century Brazilian prophet. Claudia H. Review or Author Interview. Michelle Lovric, The Book of Human Skin , about a fanatical girl who arrives at a convent in Peru after a devastating earthquake, and a Venetian girl who is horribly mistreated but refuses to become a victim.
Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Love in the Time of Cholera , a love story set on the Caribbean coast of South America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Ana Gloria Moya, Heaven of Drums , about love and discrimination during the early nineteenth century Argentine revolution. Leonardo Padura, The Man Who Loved Dogs in the original Spanish; first English editon , about a Cuban writer who in the s meets a mysterious foreigner with knowledge of the assassination of Leon Trotsky in Mexico City.
Frances de Pontes Peebles, The Seamstress , about two sisters who are seamstresses in s Brazil, one of whom is abducted by rebels, the other of whom marries a wealthy, politically powerful doctor. Frances de Pontes Peebles, The Air You Breathe , about two girls, one a poor orphan, the other the daughter of a rich sugar baron who meet as children in s Brazil, bond over their shared love of music, and become lifelong friends. Lucia Robson, Last Train from Cuernavaca , about a sixteen-year-old girl who joins Zapata's army to fight in the Mexican Revolution after federal soldiers destroy her family's hacienda.
Oblivion English translation , about a widow from Caracas, Venezuela, whose struggle to keep her family plantation out of the hands of her husband's descendents by a slave woman continues even after her death in Teresa of Cabora, an illegitimate peasant girl who becomes a healer after a near-death experience in late nineteenth-century Mexico.
Luis Alberto Urrea, Queen of America , about a healer who flees Mexico with her father during the Mexican Revolution and journeys through America in the early years of the twentieth century; sequel to The Hummingbird's Daughter. Errol Lincoln Uys, Brazil , a panoramic story of the history of Brazil from the sixteenth century to the twenty-first, through the experiences of two powerful families, one the owners of a plantation, the other a family of adventurers.
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Thornton Wilder, The Bridge of San Luis Rey , about five people who died in the collapse of a bridge in Peru in the early eighteenth century. Review at The Independent. Raphael Leonidas Trujillo in the Dominican Republic during the s and s. Alejo Carpentier, Explosion in a Cathedral , about three wealthy Cuban orphans in Havana and the impact of the French Revolution on the Caribbean. Maximilian was thus a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine , a female-line cadet branch of the House of Habsburg. Rumors at the court stated that Maximilian was, in fact, the product of an extramarital affair between his mother and his first cousin Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt , the only legitimate son of Napoleon ; the duke's mother was Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma , former Empress of the French, Maximilian's aunt.
Adhering to traditions inherited from the Spanish court during Habsburg rule, Maximilian's upbringing was closely supervised. Until his sixth birthday, he was cared for by Baroness Louise von Sturmfeder , who was his aja then rendered "nurse", now nanny. Afterward, his education was entrusted to a tutor. The hours per week of classes steadily increased from 32 at age seven to 55 by the time he was The highly restrictive environment of the Austrian court was not enough to repress Maximilian's natural openness.
He was joyful, highly charismatic and able to captivate those around him with ease. Although he was a charming boy, he was also undisciplined. His attempts to outshine his older brother and ability to charm opened a rift with the aloof and self-contained Franz Joseph that would widen as years passed, and their close friendship in childhood would be all but forgotten. In , revolutions erupted across Europe.
Maximilian was horrified at what he regarded as senseless brutality and openly complained about it. He would later remark, "We call our age the Age of Enlightenment, but there are cities in Europe where, in the future, men will look back in horror and amazement at the injustice of tribunals, which in a spirit of vengeance condemned to death those whose only crime lay in wanting something different to the arbitrary rule of governments which placed themselves above the law".
The couple lived in Milan until , and then they moved to Trieste. He and Maria Amelia had once been engaged, and it is said she was the love of his life. Shortly afterward, Maximilian went to Brazil, leaving Charlotte in Madeira. Once offered the crown of Mexico, Maximilian and Charlotte sailed from Trieste on 10 April , and arrived in Veracruz on 28 May Maximilian had demanded a plebiscite on his rule, but it turned out to be a farce, and when the couple arrived in Veracruz there was little support from the people.
From Puebla they went to Mexico City, where they established the royal residence in Chapultepec Castle , which had previously been a military academy. The castle was remodeled and richly furnished. He built wide boulevards such as Paseo de la Emperatriz "Promenade of the Empress" in Mexico City, and instituted liberal social reforms much to the chagrin of his conservative base.
The couple bought the Borda Garden in Cuernavaca, and he bought a country estate for his mistress, Concepcion Sedano , in suburban Acapantzingo.
France withdrew the troops who had propped up Maximilian in ; Mexico City soon fell to the liberal forces of Benito Juarez , the emperor was arrested, and on 19 June he was executed. His last words were, "I forgive everyone, and I ask everyone to forgive me. May my blood which is about to be shed, be for the good of the country.
Viva Mexico, viva la independencia! Maximilian was a particularly clever boy who displayed considerable culture in his taste for the arts, and he demonstrated an early interest in science , especially botany. When he entered military service, he was trained in the Austrian Navy.
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He threw himself into this career with so much zeal that he quickly rose to high command. He was made a lieutenant in the navy at the age of eighteen.
In , he sailed as commander in the corvette Minerva , on an exploring expedition along the coast of Albania and Dalmatia. Maximilian was especially interested in maritime matters and undertook many long-distance journeys for Brazil on the frigate Elisabeth. Like Archduke Friedrich — before him, Maximilian had a keen private interest in the fleet, and with him the Austrian naval force gained an influential supporter from the ranks of the imperial family. This was crucial, as sea power had never been a priority of Austrian foreign policy, and the navy itself was relatively little known or supported by the public.
It was only able to draw significant public attention and funds when it was actively supported by an imperial prince. As commander-in-chief, Maximilian carried out many reforms to modernise the naval forces, and was instrumental in creating the naval port at Trieste and Pola now Pula , as well as the battle fleet with which Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff would later secure his victories.
He also initiated a large-scale scientific expedition — during which the frigate SMS Novara became the first Austrian warship to circumnavigate the globe. In his political views, Archduke Maximilian was very much influenced by the progressive ideas in vogue at the time. He had a reputation as a liberal , and this was one of several considerations leading to his appointment as Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy—Venetia in February Emperor Franz Joseph had decided on the need to replace the elderly soldier Joseph Radetzky von Radetz , to divert growing discontent amongst the Italian population through token liberalization, and to encourage a degree of personal loyalty to the Habsburg dynasty.
She was first cousin to both Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Maximilian and Charlotte had no children. They lived as the Austrian regents in Milan or viceroys of Lombardy-Venetia from until , when Emperor Franz Joseph, angered by his brother's liberal policies, dismissed him. Shortly after, Austria lost control of most of its Italian possessions. Maximilian then retired to Trieste, near which he built Miramare Castle.
At the same time, the couple acquired a converted monastery on the island of Lokrum as a holiday residence. Both estates had extensive gardens, reflecting Maximilian's horticultural interests. The Habsburg family had ruled the Viceroyalty of New Spain from its establishment until the Spanish throne was inherited by the Bourbons. Maximilian was considered to have more potential legitimacy than other royal figures, but was unlikely to ever rule in Europe due to his elder brother. He did not accept at first, but sought to satisfy his restless desire for adventure with a botanical expedition to the tropical forests of Brazil.
However, Maximilian changed his mind after the French intervention in Mexico. The new emperor of Mexico landed at Veracruz on 29 May ,  and received a cold reception from the townspeople. Veracruz was a liberal town, and the liberal voters were opposed to having Maximilian on the throne. There was continuous fighting between the French expeditionary force plus Maximilian's locally recruited imperial troops on one side and the Mexican Republicans on the other.
The Imperial couple chose as their seat Mexico City. The emperor and empress set up their residence at Chapultepec Castle , located on the top of a hill formerly on the outskirts of Mexico City that had been a retreat of Aztec emperors. Maximilian ordered a wide avenue cut through the city from Chapultepec to the city center named Paseo de Chapultepec or Paseo de la Emperatriz. The royal couple made plans to be crowned at the Catedral Metropolitana , but due to the constant instability of the regime, the coronation was never carried out.
Empress Carlota began holding parties for the wealthy Mexicans to raise money for poor houses. He cancelled all debts for peasants over 10 pesos, restored communal property and forbade all forms of corporal punishment. He also broke the monopoly of the hacienda stores [ clarification needed ] and decreed that henceforth peons could no longer be bought and sold for the price of their debt.
Iturbide and his cousin were granted the title Prince de Iturbide and style of Highness by imperial decree of 16 September and were ranked after the reigning family. However, Maximilian never intended to give the crown to the Iturbides because he considered that they were not of royal blood. Meanwhile, Maximilian invited ex-Confederates to move to Mexico in a series of settlements called the "Carlota Colony" and the New Virginia Colony , with a dozen others being considered, a plan conceived by the internationally renowned U.
Navy oceanographer and inventor Matthew Fontaine Maury. Maximilian also invited settlers from "any country", including Austria and the other German states.
Maximilian issued his "Black Decree"' on 3 October Its first article stated that: "All individuals forming a part of armed bands or bodies existing without legal authority, whether or not proclaiming a political pretext, whatever the number of those forming such band, or its organization, character, and denomination, shall be judged militarily by the courts martial. If found guilty, even though only of the fact of belonging to an armed band, they shall be condemned to capital punishment, and the sentence shall be executed within twenty-four hours".
It is calculated that more than eleven thousand of Juarez's supporters were executed as a result of the decree, but in the end it only inflamed the Mexican resistance. Nevertheless, by , the imminence of Maximilian's abdication seemed apparent to almost everyone outside Mexico. Her efforts failed, and she suffered a deep emotional collapse and never went back to Mexico. After her husband was executed by Republicans the following year, she spent the rest of her life in seclusion, never admitting her husband's death, first at Miramare Castle in Trieste, Austria-Hungary, then Italy, and then at Bouchout Castle in Meise , Belgium,  where she died on 19 January Though urged to abandon Mexico by Napoleon III himself, whose troop withdrawal from Mexico was a great blow to the Mexican Imperial cause, Maximilian refused to desert his followers.
Maximilian allowed his followers to determine whether or not he abdicated. Maximilian fought on with his army of 8, Mexican loyalists. The city fell on 15 May and Maximilian was captured the next morning after the failure of an attempt to escape through Republican lines by a loyal hussar cavalry brigade led by Felix Salm-Salm.
Following a court-martial , he was sentenced to death. Many of the crowned heads of Europe and other prominent figures including the eminent liberals Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi sent telegrams and letters to Mexico pleading desperately for the Emperor's life to be spared. Felix Salm-Salm and his wife masterminded a plan and bribed the jailors to allow Maximilian to escape execution. However, Maximilian would not go through with the plan because he felt that shaving his beard to avoid recognition would ruin his dignity if he were to be recaptured.
He spoke only in Spanish and gave each of his executioners a gold coin not to shoot him in the head so that his mother could see his face. May my blood, which is about to be shed, be for the good of the country. After his execution, Maximilian's body was embalmed and displayed in Mexico. After arriving in Trieste, the coffin was taken to Vienna and placed within the Imperial Crypt , on 18 January , where it can be viewed today. The Emperor Maximilian Memorial Chapel was constructed on the hill where his execution took place.
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Other researchers consider him short-sighted in political and military affairs, and unwilling to restore democracy in Mexico even during the imminent collapse of the Second Mexican Empire. In the wake of his death, carte-de-visite cards with photographs commemorating his execution circulated both among his followers and among those who wished to celebrate his death. One such card featured a photograph of the shirt he wore to his execution, riddled with bullet holes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Maximilian I Archduke Maximilian around Imperial Crypt , Vienna , Austria. Charlotte of Belgium m. See also: Imperial Crown of Mexico. See also: Second Mexican Empire. Anna Knight 1st class of the Order of St. Knight of the Order of Saint Januarius.
Ancestors of Maximilian I of Mexico 8.