Manual Environmental Impact of Jeans Laundries in Northeast Brazil

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The HDI takes three dimensions into consider- ation: 1 life expectancy, 2 knowledge average adult literacy and years of schooling , and 3 the standard of living real per capita income. These three indicators influence the total HDI by one third each, so that the final index may sum up to the value of 1. However, considerable regional disparities can be observed Figure 2. In general, one can state that in South and Southeast the living standard is the highest. On the other hand, the Northeast is often considered as poorhouse of Brazil and faces problems due to structures established with the colonization since the beginning of the 16th century.

Except from tourism at the coastline, on the countryside sugar cane plantations and processing industries still play a vital role as one of the few possibilities for the region to provide employment. Due to low development in connection with hot and dry climate, economic alternatives are hard to find.

Bearing this in mind, the importance to strengthen environmental awareness and education becomes evident, since the acceptance of lowering the environmental quality in turn for economic growth increases especially among the lower income-classes. Many companies are lacking of knowledge concerning main initiatives on global environmental issues, though a great majority already recognizes the relevance to their business activities.

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Even the current political agenda concentrates rather on economic growth and reduction of social gaps. Environmental concerns have to be balanced against development and equity issues Seroa da Motta, Consequently, authorities may refrain from pursuing environmental policies, as pointed out in the following. Pernambuco is one of the nine federal states in Northeast Brazil and belongs to the least developed parts of the country.

Regarding the poverty level, the region can be compared with Central African countries. As shown in figure 2. Except for textile industry, Caruaru as second most important city of Pernambuco serves as an important trade center for the region. Furthermore, climate conditions still allow agriculture. Higher developed regions can be only found in and around Recife capital of Pernambuco at the coast, and Petrolina in the Southwest.

Petrolina gained its boom with the construction of the Sobradinho dam, which not only provides electricity, but also allows irrigation and made the area to become a wine producing region. Providing around The major cluster of clothing industry emerged in the municipalities of Caruaru , inhabitants , Toritama 29, inhabitants and Santa Cruz do Capibaribe 73, inhabitants. Located ca. This indus- trial sector is furthermore characterized by a high fraction of small and medium sized fam- ily enterprises. In several cases, one member of a family owns the dressmaking company, while another family member takes responsibility for the laundering activities.

Ongoing market liberalization puts pressure on the local textile industry due to cheap imports of mass products from Asian countries like China. During the first half of the s, almost all of the firms in the sector used to be informal, i. But for years also the government of Pernambuco avoided to enforce labor, environmental and tax regulations. Officials were simply afraid to disrupt the local economy. Due to the absence of tax payments however, the government felt not obliged to invest in im- proving the infrastructure. Another outcome of informality was the inability to access bank credits and support from governmental agencies for vocational training, as well as joining business associations.

Regularization also allowed firms obtaining support in order to improve product quality and diversity. Until the middle of s, clothes from the region were known to be rather cheap and of low quality. Only a few companies were able to sell their products on other important markets in Brazil. This situation improved already, but needs urgently further efforts to defend its market share with ongoing liber- alization of the Brazilian market and also conquer other markets to ensure that this sector can survive.

Compared to the production of other clothes, denim production has a strong impact on the environment. Over the whole production cycle from planting cotton to the end product, Chapagain et al. Most of the amount of needed water is related to cotton growing. What do you hope to see less of from the denim industry in ? Denim is extremely versatile and it varies from region to region; from country to country; from continent to continent. In Japan, you rarely see skinny fits, denim is now looser and with wide leg fits. In the U. Aggressive washes and treatments are prominent as well in America.

Europe is showing their preference toward cleaner denim. Denim styles are constantly evolving around the world and every region has their preference. I never want to see less denim; I am pleased to see it has become a global staple. I see bigger fits creeping into the marketplace. This will happen over several seasons. Jason Denham, Founder of Denham the Jeanmaker What do you hope to see more of from the denim industry in ?

Investment in quality and sustainable products. What are you working on for ? I hope we see more focus, more direction and commitment to being Adriano Goldschmied, A-cynetic founder What was the most memorable denim collection unique in the coming years. Neuw from Australia. I love how the brand mixes relevance in the larger context of fashion. First, my new line A-cynetic, which is a totally new point of view in the denim world. I am also working on a lot of innovations in fabrics and finishing. Newness is king. Invent, reinvent, innovate, or die. What are you currently working on for ?

Francois Girbaud, designer and illustrator What was the most memorable denim collection from ? Real change. A more comprehensive use of ecologically-sound treatments and respect for nature and mankind. By Judith Russell. The decline in U. Unit imports of denim dropped by 4. Although China held its share of total denim imports, Mexico lost basis points of share, while Bangladesh and Vietnam gained and 80 basis points, respectively. Pakistan and Nicaragua also gained share, while Egypt lost. More than 98 percent of total denim apparel imports are jeans. Denim jackets, skirts, dresses and other garments represent less than 2 percent of the total.

Over 4, readily available cotton poplin colors. A galaxy of hues, shades, depths, and saturation in six volumes. Step into your wildest dreams. Visit colormanagement. China has maintained its Unit imports from China dropped by 8 percent, but the average cost per garment rose by 4 percent. Total units from Mexico fell by 6.

Imports from Bangladesh, the U. Bangladesh is a major supplier of jeanswear to many of the fast fashion retailers. Vietnam experienced the biggest increase, whose denim exports to the U. As the number of trade shows increase and the distance between them widens, show producers are relying on inspiring locations, educational opportunities and hands-on activities to entice attendees. By Emily Goldman Communication apps like Skype and WhatsApp have made it easier than ever for the denim industry to do business without ever having to cross borders.

But smartphones cannot replicate the sensory overload that is experienced by attending a denim trade show. Fabric remains king, but shows are now digging deeper into the supply chain with new focuses on technology, sustainability, trends and collaboration. From interactive activities to panel discussions, trade shows are becoming a place to be schooled in the need-to-knows for the season ahead.

Sometimes, the city a show is held in can offer as much inspiration as the show itself. So, from that perspective, we select cities that make sense as denim cities and as design and inspiration destinations. This fall, Kingpins will host shows in Amsterdam Oct. Due to the January timing of the show, it may also lure U.

The tour included mini one-day Kingpins shows in three cities over five days. The show has also introduced WHY by Kingpins, an Amsterdam-based trims and branding show held in conjunction with the main Kingpins event. A denim road trip in China and a new show located in a winter vacay hotspot may sound off-the-cuff, but every step Kingpins takes is carefully considered. Other times, instinct takes over. WHY is coming back bigger in October. When we first started, we did everything ourselves. We folded the invitations by hand, we introduced our guests personally to our exhibitors.

Despite the attention on location and its roster of high caliber mills— Candiani, Berto and Artistic Denim to name a few—the show puts an emphasis on trends this show season. The show partnered with Denim Dudes author Amy Leverton to produce Kingpins Trends, a two-prong denim trend presentation that focuses on fabric, fit and finish. The Nov. The move is part of a bigger plan to reset the show. Malingrey said a small flea market will give attendees the opportunity to shop denim pieces from a hand-picked assortment.

Malingrey mentioned that the team is also considering adding a small library with books that are both useful and inspiring for denim professionals and connoisseurs. Its timing is separate from the rest of the denim shows—the next show takes place Jan. Munich Fabric Start takes a hands-on approach to how it updates the.

The last edition, held from Aug. As technology becomes a greater influence in fashion, Sofianos said. The show is relying on B2B media and influential bloggers in the denim community to help open the communication lines. Sofianos also said the show encourages these outlets to spotlight innovations and continue the conversation online.

Bluezone, a more traditional denim trade fair setup, stands independently from the rest of the show and boasts approximately international suppliers, bringing together a global network of denimheads. A curated trend presentation spanning from fabric to trims stands at the heart of Bluezone. In the trend and sample areas, the most innovative fabrics and trims as well as colors for the season are highlighted.

The show featured 33 exhibitors last year, and will narrow it down to 30 for the Dec. From indigo dye techniques to shibori, the ability to learn more about the industry and techniques are seemingly unending. Attendees have the option and ability to receive the help of experts on the spot. Staying with that pioneering spirit, BPD Expo 4.

BPD plans to roll out a new networking space, allowing the denim community the opportunity to meet and catch up with denim experts on hand to help attendees look for new business and career opportunities. More Denim Less Water Companies throughout the supply chain are making strides toward water conservation in cost effective and creative ways.

By Emily Goldman. Archroma is doing its part to save water during the dyeing process through its indigo-free Advanced Denim concept. The concept, which was introduced in , requires approximately 92 percent less water than the average dyeing process and offers a wider spectrum of blue shades. The process also cuts down cotton waste by 87 percent and saves 30 percent in energy. By going indigo-free and eliminating hydrosulfite in the dyeing process, denim manufacturers have a more versatile choice of solid or ring denim and a wider range of blues, navies, blacks and grays.

Advanced Denim enables manufacturers to create new effects by using sustainable techniques at either the dyeing or wash-down stages. Instead of using chlorine and permanganates, the process allows the use of ecofriendly peroxide-based wash-downs. The washer takes air into the G2 generator, converts the air into ozone gas that is moved inside the tumbler.

The gas washes the garment, breaks down the anchor of the fiber dyeing and is then transformed back into air and then released, making the jeans essentially washed by the atmosphere. For consumers, it means buying a garment produced consciously, thinking about the planet and their health. With their latest innovation, Up, Tonello has been able to radically reduce the amount of water required and bring the liquor ratio down to new levels.

A continuous, regular flow of water is injected into the machine, then recovered and recirculated. As a result, the process requires less energy consumption, while faster water filling and draining results in lower costs. The Up program can be applied with other Tonello technologies like NoStone, which uses a stainless steel abrasive drum fastened to the washing machine instead of pumice stone, and Ecofree, which dissolves ozone into water to clean it from indigo during the enzyme wash, reducing both the number of baths and processing time.

Sustainability has never been so cool Or email Rita. By Christian Scibetta. With consumers turning away from traditional retail for e-commerce, and the inefficacies of denim production reaching a tipping point, the industry is in need for new blood. When Rappard turned to the Kickstarter community for funding and feedback, it was during a time when there was a wave of interest in raw denim and consumers were beginning to look for new luxury goods made outside of sweatshops.

However, the costs for these products excluded a majority of consumers.

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Kickstarter is like the Tinder for young companies. It builds moral and self assurance. The crowdsourcing platform has been a way for the company to test items and gauge consumer interest before investing an exuberant amount of money and time. RPM West continues to look for new ways to reach new audiences. One of those ways is a partial rebranding and an effort to be more transparent and intimate with customers. The company is doing this through sharing images of the RPM team on its website and social media.

We want to be great at customer service, so they will share with friends and tell them about it. After 12 months of wearing the jean, the customer can either choose to keep the pair or trade them in for a new one. Mud Jeans recycles worn out returned jeans into new products. Jeans are designed with printed labels, as opposed to leather, which makes them easier to be reused.

Zippers and rivets are removed, and jeans are cut into strips that can be torn apart and ultimately be blended with virgin cotton. The denim looks like new denim. The only real irregularity that customers might notice are small dots in the lighter washes, Vijgeboom said. Each upcycled jean is named after its former wearer. For men, the straight fits, offered in four washes remain popular. In an effort to be transparent, Mud Jeans lists its factory partners online, including Royo, Orta Anadolu, Yousstex International and more.

Looking forward, Mud Jeans is working toward using more recycled fibers in its jeans. The brand is banking on progress in chemical recycling, the process of using different enzymes and compounds to break apart recycled denim, to grow its recycled product. The inseam allows the tallest customers to wear the jeans off-the-rack, while the majority of men need to hem their jeans.

Through Scale Denim, Seth, along with partners Nihar Singhal and Malcolm Brown, are addressing the size issue by offering men premium jeans with seven different inseams, from inches. The brand currently offers slim and straight fits in dark wash and black. The direct-to-consumer label began its first wave of production in mid to late October.

Seth said the feedback on Scale Denim has been excitement and surprise. The direct-to-consumer model helps keep costs low, but Seth said one of the drawbacks is that customers cannot try on the different inseams. To help cut down on returns, the brand features two videos on its website on how to measure inseam. Moving forward, Seth wants the brand to continue to grow organically through smart partnerships.

But, right now we want to focus on getting the word out about [Scale Denim], as we think we are bringing something truly different to the premium market. Growing up, Lupesco came to understand the quality of meticulously made apparel from his father, who worked for Italian menswear legends like Kiton and Isaia. After finishing school, Lupesco told his father his plan to enter the denim industry. The small details serve a purpose, like the leather backing that Shockoe puts in all of their hardware.

Lupesco said this detail helps keep the rivets from ripping out of its super lightweight summer denim. The collection, which now spans raw While other denim manufactures might take 20 minutes on average to create a pair of jeans, Lupesco said the team at Shockoe will spend over two hours hand stitching each pair. Lupesco is modest about his company. In the last six months, Shockoe has begun to reach more customers through e-commerce. More than just jeans, Lupesco has begun to apply his artisan touch to other apparel categories, including denim blousons and field shirts.

We asked some of the country's biggest mills to separate fact from fiction. By Matt Vitone. Tumbling exports amid ongoing electricity shortages have been a serious thorn in the side of the industry, largely responsible for the shuttering of some small-to-medium sized factories in the country. In the last two years alone, more than , jobs have been lost as a result. Despite this, Pakistan is home to a vibrant denim scene, where a mastery of fabrics and a high level of technological innovation is evident to all who come to see. Rivet recently spoke with four prominent Pakistan-based mills to help us understand the real Pakistan.

From early on, he was drawn in by denim. Today, AFGI is a fully vertical setup comprised of spinning, weaving, and garment production, which includes a state-of-the-art laundry. Two high tech fabric units produce 50 million meters of denim a year. For the line, Slaper focused on authentic American fits and washes with details like back knee whiskers. Our company has adopted innovation across the board from spinning, dyeing, weaving, finishing and garment treatments. In Karachi alone, army forces were able to cut bombing incidents from nearly in to 19 in , according to data from the South Asia Terrorism Portal.

With the latest security measures being taken by the government and the investments in industry and infrastructure, we are optimistic about better days in the near future. This year the company finished installation of its Global Recycle Standard GRS certified post-consumer waste tearing plant, which helps recycle old jeans into new completely in-house. The notion that Pakistan is only a value supplier is not correct.

Sapphire reports their capacity at 20 million meters of fabric and growing, with a full range of fabrics from 4. While Diamond Denim currently does most of its business in Europe, the mill is hoping to expand its presence and reputation in the U. Heaven includes several fabrics linked by their soft hand feel, bright colors and rich look.

Diamond is also rolling out a new category, Love Earth, which includes three new shades that combine sustainability and fashion through chemical and water management. According to Ledgett, one of the major benefits of sourcing in Pakistan is location. The new infrastructure will help move cargo more quickly and safely than before. To that end, China is investing billions in the development of a newly expanded port in the city of Gwadar. Meanwhile, new power generation projects are underway to solve power shortages and reduce energy costs in the country. We take care of our customers when they visit and they realize Pakistan is a legitimate sourcing destination.

Following a backwards integration in which established Soorty Denim, the company has only continued to grow. The company also produces cotton Tencel and cotton Modal blends, as well as bi-stretches that manage high stretch with controlled growth. An international effort, Soorty operates a research and development center in Amsterdam, where customers can view the latest collections and where foreign designers and developers help forecast trends, which drive development in Karachi.

From investments in new finishing lines to closing the loop through new recycling initiatives, Zulfiqar said there is always something new happening in Pakistan. Soorty also prides itself on taking care of its workforce, including day care facilities for mothers to leave their children while at work, and food assistance for those in need.

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Soorty also runs health checkups to check for blood-related diseases, while transport is provided to and from work at no cost. The mill works closely with Invista, and played a central role in commercializing bi-stretch denim XFIT around the world. In a market where every mill now has some kind of Tencel and Modal blend in their collection, ADM was also responsible for introducing Lenzing Tencel and Modal fibers to denim. Now the brand is actively working on other fibers, including Coolmax and all-season Thermolite to help bring performance denim to the market.

Ahmed said being vertical from start to finish is a vital advantage to sourcing in Pakistan, reducing lead times and allowing designers and product developers to work in tandem from inspiration to spinning to finished garment. Yet large brands and retailers turn a blind eye as they get stuff made at cheaper prices. Getting people to see the value in Pakistan is often times the biggest challenge of producing in the country. The Europeans already see and have offices here. The current depression on U. I admire the companies that focus on high quality without compromising, that are passionate in searching for new solutions, as if every day was their first day.

When my uncle, Osvaldo Tonello, built the first washing machine in he would never have imagined that it would be the beginning of a long story. The RC was born of a far-sighted and successful idea that came at the right time and in the right place. These are the years of the denim revolution. Shortly thereafter he passed the baton to my father who has continued this adventure. What are some important characteristics to have in order to succeed in denim?

Passion, attitude, foresight and respect. What are you most proud of in your career? Working with my dad. Why have so many denim companies remained family-owned? I believe that denim is a world of passion, genius and creativity. It is easy to let yourself be attracted to it and be carried away. I believe that many Alice Tonello.

The sharp, independent, stylish, intrepid, fearless, supportive and influential ladies of denim are proving that an entrepreneurial and creative mind should never be underestimated. By Angela Velasquez. What was your first denim job? I started working at Tonello 10 years ago, but really, when I was younger I used to spend my summers treating and scratching jeans with the first mannequins and the first scratch brushes.

Do you think you bring a different perspective than your male colleagues? Maybe a different sensitivity or attention to detail. How do you stay motivated? The market always needs a forerunner, someone who looks to the future and proposes cutting-edge solutions. With great humility, but also with great awareness, we think that that is our role, our mission. At the moment we are working in our research department, with a completely new creative area and a project that involves various designers and artists. All this helps us in creating and defining new technologies and solutions for the world of denim.

Why do you believe in denim? It is our history. Denim has changed our world and our way of living. And besides, without denim, maybe there would be no Tonello. Sarah Ahmed DL creative director. Indigo is in my blood. I grew up watching denim being made and I saw the techniques and processes evolve as quickly as the industry did.

When I graduated from Parsons, I wanted to do something that combined my heritage with my love for design and fashion. So, I joined DL and have been hard at work taking our What is your first denim memory? I also developed new denim labels like The Blue Shirt bell bottom jeans.

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Describe the perfect jean. Comfortable, unsurpassed fit, high-quality fabric Describe your current role in denim. I touch each and every one of the departments at treated without chemicals. DL, from planning our creative campaigns What is your favorite pair of jeans to wear? Not in our world. Our design teams are comprised of both men and women.

Denim and the Environment

Everyone has their own unique strengths. What is your first denim memory? Walking into a mill as a young girl. It was so amazing. The facility is huge and making denim is the most intricate, technologically advanced process ever. A jean you can count on. The kind that fits like a Scaling the company. People love our jeans and glove each and every time you put them on. In , Where do you find inspiration? What are some important characteristics to have Mariette Hoitink in order to succeed in denim?

Know the industry inside and out. Know who your HTNK founder, House of Denim and Denim City cocustomer is and how to win them with excellent founder and partner product, service and brand campaigns. Also, you What is your denim pedigree? The year at Coterie [a New York-based apparel and as a person with these brands. If you booths there and our sales went through the roof. I know there are job, that you want them to have a good life.

You know what changing rapidly. At the Jeans School, the a way that reduces our water footprint by half, second [class] includes 20 girls and one boy. We hope to I think it is a misunderstanding that women are not interested in the technical aspect of denim inspire others to follow suit. If a woman entered the industry, they became a designer or worked in development and never ended up in a mill or factory.

He is a true visionary and Marta Goldschmied a pure genius. I did not always plan to work in denim, I actually tried to stay as far away as I could from it, but What challenges have you had to overcome while denim is in my blood. I became addicted after working in the denim industry?

One thing I have learned is that no matter how small an issue What was your first denim job? I proper training or much experience but I always have made many mistakes with production, sales knew I had a different vision than what was out and everything in between, but I believe that if you there and felt that not having proper experience learn a lesson from it than no mistake is ever that ended up being a plus for me because it allowed bad. No man can understand men in the industry have been doing what they do the way a woman feels in her jeans.

I feel insecure some days and may especially behind the scenes, that have helped need my jeans to make me feel more powerful. As a female designer I personally relate to all of that. Who do you admire in the denim industry? Andrew Olah. We are so likeminded and that is amazing to me. He has been in the industry a lot longer and has a lot of experience, but we have the same perspective in that we can look at the industry and form an opinion based on the things we see and hear.

If you were born into the L. Describe the perfect jeans. We do things a bit differently and are really focused on our direct-to-consumer What are you most proud of in your career? When House of Denim was launched in , a lot business. I was really proud with the perfect pair of jeans. The intention of people Who do you admire in the denim industry? You have to be a product freak. You have to be in love with indigo. You need to be a multitasker. First, for we still have the Global Denim Awards, which has grown from six mills to Then we have Amsterdam Denim Days in April , which will be bigger and better.

My sister and I would spend our days running in and out each row of vintage denim and play dress up until the lights of the office would turn off. I remember being surrounded by jeans and waiting for my sister to find me and just being incredibly inspired by all of the clothes and making up stories of where they came from and who owned them.

I think some characteristics to have to succeed, not just in the denim industry but in life, are to be determined and always believe in yourself. Your denim grows with you, it becomes a personal piece, every tear and every stain begins to tell your story as time goes by. Are more women entering the denim industry? Definitely, and they are bringing a youthful perspective.

At the mill level, I was Early in my career I encountered what for me creative director for Swift Denim and director of was the biggest challenge of all: condescension. Today, I have a creative consulting indigo itself. I occasionally had to pull more than my weight What was your first denim-related job? Being young, female and black in Co. Over my sevendenim back then was the trifecta of hurdles. We were responsible for what fabrics, fits, finishes, Who do you admire in the denim industry?

When you touch that many parts of the innovative ways to keep our industry fresh. My most vivid memory is from middle school. The style at the time to customize your jeans long before it was a commercial thing. My friends and I would individualize our jeans with bleach environmentally un-cool today , and have our friends sign their names, doodle or write thoughts on them with markers.

When I think of those jeans now, it speaks to the individual nature of denim, how it accompanies us on our lives, and how it changes with us. But personally, it changes all the time. Right now, my perfect jean is a little loose, straight, and has wear patterns that are uniquely mine. What is your specialty? Aside from creating the actual collections, I love creating the environment for showcasing them.

There are lots of women in the industry today doing great things.

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It was certainly true in the past, and there may still be some aspect to the male face of certain companies, but there is definitely a shift in the back rooms. There have always been women making things happen behind the scenes and now they are coming more into the light. Which pair of jeans in your closet is currently getting the most wear? I love the irony of that. When you shop for denim, what qualities do you look for? This is a pretty big question. But I also keep an eye out for product evolution.

Where are fits going? Is color taking hold? Is pattern really catching on?