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I mix it together and then just let it sit for 15 minutes. Even on a random Monday. Or Tuesday… or Thursday.
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France in the spring of , about three or four months before those of col. What remuneration might be expected, if a fall blooded ram, or even one of the fourth cross, were sacrfficed by a cur or hound? Continned from page IX. The mixture should be often stirred, and suffered to re- main for an hour or an hour and a half before it if 'examined.
If any carbonate of lime or of magnesia exist'in the aoi! If any minute proportion of alumine should, from pc- culiar circumstances, be dissolved by the acid, it will be found in the precipitate with the Carbonate of lime, and it may be separated from it by boiling for a few minutes with soap lye, sufficient to cover the solid matter. The best method of collecting the carbonic acid, so as to discover its volume, is by pneumatic apparatus. It should be of. The method of analysis by sulphuric acid, is suffici- etitly precise for all usual experiments ; but if very great accuracy be an object, dry carbpnate of potash must be employed as the agent, and the residuum of the incinera- mon must be heated red for a half hour, with four times Jts weight of this substance, in a cipcible of silver, or of Vrell baked porcelain.
The mass qbtained must be dis-' irolved in the muriatic acid, and the solution evapora-. It would lay in a fine stock of oxeii, and discharge some of the old store debts. Let us consider our situation, fellow citizens, our forests eleared our soil exhausted, oar old fields whitened wth short grass, fie offeet of poverty. Is it not a subject worth our. Nothing has been taken into account for shoc- 'Jng horse's ;' but oxen may also be shod, espemlly on long journeys, as is common east of as. Phosphate of time, if any.
It would rtot fall within the limits assigned to this na. In the application of clay, sand, loam, marie, or. The power of soils to absorl? Those soils that are most productive of corn con ,tain always certain proportions of aluminous and calcai- reous earth in a finely divided state, and a certain quan- tity of vegetable or animal matter. The quantity of calcareous earth is however verjr various, and in some cases exceedingly small.
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A very good potatoe soil, from Varfel, in CornwaU, afforded me seven eighths of silicious sand ; atdv its absorbent power was so smalt, that one-hundred parts lost only: In supplying animal or vegetable manure, a temporaryi? It be- comes capable of attracting a very large portion of vege- table nourishment from the atmosphere, andof producing its crops with comparatively little labour and expense. May not the same veins extend north, wardly to the other watejing courses.
Tlie kind of surface which any kind of soil possesses must also give it a peculiar character, visible, and easily understood without the assistance of analysis, err a mi- nute examination. For a more acetirate description of these, I must refer to books of mineralo jgy, and shall only remark, that by calcareous earths are meant chalk and all stones that burn to lime. Some writers have extended this region to the foot of the mountains ; and Evans, the geographer, and Volney, have extend- ed thr littorral or beachy region to the cascades or tide- water. There may be some good reasons for thus bounding these reg ons ; but as tiie rivers I conceive have had the latest agency in the formation of the soil, from the falls or cascades to the mouth of the rivers, it appears to me, that that tract of country contained within a line drawn from the head of tide water to the mouths of the rivers, may more appropriately be called the alluvial region ; and the beaches and islands of sahd, which stud, point, and fringe the coast, alone I call the littoral or beachy region.
The mountains and their vallics are properly denominated the mount anoua region, or parent soil, from which, in all times, new soils are forming. First then, let us recapitulate the grand divisions: The Beachy or Littoral Region. Of the properties and distinct qualities of soil to be found in the beachy region. The alluvial region, according to the definition already given, is the river formed land, and extends to the falls of the rivers. Volney, in speak- ing of what he calls the alluvial or river formed soil of the XJnited States, in the following words: When we calculate the volnme, the ra- pidity, and the number of these streams ; of the Dela.
In following years new wrecks accumulate and cloy the ancient channels: The Mississippi offers a luminous example of all these ope- rations. It has been computed by Liancourt that be- tween and a period of eighty years, this river has advanced its banks fifteen miles into the sea. On these banks there is az annual growth of aquatic vegetables which periodically decay, and thereby add to the surface; in fcdditioti to which, there is an annual depasit of shells, and other marine 'Cobstanoes, the increase of which is very greiit and be- yond computation.
If It was situated on declivities it would be of a loosed and open texture ; but situated as it is with a very level surface, it holds water a long time, which causes it to sob, and after to bake and become very adhesive, and thia eircumstance givcg to this whole region the appearance of a stiff clay s il. The proportion of sand is greater, and alwjiys still more increased by bad cultivation.
Under good cul- livation its increasing lightness or loostness will be pro- perly checked by deep ploughing and by vegetation, and will become advantageous Under bad cultivation its increasing lightness will yearly add to its poverty. Tlir, marginal part of this first step in Virginia and Maryland is covered altogether with resinous trees, chiefly the long leafed yellow pine, cedar and gum ; a lltHe distance from the margin you find the woods intermixed with oak, chiefly white oak.
The proportion of oaks increases un- til they occupy nearly the whole ground at the foot of the first rising or gravelly ridge, which bounds the flat stoneless region ; at least we find it so where the primi- tive growth has never been cut down. At this boundary ridge, which divides the first and second shelf, the soil begins to be intermixed ' with a portion of fine gravel, increasing in size and quan- tity as you ascend with the rivers.
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The surface of tWs second shelf, though in a great measure level, is yet ifi- tersected with small streams and drains, which have washed gentle declivities and risings. These declivities and their risings give to this region an undulating surface. The kind of soil that here prevails, abounds in gravel from fine to very coarse or stony, more or less apparent on the surface, according to the complexion and quality, or situation of the land. There are portions of this tract sometimes to a considerable ei- tent, where fine siliceous sand prevails.
In this i-egion the calcareous substances that are found in masses, are generally mixed with clay or sand. Frotn this circumstance, 0lsQ the sibceous particles abound more on ihe surface. As you approach the head of tide water, stones of a considerable size are found. The finer particles or dust, which is detached by this continual rubbing and wasWng, is carried to the ocean, where it serves to form the pebbles that are cast back ,by the waves upon the shores.
Another part is formed by the affinities of the siliceous particles that compose so large a portion of this region. The more ancient the soil, the more time has there been for the operation of the great laws of composition, and the lar- ger are the products. It also may beVeixiarked of the marls which are found in this region, that the disposition to turn to lime-stone increases the higher you ascend, though they very rareljr shew themselves on the surface, but may be occasional- Jy observed in banks that have been worn by streams.
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Indeed I have seen strong persons and even dogs, from excess of fatigue,, abandon their charge. I have already said that accidents sometimes happen' to make the hemp field thin, and it has been observed that the hemp is thenthick, full of branches, and incapable of yielding a good thread.
Before the male hemp is gathered, some persons sow 4urnip seed, which buries itself in the holes from which the stalks were extracted, and in those made by the footsteps of persons employed therein. Turnip seed is tilso sown when die female stalks are gathered, in or- -der to have two crops; but this part of hiisbandy, not belonging to our subject, we dismiss it It has been already observed, that the male hemp was bundled up after being gathered.
Each bundle is tied with a hemp stalk. They are then exposed to the siin tQ dry the leaves and flowers, and when well dried, each bundle is beaten against the trunk of a tree or against a wall, and they then attach together several bundles, and make one suffi-. Some rutoirs are only a ditch made on the border of a river j some, even in contempt of the laws, use no other rutoirs than the bed of a river. Let us laow take a view of the end they propose by this methoc cf rotting. To do it they arrange it at the bottom of the ikvater, they cover it with a layer of straw, they secure it lunder water by pieces of wood and stone.
It renders the filament soft and fine ; but to un- derstand bow this result is produced by water, a know- ledge of the organic disposition of the stalk is neces- f ary. This I will attempt to explain, with as much bre- vity as I am able. The stalks are hollow in the middle, or filled with a soft pulp.
This is surrounded with a tender and fragile wooden substance, which is called the chenevotte or stalk stripped of its bark. This bark ad- heres closely to the chenevotte and the longitudinary fibres which compose it are joined to each other by a vesicular or crllulury texture The whole is finally co- vered with a very fine membrane, which may be called the epiderme. The object proposed in immersing the hemp, is to cause the bark to detach itself with more ease from the stalk, and to destroy the epiderme with a part of the cellulary texture, which binds together the longitudinary filaments.
Se- condly, upon ihe temperature of the air; as it rots soon- er in warm than cold weather. That which has been raised in a fcee soil, and dulj watered, and which has been gathered green, is sooner rotted than that which is raised in strong. In general, it is thought that when tiie herap re- mains but a short time in the water to rot, the thread is better. On this account it is said, that hemp should not. And when the autumns are cold, some defer until the spring following to put the female hump iw water.
Some even prefer to rot their hemp in stagnant and even in putrid, rather than in fresh running water. The thread, however, has appeared to me not, very different from that rotted in the usual mode. This however causes the hemp itself to become too ripe. They are fastened iii this situation with cords of straw, and the earth which has been taken from the holes is heapec op round the bundle of sheaves so as to cover their heads.
Aided by their own moisture, the heads become heated as green bay does placed upon a layer of manure. This fermentation completes the ripening of the seed, and dis- poses it to leave its shell with more ease. When the seed has acquired this quality, the sheaves-are taken from the holes, where they would be consuqaed were they longer to remain. Others clean and prepare a smooth piece of ground, upon which they place the hemp with the heads all on the same side.
They then beat it Kghtly with a piece of wood or flail. Tliere still remains much seed io the heads. Itjconsistsin taking the thieads separately, breaking thq stalk, and detaching the threads by pulling them through the fingers. This mode appears rather tedious, but as it IS pursued at leisure hours, and by children who take care of the cattle, it is but of little expense to many fami- lies ; but to small families it occasions great loss of time which the use of the brake would save.
Before it is broken, hemp ought to be well dried, or, as the peasants say, well baked. The haloir is only a cavern commonly of six or seven feet high, five or six broad, and nine or ten deep. The underside of a rock frequently makes a ve- ry good haloir.
Some are arched with dry stones; others are covered with large flat stones ; others merely with pieces of wood covered with earth Every man makes them according to his fancy ; but all aim to place' them secure frOm Uie north wind, and to give them a southern aspect. Because the breaking season is gene, rally when the great frosts prevail, and when agriculture is at a stand. The same wo- man must turn the hemp over, to dry it equally on all sides. She must also place fresh hemp when that whidt is well dried is taken away to be broken.
At length, when they have well broken about two pounds of hemp, they double it in the middre and twist the two ends strongly towards each other. This is called hemp ends, or coarse hemp,. We have already remarked, that temp not sufficient- ly rotted was hard, thick, elaatic, ami remained clogged with parts of the stalk. We shall hereafter find these to. It would rather be injured by putridity ; for to have a fine thread the concurrence of many things are necessary.
It is toa ligneous, consequently harcT and brittle. On the otheV hand, if the soil is too humid, the bilrk which it will pro- duce will be too Herbaceous, tender, and liabk to break, and become refuse, or heads of hemp. Secondly — The year. F'or wliten the seasons are dry and parching, the thread is hard. On the contrary,, when the seasons are cool and moist, it is supple aiki sometimes tender. Thirdly— The state of maturity. Fourthly —The manner of sowing the hemp. It is necessa- ry that the ground inteu'ied, should be in the best order, early in May, that the first favorable season that offers, for sowing the seed may be embraced.
This is previ- ous to a warm rain, or as soon after, as the ground will admit.