Bilingual Dictionaries. Read More. All Contents Entries. Items per page: 10 20 50 A-Z to view, select the "Entries" tab. All rights reserved. Sign in to annotate. Delete Cancel Save. In acting, a rising climax is marked by quicker movement and a higher pitch of the voice, and a falling climax by no less suspense but by a seemingly calmer demonstration of intensity. A show closes at the end of its last performance.
Remotely controlled by the lighting desk. Can also be selected to run continuously. Remotely controllable. Can perform additive color mixing by lowering two colors into position at the same time. The colored filter absorbs all the colors of light except the color of the filter itself, which it allows through. For this reason, denser colors get very hot, and can burn out very quickly. At one time, filters were made from gelatin, from which came the still-used name "gel. Combining colors in this way adds the colors together, eventually arriving at white. The three primary colors additively mix to form white, as do the complementary colors.
Subtractive mixing is used to obtain a color effect that is not available from stock or from manufacturers. Because the ranges of color are so wide, the need for subtractive mixing is reducing. Combining colors in this way reduces the light towards blackness. The three primary colors mix subtractively to form black or to block all the light. COMEDY A play, varying over the centuries in its characteristics, but generally light and humorous, with a happy ending. Comedy is more thoughtful than farce, more realistic in character and situation.
The terms "comedy of manners," "drawing-room comedy" and "high comedy" are often interchangeable. Developed in Italy, 16th to 18th centuries, but influential on acting and dramatic forms ever since. Community theatres tend to be operated for local recreation, education, and commonly seek to obtain the patronage and production participation of the community as a whole. Note that the spelling of "theater" or "theatre" is a matter of choice. In the United States, both spellings are used.
Combination of a Compressor and an Expander. It evens out the unwanted changes in volume you get with close-miking, and in doing so, adds punch to the sound mix. A limiter is used to stop a signal from exceeding a preset limit. Beyond this limit, the signal level will not increase, no matter how loud the input becomes. A limiter is often used to protect speaker systems and human ears by preventing a system from becoming too loud. Also used in some profile lamps and followspots to produce a smoother light especially for gobo work.
Condenser microphones need a power supply to provide the voltage across the plates, which may be provided by a battery within the case of the microphone, or it may be provided from an external phantom power supply. A condenser mic is more sensitive and has a faster reaction to percussive sounds than a Dynamic mic and produces a more even response. Also used to add weight to the bottom of a flown cloth. The lead character can thus express ideas, explain feelings, or outline plans of action in a very natural way. When you sign the contract and it is approved, you will be granted a license to perform the play.
Read the contract carefully before signing, since it sets forth the number of performances, the performance venue, cost of tickets, and production dates that you provided the playwright's representative. When you are granted a performance license, by law the show you license must be performed "as is. See below If you offer more than the contracted number of performances, or charge more than the contract says, or if your theater holds more people than you stated in your application, you are liable to legal action.
Also to register work for copyright. Playwrights protect their ownership of their work by copyrighting it.
This allows them or their representatives to decide who may perform the show, where it may be performed, how it may be performed, and how much will be charged for licensing the work. Copyright also allows the author to demand that you present the play as written, with no changes, unless granted by the playwright or representative. Without prior permission your actions will subject you to legal action for breaching the terms of your license. If you feel you must experiment with re-conceiving a show, there are many already in the public domain Shakespeare, Gilbert and Sullivan, Oscar Wilde that are no longer protected by copyright.
Note the spelling with "right," not "write. Copywrite Incorrect spelling for copyright which see. At the same time, the director and lighting designer usually are present for their input as well. COUNTER In acting, to maintain the balance of the stage picture by moving across the stage in a direction opposite to that in which another actor has moved or is moving.
For example, if two actors are standing stage left and a third joins them, one of the original two may cross in the other direction.
This is, of course, if it also fits the sense of the scene. A French expression, meaning "a theatrical stroke. It can be cut, combed and glued bit by bit to the face to form a beard, a mustache, sideburns, and eyebrows. Sometimes called a C-wrench. CROSS To move across the stage from one position to another, especially when passing in front of another actor.
Sometimes, a stage direction, as in "When Ellen enters, cross left. Thus, to cross-light, and crosslighting.
Glossary of musical terms
Different speakers handle high frequencies tweeters and low frequencies woofers. Sometimes known as a crossover network. An active crossover splits the signal from the mixing desk into high, mid and low frequencies which are then sent to three separate amplifiers. Most often used in followspots, because it has a color temperature approx. CUE 1 The last words of one actor's spoken dialogue, which the next actor to speak needs as a signal to begin. When actors leave dead space before beginning their lines of dialogue, a director may ask them to "Pick up your cues.
A cue may indicate a change in lighting levels, run a sound effect, or close the main drape. Normally given by stage management, but may be taken directly from the action i. Red light means stand-by or warn, green light means go. Ensures greater precision when visibility or audibility of actors is limited. Sometimes used for cueing actors onto the set.
For technical cues, lights are normally now used just as a backup to cues given over the headset system. Sometimes short for the 'main curtain,' which rises or parts at the beginning of a performance, and falls or closes, at the end. In this sense, it is different from the act or scene curtain. By extension, the start of a performance "What time is curtain on Sunday? Prior to curtain, it may be used to welcome the audience, specify emergency exits, rules on photos and electronic devices, and to promote the producing theatre's programs.
Often shortened to "curtain," as in "What time is curtain? CUT 1 To omit lines or business provided in the script, usually intentionally. Also, such an omission. Thus, "This version of 'The Taming of the Shrew' cut the prologue. A plain cloth or plastered wall filling the rear of the stage. The term is often loosely applied to a blue skydrop, or any flattage at the rear of the stage.
- MARIE ELENA.
- Conservation and the Genetics of Populations?
- Notes and rhythm.
- Language, Grammar and Literary Terms.
- Musical terms: A glossary of useful terminology - Classic FM.
- Building a Close Friendship (Gay Briefs).
- Theatre Terms | AACT?
May be curved at the ends--and indeed the original sense of the word was a curving or u-shaped curtain. Typical made of canvas or heavyweight cotton duck, suspended from the grid, and reaching to the floor. The term "cyclorama" is also used to refer to the lighting instrument that covers the actual "cyc" with light. Newer models of these instruments include LED styles that require far less energy, and produce far less heat. Some are multifunction devices: dimmer, infinite-shades color changer, light source projector, strobe effect and optics with precision adjustment.
Used for connecting demux boxes to dimmers, etc. DARK Said of a theatre that is closed, or with no performances scheduled. Some theatres go dark temporarily during production periods, when the next show is in preparation on stage. Also used to measure the difference between two voltages, or two currents.
DECK 1 Stage floor. DEEP A stage or acting area that is long in measurement from front to back. Thus, department head. In modern drama, sometimes used to mean an unlikely resolution of the problem posed in a play. Electric guitar into a low impedance balanced signal of low level suitable for connection to the microphone input of a mixing desk.
Usually has an output jack socket so that the instrument's unprocessed signal can be passed direct to the musician's amplifier. Thus dramatic or stage dialogue. Normal gels absorb the unwanted colors, turning the light into heat. Diachronic filters run cooler, and produce a much cooler beam of light. Longer lasting, but a lot more expensive. Results in a much "cooler" light. Different strengths of diffuser sometimes called "frost" are available from many color filter manufacturers.
Information is handled in separate bits either ON or OFF rather than continuously variable analogue signals. Most computer lighting boards give a digital multiplexed output, and most new sound equipment is digital. The technology also permits the dimmer to report faults and other data back to the control board. Widely used in gathering sound effects, for news gathering, and for playback of music. A laser heats an area of magnetic disk which is then written to by a magnetic head. When cooled, the magnetic information is read from the disk by laser.
Tracks can be named, and are instant start. Very theatre-friendly system. European standard covering audio connectors and tape equalization characteristics. An arc light, for example uses a discharge between two carbon rods which are manually or automatically fed together as they are burnt up. The use of this type of lighting is restricted to non-dimming applications such as followspots and projection, where dimming is achieved by mechanical means. Many of the new generation of moving lights use discharge lamps and diachronic filters.
Thus, "Barnes is discovered upstage left, smoking. Synchronization signals recorded onto the tape are detected by the dissolve unit and fade up the lamp in one slide projector while changing the slide in the other, and then vice versa, producing a dipless crossfade between the two images. Reducing the levels can remedy the situation. Many film soundtracks are produced using this process.
Different varieties are found from Dolby B on most personal cassette players, to Dolby SR and Digital, the current state of the art for films. DONUT A metal plate with a hole in the middle inserted in the color runners of a lamp to sharpen focus in the case of a profile or reduce spill. Use is declining due to the fact that it is sourced from environmentally unsustainable resources in the Brazilian Rainforest. Thus, doubling. The cradle of a double purchase system needs twice as many counterweights as that of a single purchase system balancing the same weight.
Thus, double-casting. Also a stage direction, as "Mary, move down center. Also a stage direction, as in "Mary, move down left. Sometimes abbreviated as D. Thus, 'downstage wall,' 'downstage entrance. The opposite of comedy. From the Latin, "persons of the drama. At the O'Neill, the dramaturg was a critic on the playwright's side, and assumed to be widely read with a good grasp of craft issues, Sweet explains. The dramaturg was to ask questions of playwrights that would generate responses to answer problems in their scripts. In the last 25 years the role of dramaturg has evolved and expanded.
Today, while there is no single definition, Sweet says, "in practice, the dramaturg is generally supposed to have some kind of literary bent, be capable of research, and to utter opinions which by dint of schooling are supposed to be taken seriously. Thus dramaturge or dramaturg, dramaturgist. Thus, drapery border, drape, drape curtain. Any defects, misfits etc. The performance as it will be on opening night. Decorative props some practical and furnishings added to a stage setting.
DROP A piece of scenic canvas, painted or plain, that is flown or fixed to hang in a vertical position. Sometimes called cloths the British term. A Backdrop hangs at the rear of a scene. A Front drop hangs well downstage, often to hide a scene change taking place behind. Cut drops have cut-away open areas and are normally used as a series, painted in perspective.
A Star drop usually black has a large number of small low-voltage lamps sewn or pinned through it which gives a magical starry sky effect. See also Fiber Optics. A floor drop may be used to protect the stage while painting, or to mark the playing area. DRY 1 An actor forgetting the words of his script, to go dry or dry up. Although non-toxic, caution is required in the storage and handling of dry ice because of its extreme cold. Water is boiled in a large tank offstage, into which the dry ice is lowered in a basket. Fans and ducts then direct the gas onto the stage. Dry ice does not support life, so care should be taken that small animals, actors etc.
Also, forgetfulness while acting. Also "Go dry. A production, or part of one, played in pantomime. The term comes from a belief among the British that the Dutch were frugal, and thus saving old scraps of cloth or wood to fill joints was seen as a sign of frugality. An alternating current is induced into the wire which provides the electrical output. Most dynamic mics have low output impedances of Ohms. Used with an objective lens to produce the desired size of image. Commonly used discs are clouds, flames and rain. In general, the term "elevation" refers to a Front elevation.
A Rear elevation shows backs of scenic elements. A side view of a set is known as a "section". For example, the closing of the theatres in is sometimes included in an overview of Elizabethan theatre. Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlights ER Spotlights are probably one of the most commonly used lighting instruments today. ER Spotlights typically feature a long light throw which creates a circular pool of light on the stage. Both lenses are permanently welded into place.
The configuration of an ER Spotlight 6x6, 6x9, 6x12, etc. Each lens is thick and curved. The lens is manufactured this way in order to resist cracking under the intense heat from the lamp. The curved lens also helps the heat to effectively dissipate. ENCORE A call by an audience--by shouting or applause--for the reappearance of performers in order to repeat a portion of a musical or dance number. Also, to call out this word "Encore!
The word is French, meaning "again. A cast of characters, except for the principals. Also a stage direction, as in "Ted enters from the side door. In many works, the epilogue explains what happens 'afterward' to the characters. A graphic equalizer provides adjustment for a wide range of frequency bands, and is normally inserted in the signal path after the mixing desk, before the amplifier.
Thus, "The playwright establishes within the first few moments that this is pre-Nazi Germany, mostly by the references to the Weimar Republic and its inflationary terrors. Thus, "exit speech" and "make an exit. EXPANDER A piece of sound processing equipment that reduces background noise by muting a sound signal when it falls below a certain level, restoring it when the level increases again. Must be used on vocal microphones with care, because it may cut the signal off, although the vocalist is still singing quietly. Also, any plot-related information that is provided to help the audience understand actions that take place offstage.
The means to do this are unusual, from heavy symbolism to speeding up or slowing down the action, abstract sets and costumes, etc. The high point of expressionism was , and most practiced in Germany, although it can be found in American plays as well. Thus, extemporize, extempore from the Latin, meaning "out of the moment. Later, any spectacular presentation. FADE An increase, diminishment or change in lighting or sound level.
Also a noun: fadeout. Used to reduce the size of the opening when putting a small set onto a large stage. For example to allow trucks guided by tracks cut into this false floor, to be moved by steel wires running in the shallow 2 or 3 inch void between the false floor and the original stage floor.
A false stage is also required for putting a revolve onto a stage. FARCE A broadly comic dramatic work based on ludicrously improbable events, unsubtle in idea or characterization. Farce is typically fast and funny, with a great deal of action. Thus, "a fat part. See Amateur Rights, Professional Rights. Some representatives charge a straight fee, with no distinction as to the number of seats or performances. Others charge one fee for the first performance and a lesser amount for each successive performance.
Still others charge a fee based on the number of seats in the house, ticket price, number of performance, and company status professional or amateur. There are three basic fees in licensing a musical: A royalty fee per performance ; a rental fee; and a refundable security deposit. FEED 1 A power supply to a piece of equipment or installation is termed a "feed". Sound equipment and sensitive computer equipment should have a clean feed - that is, a supply that is free from interference from other equipment.
Music - Vocabulary List : amygybokihyd.tk
Thus a "feed line. It is caused by a sound being amplified many times. The microphone picks up this amplified sound and it is sent through the system again. Feedback can be avoided by careful microphone positioning, and can be reduced by use of Equalization to reduce the level of the frequency band causing the feedback. Also known as "howl. Fiber Optics are used mostly in communication, but find theatre applications in star cloths which are black backcloths with the ends of optical fibers poked through, to create a mass of pin pricks of light. A large bundle or harness of fibers may be fed from one light source, sometimes with a motorized color or flicker wheel.
Used in prop-making. Most profile instruments have an adjustable field. A Flat field has an even distribution, a peak field has a "hot spot" in the center of the beam. A flat field is essential when using gobos. It is the responsibility of all staff and performers to ensure that all fire exits are kept clear, unlocked and accessible at all times. Many scenic materials require regular re-application of fireproofing treatment.
Thus, "first-night audience. Also known as a flash pod. FLAT A lightweight timber frame covered with scenic canvas. Now usually covered with plywood or hardboard, and consequently not so lightweight. Most theatres have a range of stack flattage made to a standard size, and re-used many times. A Rail is a horizontal batten within a flat.
A Stile is a side or vertical piece within a flat. A Sill is the bottom rail of a flat. Hence, any travel from theatre to theatre, and by extension, a theatre junket or trip that takes in multiple theatres. Floodlights are basic theatrical lighting instruments, consisting of primarily of a reflector box and a lamp, usually attached to a yoke to allow the instrument to be hung. They are often used in the theater for color washes, or left uncolored for use as work lights.
Floodlights 'floods' are used in battens, or singly to light cycloramas or large areas of the stage. The materials degrade the UV wavelengths into longer and therefore visible reflected rays. FLY To lift or raise a set piece or lighting bar up and out of sight--or, in some cases, a person, as in "Peter Pan.
Often are also the site for socket panels for connecting flown lighting apparatus to dimmers, and also sometimes a lighting position. Known as the "flies". The ideal fly tower should be more than twice the height of the proscenium arch, and is said to have "full flying height". In a large musical number, for example, the focus is often the lead performer. Thus, to steal focus, is to do something that diverts audience attention from the intended object of focus. In a set design, a stairway, doorway, couch, or other object is positioned as the focus of the scene.
Does not necessarily result in a "sharply focused" image. A lighting unit with a reflector, installed in a strip on or in the floor, parallel to the curtain line, and usually in front of it, shielded from the auditorium side. Sometimes called an apron. FOUL Said of ropes, cables, scenic pieces, etc, hanging from above, when they become tangled. FOURTH WALL From the observation that the traditional box set has three walls left, right, back and an invisible fourth wall--the proscenium through which the audience views the action.
Thus "Breaking the Fourth Wall," when a fictional character shows awareness of the play in which they "exist" and the audience watching that play. FREEZE In acting, to keep motionless, especially while the audience laughs, or to create a stage picture at the start or end of a scene.
In American and English drama, directors often break up a long scene for the purposes of blocking, rehearsal or character work. A high frequency HF sound has a higher pitch and is uni-directional. A low frequency LF sound has a lower pitch and is omnidirectional. The lens is a series of stepped concentric circles on the front and pebbled on the back and is named after its French inventor, Augustin Jean Fresnel Thus, "front lighting. Includes foyer areas open to the general public.
Calls are normally made at the Half 35 min. Different strengths of diffuser are available from many color filter manufacturers. FUSE Protective device for electrical equipment e. The fuse link will melt when excess current flows, preventing damage to people or equipment. Every piece of electrical equipment has at least one fuse in its associated circuit.
Gives a "police light" effect. Usually 12 Volt or Volt operation. Most common widths are. Used for temporarily securing almost anything. Should not be used on coiled cables or equipment. Originally named for the Gaffer Master Electrician on a film set. GAIN 1 The level of amplification given to a signal or of a system. GANG To group together spotlights, dimmers, etc. Also, a group or grouping of lighting or sound equipment.
GATE The point of focus in a profile spot where the shutters are positioned and where an iris or gobo can be inserted. A sheet of plastic usually composed of a colored resin sandwiched between two clear pieces. Many different sizes of frames are needed for the different lamps. The term is also used sometimes to denote unreserved seating. The stage is normally split into a number of areas for this purpose, which can then be isolated or blended together as required by the director.
Also known as "General Fill. Usually treads. GHOST In lighting, a secondary illumination from a spotlight, showing that the optical system is not in proper adjustment. Also believed to keep the theatrical muse in a "dark" theatre, and to stop people tripping over bits of scenery when they come into the theatre in the morning. Also refers to the light emitted by a lamp when a dimmer has not been "trimmed" correctly, and is leaking. GLAZE Glossy transparent or semitransparent finish applied as a final coat to a painted stage floor or to scenery to soften its appearance.
Also: "Dry up. The image can be used soft focus to add texture, rather than a defined image. A number of composite gobos in different colored lamps can, with careful focusing, produce a colored image e. Greater detail can be achieved using a glass gobo. The original use of the word came from the early days of Hollywood. When the director of photography wanted daylight excluded from some area of the set, he'd say "Go Black Out".
People would run around putting black material between the sun and the set. It eventually evolved into other objects that go in front of lights and now most commonly refers to patterns in profiles. Usually refers only to musical productions. Needs special removing cold cream.
According to the edition of Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable the common waiting room for performers is so called "because at one time the walls were colored green to relieve the eyes affected by the glare of the stage lights. The term was also used to denote a room where undried pottery was stored before being fired. It's possible that by extension this meaning was applied to the backstage room for actors waiting to go onstage.
GRID 1 The support structure close to the top of the fly tower on which the pulleys of the flying system are supported. Constructed from metal or wooden beams. Typical scales are Venues have a base plan showing proscenium, walls, seating etc on which individual set and lighting plans can be drawn. Plan Plan GROUNDING Electrical safety requirement that metal parts of electrical equipment are connected to a common ground point so that in the event of a fault, excess current can be carried away, causing the fuse to blow.
The reference is to gypsies, the wandering people of Europe, who never settled down. HALF Call given to the actors half an hour before they will be called to the stage for the beginning of a performance. Given 35 minutes before the advertised time of commencement. Subsequent calls given are the "quarter" at 20 minutes, "the five" at 10 minutes and "beginners to the stage" at 5 minutes before curtain up. Call Call HALOGEN A halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp in which a tungsten filament is sealed into a compact transparent envelope filled with an inert gas and a small amount of halogen such as iodine or bromine.
The halogen cycle increases the lifetime of the bulb and prevents its darkening by redepositing tungsten from the inside of the bulb back onto the filament. The halogen lamp can operate its filament at a higher temperature than a standard gas filled lamp of similar power without loss of operating life. It also gives light of a higher color temperature compared to a non-halogen incandescent lamp.
Alternatively, it may be designed to have perhaps twice the life with the same or slightly higher efficacy. Because of their smaller size, halogen lamps can advantageously be used with optical systems that are more efficient. However, the overall bulb temperature is far higher than in conventional incandescent lamps, and so the bulb must be made of fused silica quartz or a high melting point glass such as aluminosilicate glass.
HAM Someone who overacts or acts badly on stage. From "hamfatter," said to derive from a derisive term for a minstrel performer. Supposedly, the connection was that blackface was a blend of pork fat and burnt cork, and related to the fact that an old minstrel song was "The Ham-Fat Man. Also used when an object is being dropped from above. HEMP A type of rope used for flying, made from fibers found within the bark of the cannabis plant. HEMP SET The simplest flying system consisting of a series of hemp ropes threaded through pulleys on the grid, and tied off on the fly floor on a cleat.
The usual arrangement is for three ropes to be attached to a flying piece, named by their position relative to the fly floor short, center and long. These names are used when leveling the flying piece, and giving it a dead. The three ropes are pulled or let in together, sometimes requiring more than one person to operate. Thus, "highlighting. HIT A great popular success. Originally , the term meant "a wonderfully favorable impression. HOOK A hook on a pole used to pull an unwanted performer off the stage on amateur night in a variety show.
Originally 19th century term. An experienced actor learns to recognize and locate any instrument's hot spot, and to center him or herself in it for maximum visibility. Used in many large-scale shows to automate scene changes. Affects the ability of a cable to transmit low level e. Speakers are rated according to power handling capabilities Watts, W and impedance Ohms. Suggestions such as places, opening lines of dialogue, television shows, emotions, etc.
Then the suggestions are stretched to the wildest depths of the imagination and explored by the players who use an arsenal of games and scenes of high caliber humor or drama -- all produced on the spot. Improvisation as defined by Viola Spolin. Improvisation IN FOUR Said of a scene played in an acting area bounded on the upstage side by an imaginary line across the stage form the left wing farthest upstage to the right win furthest upstage, and on the downstage side by the "in three" area.
In three IN ONE Said of a scene played in an acting area bounded on the upstage side by an imaginary line across the stage from the left wing furthest downstage to the right wing farthest downstage. Also said of a curtain position at the same line; thus to play a scene "in one" usually means to play it on the downstage area in front of the curtain usually while scenery is being changed behind the curtain.
IN THREE Said of a scene played in an acting area bounded on the upstage side by an imaginary line drawn across the stage from the left wing to the right wing three-quarters of the way upstage. Used for testing instruments prior to connection to the lighting system and also for powering non-lighting equipment on stage and working lights. A channel within the stage lighting control which has been temporarily switched to become independent from the rest of the channels which remain under the control of the operator. Infra-red remote controls are used for lighting desks and practicals.
An infra-red-sensitive CCTV camera can pick up body heat activity even in a blackout. Interpolation is illegal in copyrighted works without the permission of the author s or their representative agent. IRIS Adjustable aperture which, when placed in the gate of a profile instrument, varies the size of a beam of light. Originally, iris diaphragm. If the aperture permits it, the size of the beam can be made quite small referred to as "the button", or closed altogether.
JACK Segmented audio connector. Mono Jacks have two connections - tip and sleeve, and are unbalanced. Stereo jacks have three connections - tip, ring and sleeve. Includes extensive bibliographies predominately primary sources , as well as images, and song lyrics. Encyclopedia of Latin American Popular Music. George Torres. Santa Barbara, California : Greenwood, c Organized alphabetically by subject, this comprehensive encyclopedia contains roughly entries and includes a chronology, discussion of themes in Latin American music, and 37 biographical sidebars of significant musicians and performers.
Contains bibliographies of recommended further readings. Historical Dictionary of Russian Music. Lanham, Md. This dictionary contains over cross-referenced that reference all genres Russian music from the beginning of recorded history until the present. Also included are a chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. REF ML R8J24 The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India. Pandit Nikhil Ghosh. This 3 volume set comprehensively covers a year span of Indian music. Entries include classical, folk, film, and other forms of music as well as all forms of dance, treatises, technical terms, and instruments.
I64O94 Brundvand, Jan Harold. American Folklore: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, Not only includes general articles on ethnic cultures but also contains significant entries on musical subjects "Ballad", "Bluegrass", "Shape-Note Singing", "Klezmer", "Rap", "Zydeco". American folklorists have traditionally emphasized musical expression as an object of study.