These insights into the subconscious carried implications for possible treatment methods for the emotionally disturbed. Sigmund Freud — was influenced by these developments, and his earlier works clearly reflect the magnetic-hypnotic tradition with its gradual unveiling of an unconscious mental life. In its origins, animal magnetism was a healing system. The techniques of animal magnetism were geared to restoring that balance in persons suffering from illness. In the literature it is not always easy to differentiate between those interested in the investigation of somnambulistic consciousness and those interested in magnetic healing, since more often than not practitioners were involved with both.
However, the two concerns were distinguishable in practice. This is reflected by the fact that many of the thousands of books written on animal magnetism before have one section dealing with the treatment of disease and another dealing with somnambulistic phenomena. He also described instances in which the somnambulist prescribed treatment by specific medicines or medical procedures. He considered this to be one of the great benefits of magnetic sleep, claiming that somnambulists were almost always correct in their diagnosis and that their prescribed treatments were often successful.
In there appeared a hefty treatise of nearly twelve hundred pages compiled by Simon Mialle b. This work gives some idea of the vast extent of the tradition of magnetic healing in the decades following Mesmer. Here Mialle details cases of cure through the application of animal magnetism between and In each case there is a description of the disease treated, the animal-magnetic procedure employed, and the results produced.
Each instance is documented by source, and the reader cannot help but be impressed by the sheer volume of work of this kind being done in those early years. The healing tradition of animal magnetism continued well beyond the year , extending even into the twentieth century. Besides healing, another medical use of animal magnetism was as an anesthetic for surgery.
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The first well-documented surgical operation on an individual in a state of magnetic somnambulism was performed in Paris on April 16, The mesmerist was Pierre Jean Chapelain and the surgeon was Jules Cloquet — , later famous for his works on anatomy. The surgery was for the removal of a cancerous breast from a sixty-four-year-old woman, a Madame Plantin. The earliest use of animal magnetism as an anesthetic in the United States seems to have been a painless tooth extraction performed by the mesmerist Bugard in It seems that this new use of animal magnetism did not really come into its own until the early s.
In a Dr. Ward successfully performed the amputation of a leg at the thigh upon a mesmerized patient in London. His influential colleague, John Elliotson — , immediately took up the cause for this medical use of animal magnetism, and in India James Esdaile — , carried out dozens of serious operations on magnetized patients in the mids. At about the same time a series of surgical operations were performed under Dr.
Loisel in Cherbourg, France. All this promising activity involving animal magnetism as an anesthetic soon faded, however, with the introduction in Britain of ether as an analgesic in Although animal magnetism or hypnotism did not become widely used as an anesthetic, some surgical operations under its agency continued to be performed long after chemicals were well established in that role. In fact, the rise of interest in hypnotism in France around was strongly associated with its successful use in surgery.
Psychical research, the scientific study of the paranormal, may be said to have had its official beginning in with the establishment of the Society for Psychical Research in Britain. Psychical research was the direct result of certain developments arising from animal magnetism. In Germany animal magnetism developed a strong early following among those influenced by romantic philosophy, so prominent at the end of the eighteenth century.
Literary men such as Jean Paul Richter — and E. Hoffman — , physicians including Johannes Kaspar Lavater — and Friederich Hufeland — , and religious philosopher Johannes Heinrich Jung-Stilling — are examples of thinkers who found the notion of a universal magnetic agent that connected all beings and was the source of life and health a most congenial concept. The spiritual philosophy of Emanuel Swedenborg — had made inroads of its own in late eighteenth-century Germany; magnetic somnambulists began to have Swedenborgian style visions, communicating with the world of spirits in mesmeric ecstasy.
Paranormal-type phenomena, such as clairvoyance and precognition, were common in these circles, astounding the curious observer. While there were many who were content to account for these marvels through a romantic, occult-oriented philosophy, some felt the need for a more scientific approach that could examine the facts systematically and evaluate their credibility, a need that would not be met until the rise of psychical research in the latter part of the nineteenth century. The French developed their own particular melding of animal magnetism and occult tradition.
Animal magnetism began making significant inroads in the United States from the mids on. Lectures by Charles Poyen St. Sauveur d. Itinerant magnetizers wandered the countryside with professional somnambulists at their sides, stopping in the local towns to give medical clairvoyant readings. For a fee, the somnambulist would diagnose an illness and prescribe remedies. The visionary Andrew Jackson Davis — began his career as such an itinerant somnambulist and eventually became an author of great popularity, using the magnetic trance to dictate his spiritual treatises.
This spirit activity centered on the daughters of the household, and news of the purportedly paranormal activity of the Fox sisters spread rapidly throughout the United States, reaching England, France, and Germany within a few years. When Spiritualism spread to England in the early s, it found a very receptive home. Within a few years spiritualistic mediums could be found in great abundance throughout the country.
Spiritualist churches were established; spiritualist alliances were formed; and spiritualist books and newspapers came into print. There was such a proliferation of apparently paranormal spiritualistic phenomena that serious-minded people voiced the need for a careful scientific investigation to discover whether these things were real or illusory. The successful spread of Spiritualism was to a large extent due to the popularity of a fad that grew out of spiritualistic circles and emigrated to Great Britain and Europe in A group of people would gather around the parlour table, rest their hands in a circle on its surface, and wait for spontaneous movement to occur.
Sometimes the table would rotate; at other times it would rise and fall on one side, tapping a leg on the floor. The tapping would be read as an alphabetical code, and a message would be deciphered. Many explained the phenomenon in terms of the action of spirits of the dead communicating with the living; others attributed the movements and messages to the action of animal magnetic fluid emanating from the participants; still others believed the participants were simply deluding themselves, the movement being produced by their own unconscious physical exertions.
In Germany, France, England, and the United States, the association between magnetic somnambulism and paranormal phenomena of the spiritualistic type was very strong. Many of the books and articles that appeared wove their way back and forth between the two areas, giving the impression that it was impossible to discuss one without dealing with the other. It is not surprising, then, that when the Society for Psychical Research was formed in England in , it undertook to investigate not only the validity of spiritualistic phenomena, but also the nature of animal magnetism and hypnotism.
In the thirty years preceding the foundation of the Society for Psychical Research, there had been a number of notable attempts to investigate the phenomena of Spiritualism scientifically. Some were carried out by scientists, others by individuals untrained in the procedures of systematic investigation.
The results were uneven and inconclusive. So when a group of academics, most of them associated with Cambridge, decided to set up a society that would undertake a study employing stringent scientific criteria, there was enthusiasm for the idea both from intellectuals and the Spiritualists themselves. The Society was fortunate to have the nearly full-time involvement of a number of highly gifted investigators and within a few years began publishing its Proceedings and a journal. This activity generated a great many similar studies of the paranormal by some of the brightest minds of the day.
The result was the publication of a mass of material on psychical research that continued well into the twentieth century. The three streams flowing from the discovery of animal magnetism often merged. Writers in the psychological stream such as William James and Charles Richet sometimes dealt with issues of psychical research. On the other hand, the literature of psychical research was rich in psychological writings of real significance.
An example of this is F. The crossover among the three streams is also illustrated by the fact that both those interested in the psychological stream and those drawn to psychical research often investigated the healing and medical aspect of animal magnetism. Among the former, for example, were Hippolyte Bernheim, Jean-Martin Charcot, and Pierre Janet, who explored the relationship between the healing effects of animal magnetism and psychological factors, such as suggestion; among the latter were the members of the Society for Psychical Research whose studies focused on the nature of magnetic healing.
The histories of animal magnetism, hypnotism, and psychical research are inextricably intertwined. As will be evident from the annotated entries in the bibliography, the literature of any one of these areas cannot but include the literature of the other two.
This bibliography is intended to include the literature of animal magnetism and those streams of thought that can be identified as flowing directly from it. Conceived in the broadest possible terms, that literature is vast, far exceeding the scope of this work. This bibliography has been consciously circumscribed for two reasons. The first is the desire to include only those works that are immediately connected with animal magnetism and the themes that arise directly from it.
The second is the intention to produce a work focused on the most significant writings within the historical tradition arising from animal magnetism. The effect of including only those works that are closely connected with the themes arising from animal magnetism is most easily illustrated by describing the categories of literature that have not been included. Omitted are works that deal exclusively with occultism, possession, or witchcraft; theosophy, anthroposophy, Christian Science, or other spiritual philosophies; theology or religious thought; and conjuring or stage magic.
While spiritualist writings have true importance for the history of animal magnetism and its offshoots, only those works have been included here that depict its development from mesmeric influences or that play a significant role in the rise of psychical research. This means that the bibliography does not include stories about clairvoyants, seers, or prophets; books relating communications from spirits; spiritualistic speculations about the afterlife or related matters; and collections of ghost-lore.
The second reason for circumscribing the bibliography, the wish to focus on the most significant writings arising within the animal magnetic tradition, necessitated the omission of works which, while legitimately part of the history of animal magnetism and its offshoots, are relatively minor.
While it is difficult to define the criteria by which such a selection was made, a few words can be said about the thinking that was involved. Rating low on the list of works to be included were writings that simply summarize the work of others, collections of cases that have been dealt with in previous works, and popularizations intended to simplify and condense more serious treatises. In the field of hypnotism, this tended to exclude books on stage hypnotism, handbooks of hypnotic practice, pamphlets meant for home study of hypnotism, treatises on personal magnetism, and writings on auto-hypnosis and auto-suggestion.
There are, of course, some works in these categories that were influential or otherwise significant, and they have been incorporated as appropriate into the bibliography. The bibliography ends with the year This date was chosen for a number of reasons.
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First, by publication of works on animal magnetism had almost completely ceased. Second, shortly after the study of hypnotism entered a new phase, in which researchers such as Clark Hull, M. White, and others adopted innovative laboratory and statistical methods to explore its nature and effects. Third, by most of the classical works of psychical research had been published, and psychical research too was about to enter a new stage of development. Like that of hypnotism, this new stage, initiated by the work of Joseph Banks Rhine at Duke University in the late s, involved the introduction of laboratory and statistical methods into the study of paranormal phenomena.
Annotations are intended to provide information about the content of the work and thereby indicate its place in the history of the field. The length of the annotation depends to some extent upon the significance of the entry in that history. In some cases, due to inaccessibility of a given work, annotations were compiled without benefit of direct inspection. Annotations are given for approximately one-third of the entries. The intention is to provide annotations for the most important items and a sufficient variety of less significant works to convey to the reader a sense of the evolution of the literature.
Entries are listed by year, from to Within each year, works are listed alphabetically. Each entry contains full bibliographic information, including author, title and publication data. Many entries contain annotations. Publication information is given in English: cities are cited in their commonly accepted English form e. Every effort has been made to provide information about the first edition of each book. In the few cases in which that could not be obtained, information about a later edition is given. For books in languages other than English, English translations known to exist are listed.
It is intended ordinarily to give the earliest English translation. Finally, undated works have been assigned the most accurate date that can be ascertained. In some cases, because of inaccessibility of the works, entries lack information about publisher or pages. I would like to acknowledge a number of people who helped make books available for my research. Particular thanks go to Bill Williams, O. C, a man with an abiding interest in the working principles of the mind, who opened to me his fine private library of works on psychical research. I also would like to express my appreciation for the assistance given me by Jane Lynch, Senior Interlibrary Loan Technician for the Robarts Library and her staff at the University of Toronto.
I would also like to acknowledge with thanks a timely grant for this project provided by Therafields Foundation of Toronto. My special thanks to my wife Josephine for her research work, editing, and overall support for this project. Finally, I would particularly like to express my appreciation to Professor Rob Wozniak, editor of this bibliographic series, for his suggestion that I undertake this work, for his encouragement while I was working on the project, and for his invaluable input into each step of the process.
Artelt, Walter. Der Mesmerismus in Berlin. Mayence: Akademie der Wissenschaft und der Literatur, Barrucand, Dominique. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, Benz, Ernst.
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Munich: Wilhelm Fink, Bibliotheca Esoterica. Brueil-en Vexin: Yvelines, Blake, John B. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institute of Health, Bloch, George ed. Los Altos, California: William Kaufmann, Bousfield, Wendy ed. Catalog of the Maurice M. Wichita, Kansas: Wichita State University, Bramwell, J. Hypnotism: Its History, Practice and Theory. New York: Julian Press, The first edition was published in Bunn, Walter von. Buranelli, Vincent. The Wizard from Vienna. Caillet, Albert Louis. Manuel bibliographique des sciences psychiques ou occultes. Paris: Lucien Borbon, Carlson, Eric T.
Carlson, Eric and Simpson, Meribeth. Catalogue of the Library of the Society for Psychical Research. Boston: G. Hall, Cernilo, John J. The Secularization of the Soul. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, Chertok, Leon. Le non-savoir des psy. Paris: Payot, Chertok, Leon and De Saussure, Raymond.
The Therapeutic Revolution from Mesmer to Freud. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, Darnton, Robert. Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment in France. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, Dessoir Max. Erster Nachtrag zur Bibliographie des modernen Hypnotismus. Berlin: Carl Duncker, Dingwall, Eric J. Dureau, Alexis. Paris: The Author and Joubert, Edmonston, William E.
The Induction of Hypnosis. EUenberger, Henri. New York: Basic Books, Figuier, Louis. Histoire du merveilleux dans les temps modernes. Paris: L. Hachette, Fuller, Robert C. Mesmerism and the American Cure of Souls. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Gallini, Clara. La sonnambula meravigliosa. Milan: Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, Gartrell, Ellen G. Electricity, Magnetism, and Animal Magnetism.
A Checklist of Printed Sources: — Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc. Goldsmith, Margaret. Franz Anton Mesmer. The History of an Idea. London: Arthur Barker, Grattan-Guinness, Ivor. Psychical Research. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Aquarian Press, The Society for Psychical Research: — London: Macdonald, Inglis, Brian. Natural and Supernatural. A History of the Paranormal from Earliest Times to London: Hodder and Stoughton, Science and Parascience.
A History of the Paranormal, — Jensen, Ann and Watkins, Mary Lou. Franz Anton Mesmer: Physician Extraordinaire. New York: Helix Press, Jervey, Edward. Kaplan, Fred. Kerner, Justinus. Erinnerungen an denselben, nebst Nachrichten von den letzten Jahren seines Lebens zu Meersburg am Bodensee. Frankfurt: Literarische Anstalt, Kiesewetter, Carl. Geschichte des neueren Occultismus. Leipzig: Wilhelm Friedrich, Nebst einer Vorgeschichte des Mesmerismus, Hypnotismus und Somnambulismus. Leipzig: Max Spohr, Leibrand, Werner. Romantische Medizin.
Hamburg and Leipzig: H. Goverts Verlag, Ludwig, August Friedr. Geschichte der okkultistischen metapsychichen Forschung von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. I Teil: Von der Antike bis zur Mitte des Pfullingen: Johannes Baum, McGuire, Gregory R. Privately published paper , Presentism and the Role of Parapsychology in the History of Psychology.
August 25—28, Mialle, Simon. Paris: J. Dentu, Milt, Bernhard. Franz Anton Mesmer und seine Beziehungen zur Schweiz. Magie und Heilkunde zu Lavaters Zeit. Zurich: Leemann, Moore, R. In Search of White Crows. Spiritualism, Parapsychology, and American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, Moser, Fanny.
Zurich: Orell Fussli, Mottelay, Paul Fleury ed. London: Charles Griffin, Myers, Frederic W. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Palfreman, Jon. Parssinen, Terry. Pattie, Frank. Pleasants, Helene. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology, with Directory and Glossary.
Podmore, Frank. Modern Spiritualism, a History and a Criticism. London: Methuen, Quen, Jacques. Rausky, Franklin. Paris; Payot, Rosen George. Schneider, Emil. Der animale Magnetismus. Seine Geschichte und seine Beziehungen zur Heilkunst. Zurich: Konrad Lampert, Schott, Heinz. Zum therapeutischen Konzept von Franz Anton Mesmer — Schott, Heinz ed. Franz Anton Mesmer und die Geschichte des Mesmerismus. Schroeder, H. Geschichte des Lebensmagnetismus und des Hypnotismus. Vom Uranfang bis auf den heutigen Tag. Leipzig: Arwed Strauch, Shepard, Leslie A.
New York: Avon, The Society for Psychical Research. Tatar, Maria M. Spellbound: Studies on Mesmerism and Literature. Tinterow, Maurice. Foundations of Hypnosis From Mesmer to Freud. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, Tischner, Rudolf. Geschichte der okkultistischen metapsychischen Forschung von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Teil: Von der Mitte des Jahrhunderts bis zur Gegenwart. Leben, Werk und Wirkungen. Tischner, Rudolf and Bittel, Karl. Mesmer und sein Problem: Magnetismus—Suggestion—Hypnose.
Usteri, Paul. Specimen bibliothecae criticae magnetismi sic dicti animalis. Gottingen: Joannes Christ. Dieterich, Wyckoff, James. Between God and Devil. Wygrant, Larry J. The Truman G. Blocker, Jr. History of Medicine Collections: Books and Manuscripts. Galveston: University of Texas Medical Branch, Dissertatio physico-medica de planetarum influxu. Vienna: Ghelen, , 48 pp. Translated and edited by George Bloch. The first published writing of Franz Anton Mesmer is a dissertation presented to the University of Vienna medical school for the degree of doctor of medicine. Although there is no record of what Mesmer studied in the years from to , the rest of his education is known, and there is little reason to think he attained a degree during that hiatus.
Mesmer came to Vienna in to study at the university. After one year in law, he began a six-year program in the medical school, finishing with this dissertation. At the very beginning of the thesis Mesmer states that he is attempting to continue the work of Richard Mead — who wrote about the influence of the stars on men. Mesmer emphasizes that he is not talking about an astrological understanding of that influence, but a purely physical, scientific one.
After a general discussion of the laws of planetary motion, centrifugal force, and gravitation, he writes of his notion that there must be tides in the atmosphere just as there are in the ocean. Mesmer then presents his own original ideas. He says that just as there are tides in the sea and the atmosphere, so also there are tides in the human body. There is, he asserts, a universal gravitation by which our bodies are affected. Through this influence emanating from the stars, our bodies are caused to resonate in a harmonious fashion. This fact, says Mesmer, must be taken seriously by medical practitioners, for if human bodies are violently shaken by the action of celestial bodies, then understanding the nature of that influence is of utmost importance.
Vienna: n. Gedruckte Antwort des Herrn Dr Mesmer vom Januar Apparently the treatise first appeared in a Viennese periodical and then as a separate pamphlet. Now it can only be found in the Sammlung der neuesten gedruckten und geschriebenen Nachrichten see entry number 9. Hell claimed that the cures ascribed by Mesmer to animal magnetism were really due to the action of magnets. In his response, Mesmer not only reasserts that animal magnetism was the cause, he also denies that magnets are of any use in treating illness.
Herrn Dr Mesmers Schreiben an die Frankfurter vom Mai A letter on magnetism addressed to the inhabitants of Frankfort. It can be found today only in the Sammlung der neuesten gedruckten und geschriebenen Nachrichten see entry number 9. Mesmer, Doktor der Arzneygelahrtheit, an einen auswartigen Arzt. Mesmer, Doctor of Medicine at Vienna to A. Written on January 5, , to Doctor Johann Christoph Unzer of Altona, this treatise appeared as a pamphlet and was then immediately published in the Neuer gelehrter Mercurius edited by Unzer.
He distinguishes animal magnetism from mineral magnetism, but at the same time shows the analogy between the two. An edition of this work published in has an important addition: a section titled Anhang von einigen Briefen und Nachrichten. This appendix contains excerpts from letters describing cures performed by Mesmer and ascribed to animal magnetism.
Beschreibung eines mit dem kunstlichen Magneten angestellten medicinischen Versuchs. Hamburg: Herold, , pp. The results were good, and he wrote this favorable opinion of the medical use of magnets. Schreiben den Thier. Magnetismus u. Prague: n. Klinkosch included the alleged cures through exorcism performed by Gassner and those carried out by Mesmer using animal magnetism in the same category.
He considered them to be false and delusory and argued that if any such cures occurred, it must be through electricity rather than magnetism. There are questions about both authorship and date. Camacho, V. Flores et L. Dupuis, Fernande. Dupuis, Fernande et Monique Dufresne. Batllori, M-L.
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Hernanz C. Picallo et F. Roca; Oxford University Press; Oxford, pp. Dupuis, Fernande et Ludovic Lebart Lyon, Presses Universitaires de Lyon, vol. Dupuis, Fernande et Monique Lemieux. Dupuis, Fernande et Christiane Marchello-Nizia. Dans Y. Lepage et C. Frunzeanu, Eduard et Lucia Manea. Frunzeanu, Eduard, soumis. Gaudreault, M. Discourse Particles or National Icons? Lambert et H. Arteaga et R. Horguelin, Christophe. Kroch, Anthony et Beatrice Santorini. Dufresne dir. LeBlanc, C. Labelle, M. Batllori, M. Hernanz, C. Lusignan, Serge forthcoming. Lusignan, Serge Lusignan, Serge.
Jahrhundert [8ee s. Lusignan, Serge et Diane Gervais Travaux et documents. Lusignan, Serge et Diane Gervais. Marchello-Nizia, Christiane VO vs V Bingley : Emerald, coll. Havu, M. Larjavaara, M. Lehtinen et U. Tuormala dir. Marchello-Nizia, Christiane. Charolles, N. Fournier, C. Paris-Gap : Ophrys, pp.
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Mouton de Gruyter. Martineau, France , mai, sous presse. Camp, A. Emmitte, K. Machin et J. Martineau, France Martineau, France. Siemens et D. Anthony Lodge , Nancy, Presses universitaires de Savoie. Voir, sur ce point, George H. Voir John D. Oxford: Clarendon, 1: Oxford: Clarendon, vol. Voir Karl Schuhmann, Hobbes. Une Chronique Paris: Vrin, James H. Tully Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 5. Cranston et Kenneth H.
Cranston , ; voir Haley "The relatively liberal ideas of Locke and Ashley on freedom of conscience for Protestants link with their interest in matters of trade and colonization. Locke, Epistola de tolerantia, trans, and ed.
John W. Gough Oxford: Clarendon, 15 et sq. Watts et sq. John G. Nous reviendrons plus loin sur cette contribution essentielle. Voir sur ce point l'article de Jonathan I. Jean-Claude Polet, 9 vols. Spitz Locke, Human Nature 1. Alain Pons Paris: Gamier Flammarion, Besides I cannot apprehend, where they have soe neare a dependency, what security you can take of their fidelity and obedience from all their oaths and protestation, when that other soverainty they pay homage to is acknowledgd by them to be owner of a power that can acquitt them of all perfidy and prejury, and that will be ready to pardon 5 60 LOUIS ROUX and court them to it with dispensations and rewards; and you will have but small reason to repose trust in one who when ever it shall be his interest which it will always be shall by deceiveing you not only obteine the name of Inocent but meritorious, who by throwing of his obligations whereof he will always keep the key himself shall not only possesse himself of your portion of earth but purchasse aditionall a title to heaven and be Canonized saint at the charge of your life and liberty.
He was the complete progressive capitalist in politics; he might almost have been invented by Marx The world remembers Locke as a great theorist of toleration, but Ashley was a champion of toleration before Locke was, when Locke's views on toleration were indeed quite otherwise. This is not to say that Locke acquired his mature opinions on toleration from Ashley, for by the time he met Ashley Locke's views had come into line with 9 64 LOUIS ROUX his, but it was Ashley who made Locke give systematic attention to the subject and furthered his evolution as a liberal.