The Caribs say they are descended from a woman who carried a water-snake in her vagina. The Venezuelan goddess Maria Lionza is either carried off by a serpent or becomes one when she gazes into a lake see below. Sacred lakes also figure in Brazilian legends about amazons called Icamiabas. Schultz, The great Amazon river is named after the women warriors encountered by Spanish soldier Orellana.
These are jade amulets, often in the form of frogs, and also fish, tortoises, and other shapes. By some accounts, the Icamiabas scooped up clay from the lake bed and shaped it into these forms. Another version holds that the Icamiabas caught little underwater animals and froze their forms by dropping a little of their own blood onto them. Palmatary, Many sources refer to their healing properties. Nursing mothers preferred pale and yellowish stones which were said to increase the flow of milk.
Among them were the couple Darukavaitere and Uarahiulu, who procreated the sun, moon, and stars and placed them in the heavens. Lowie, There are several versions of the creation story by the various Guarani peoples. They descended to earth, to the hill Arigua, where they created seas and river, woods, stars, and all the beings of the universe. They formed humans from clay mixed with various natural elixirs and water, both making a statue in their own likeness. Arasy interrupted, saying that people need to work, or their life would be a slow death.
They told them that Earth is their mother and the Moon is her sister. The two quarreled, and Grandfather decided to leave the earth. Sullivan, Annoyed, she told him that another man had fathered the child she was suckling, and he left. Later she and her child went looking for him on the path of tigers. The Tiger Grandmother gave them shelter and hid them from her grandchildren. Later her son with his magical twin avenged her death by killing the tigers. The Guyana Caribs tell a very similar story about a mother slain by the tiger and avenged by her twin sons.
A parrot meets all comers with food and judges them; only the humble can enter. The Sun and Other Sky Women. The Toba people in northern Argentina say that the sun woman Aquehua lives in the heavens with other star women. She weaves a ladder of her hair so the jaguar man can reach her in heaven. She becomes whitehaired and old, but is annually renewed by this encounter.
Or, in another version, she does battle with the jaguar who is trying to eat her. Monahan , The matrilineal Tobas say that in the beginning women lived in the sky and the stars were their houses. Men lived as half-animals on the earth below. One day the sky women decided to go down to earth to look around and taste its fruits.
They descended by long cords many times. Once while the men were out hunting, the women came to their hut and ate all their food. The parrot-man saw how the women came down from the sky, but one of them threw a stone and broke his beak, so he was unable to tell what he saw. The eagle-man was stunned by the brilliance created by the cord brushing against the earth and his speech was too confused to understand. Then the bird-man stood guard, and when he saw the women descending, he flew and cut the cords, trapping those who had landed. The men were attracted to the sky-women and wanted to have sex with them.
The fox man grabbed the prettiest and carried her to his hut, but soon came out screaming and holding his crotch. He said the woman had bitten him with the teeth in her vulva. The men saw that the women used these lower teeth to chew their fruit. The bird-man invited the women to sit crosslegged on the ground in a circle. Then the men built a fire and danced hard all night, beating the ground with their feet and making the ground vibrate. At dawn they collapsed in exhaustion. The women got up and went over to them, but the teeth remained stuck in the ground where they had sat.
Then men and women got together and had human children. As for the women who remained in the sky, the sun woman Aquehua stayed close to the earth near her sisters. Sometimes she moves quickly, like a young person, which makes the days short and cool. Other times she goes slowly like an old woman, and the days are long and hot. She regenerates herself, turning from young to old and then young again, and will until the end of time.
Bernardo, online. Star Woman the planet Venus produces the Magellanic Clouds by pounding carob into flour in her heavenly mortar. Metraux, The Goddess Appropriated. Stories of men seizing the sacred ceremonies, instruments, and masks from women are widespread in South America. Men killed all the women in a patriarchal coup. Monaghan, Among them was the chthonic serpent Xalpen who arose from deep in the earth, causing the ceremonial hut to shake and flames to spit forth.
But the men found out and overthrew the women, and Moon became a despised figure, though her power was yet feared. Chapman, Only the great goddess Aishnawerhta or Ashnuwerta regenerates herself. She protects the land and animals by regulating hunters and food distribution. Cordeu, Ashnuwerhta , painted by Ishir artist Basybuky Claudelino Balbuena. Then how could she be killed? In the early days it was the women who performed the sacred rites that renewed the bonds between all beings.
Escobar, ; Cordeu, The overthrow of the women began with the men seizing boys and subjecting them to severe tests in the initiation house. Then he vowed revenge on the spirits. She made it so that each slayer acquired the clan identity and symbols of the spirit he killed. She taught them each their costumes, paints, dances and rites. The protectors of these clans were still ancestral females: the Jaguar Mother, the Monkey Mother, and so on. But back in camp, they concealed their knowledge of the killings, making excuses for their red and tearstained faces.
Escobar, But the men followed the women and found out that they were gorging on honey and mourning for the spirits. They complained to Ashnuwerta who, so the story says, instructed them to kill all the women. She promised they would be resurrected and would remember nothing. The men were only to spare Ashnuwerta. One man came after her with a club, but she turned into a doe and escaped into the forest. They found her again as a woman sitting in a tree. She had sex with all the men, then instructed them to kill her. Each man was to take a piece of her body and wait til night when the women would rise again from her own flesh.
The women were not the same. Some were bigger or smaller, because the dismembered flesh of the goddess had been shared out unequally. It was said that a curse would fall on the Ishir when the men forget to imitate the gods and the women stop believing that they are. Maria Lionza. A bronze statue shows her as a wildwoman riding this quintessentially South American animal at the entrance to Caracas.
She lives in a palace on Mount Sorte, by the headwaters of the Yaracuy river. She is enthroned with snakes and turtles, and flanked by lions and goats. Her devotees make a annual pilgrimage on October 12 to be purified in her spring, make offerings to the waters, and trance-dance over red-hot coals. Mervin and Prunhuber, 61; Andrade, online.
Her origins are Indian but African and European strands are blended into her veneration. Beyond this, the story branches out in many directions. Her green eyes were taken as a dangerous sign, so her father threw her into the lake for the anaconda. She immediately reemerged as a goddess surrounded by animals, plants, and waters. Or, a prophecy warned against the birth of a green-eyed girl: if she ever saw her reflection in the lake, a giant snake would come out of her and cause destruction.
She was to be sacrificed to the anaconda of the lake, but her father hid her away. One day her guardians fell asleep and she started exploring. When she saw herself in the lake, she turned into a snake and began to expand until her body burst, releasing a flood. Her head stayed in Acarigua, and her tail in Valencia. Or, the anaconda of the lake carried her off. He was punished by swelling up and bursting, again causing a flood. Mervin and Prunhuber, She was called Yara, and her mother Tupi took her to a mountain refuge. She became a diplomat in talks with the Spanish, but they refused to make a treaty, so she returned to the mountains.
When the Spanish invaded, she fled to the mountains and tried to rouse her people to resist. They called her a witch, but she used her divine power to help them anyway. The missionaries recast her as the Virgin Mary, baptizing her as Maria de la Onza. In the s new stories make the goddess over as a white woman who vanished while swimming in a lake, and was rescued by a boar onza , her double. She ascended to the heavens, where the Indians made her queen, and she rode on a boar.
She has Indian, African, Hindu and Arab courts, medical and political courts, and a court of Venezuelan folk characters.
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More recently it broke in half, which some see as an omen for Hugo Chavez, who is rumored to be a believer in the goddess. Old Spider. Spider Woman shows up in ancient Nazca pottery and weaving in southern Peru. Several traditions identify Spider as the moon. Johnson, He had demanded that she finish working a huge pile of wool by the time he returned.
Copyleft by Max Dashu. May be reproduced with attribution. Bios Prize to The Kogi. In an effort to provide global recognition to the little known safekeepers of our planet, B. The Prize was conferred by B. President, Dr. Juan Mayr Maldonado in The continuation of life on our planet is threatened because people are out of balance with nature. The few who have acknowledged the interdependence among all forms of life stand as safekeepers of our future. The Kogi are a model of excellence in their perception of our role as human beings on this planet.
They care for nature by preserving their native culture. A culture which ties them to the environment and provides the wisdom necessary to appreciate the value of this interdependence. As there is no record of war in the history of their civilisation, they embody peace and global environmental harmony. The Kogi have stayed on the land of their ancestors without abusing it, and they have maintained their culture and mythos as a token of their appreciation to Mother Nature who has given them the gift of life. They protect and cherish the environment, the soil, the air, the water, and all living beings.
They are an inspiration for South America and also for the entire world. For saving the culture of the past, for acknowledging the value of our interdependence with the environment, and for safeguarding our future, the Kogi are awarded the Bios Prize. Mother Shibalaneuman, mother of the songs, mother of all our ancestors. At the beginning she gave birth to all of us. She is the mother of all human races. She is the mother of all tribes. She is the mother of all the lakes, rivers, trees and any kind of life that grows on Earth.
She is the mother of the songs and dances. The mother of the world and the ancient stone brothers. Mother of the fruits and everything that the Earth produces. Mother of all the musical instruments and of all the temples, she is the only mother we have. She alone is the mother of fire, the sun and the galaxy.
She is also the mother of herself, and when she baptized herself she gave the name Poporo. She is the mother of the rain; the only one we have. Mother Shibalaneuman left her memory in all the temples, together with her sons Sintana, Seijankua, Aluanuiko and Kuitahavitabuaya. She left us memories, songs and dances. This is the way it was described by the priests and older brothers.
The Ancestors. The myth regarding the mother Shibalaneuman, given in to the investigator K. Preuss by the priest Palomino Miguel Nolavita, said that the mother Shibalaneuman, at the very beginning, gave birth to all things: the world, the human being, the animals, the plants, the fire, the lakes, the songs and dances. It was the mother who gave the Kogi, through her sons, the moral, social and spiritual code of life. With the offerings of the mother and her sons, and of all the mothers and fathers that have lived in the past and have created the world, the Kogi let the universe follow its normal course.
Only the Kogi take care of life. They are the older brothers of the white people. White people do not know this. White people only know the law of Man; they do not know the law of Nature. Only the Kogi know the secret entrusted to them by their ancestors of how everything in the universe springs up, grows, reproduces and dies. The secret of the rain or of the arrival of the summer and the secret of daily sunshine. There are specific priests in the tribes called Mamas in charge of verifying every day the universal order and the social and spiritual order for the tribe.
They observe the diverse natural changes of the universe, either the cycles of the animal or vegetable universe or the stellar cycles. Through the year, the Kogi observe the displacement of the sun, the moon and the stars. Through them, they can understand the changes of nature and the world itself as related to the Kogi tribes. The calendar of the Kogi tribes is determined by the stars. Way of Life.
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The Kogi tribes live in the mountains of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, with an indigenous population of thousand belonging linguistically to the Chibcha family. They live in different areas in valleys of the mountains. Through the year, the tribes move from one farm to another. Each tribe has four or five farms, located in different areas and climates. In this way, every family or tribe has access to a big and diverse range of agricultural products, thus guaranteeing for themselves self-reliance in acquiring food.
They arrive to one farm and stay there until they have collected all the crops they have planted before they left. These crops will provide them with food for the next two or three weeks. When they have harvested the crops, they proceed with planting them again, for the next period. Once they have planted the crops they move on to another farm, a bit higher up in the mountain, and do the same.
Since the farms are located at different altitudes, they have a wide range of produce to eat. Their basic produce is potatoes, onions, garlic, and a variety of beans, plantain bananas, yucca, sugar cane, corn, avocado and some fruits like pineapple, mango and guanabana. They complement their vegetable diet with meat or fish. The Kogi are one of the very few cultures that still preserve their traditions.
Bochica, el Maestro de los Muiscas. Recopilado por Juan Camilo Cadavid. El Dorado. Es algo que me llena por completo, fue intenso y duro a la vez. La aventura fue bastante dura. Yo no quiero competir contra Petrizzelli, sino deseo que cada quien tenga su espacio. Esas historias las quiero preparar pronto.
PAG 39 Todos los guiones le eran devueltos. Con eso nos dieron el dinero necesario para filmar Er relajo der loro, que se estrena el 15 de junio en las salas de cine. Se trata de un animal en cautiverio, algunos de sus propietarios son buenos y quieren al animalito, pero otros son malos y lo torturan porque la mascota no los complace con sus peticiones.
El cineasta considera que ese es el ideal para muchas de las personas que viven por y para el cine. Actualmente los lapsos de tiempo entre la burocracia se han acortado. La idea de una industria continua es muy importante, por ejemplo, aplaudo la iniciativa del CNAC de mantener la convocatoria permanente de financiamiento de proyectos. Eso ha propiciado que termines una cinta y al mes siguiente puedes introducir una propuesta nueva. Los cineastas debemos estar encima, para que las cosas pasen. Se llama La Espada. Vamos a ver si logro ganar el financiamiento para poder filmarla.
Soberats es invidente. Nunca ha visto las fotos que ha tomado pero las conoce bien porque las ha pensado, sentido e imaginado en su mente, con tanta claridad, que logra el milagro de hacer visible lo que no se ve. Pero no es ciega de nacimiento. Para preparar la escena, Soberats cuenta generalmente con la asistencia de una persona vidente, aunque la ayuda —aclara— no es indispensable. Cuando haces una foto te involucras tanto que te olvidas de todos los problemas. La idea es la que manda Una banda local necesita un video para su nuevo tema promocional.
Formas de abordar el proceso creativo Hay dos posibilidades: que una banda busque al director para encontrar un concepto; la otra, que la banda tenga una idea preconcebida y solo espere que el director y su equipo la hagan realidad. Para reclutar a los actores se puede hacer un casting en redes sociales o buscar a actores aficionados o profesionales entre los amigos. Las dilaciones son un tema delicado, pues siempre suponen un aumento sustancial de los costos. El enfoque actual debe ser mas viral y 2. Trabajamos dos meses antes del rodaje. Hay que recordar que los filmes se ruedan en desorden.
Abdul Kadir — 28 June was Guyanese politician who was a member of Guyana's parliament, the National Assembly and mayor of Guyana's second-largest city, Linden, from to Abelardo Raidi December 25, — January 27, was a Venezuelan sportswriter and radio broadcaster. Abkhazia—Venezuela relations refers to bilateral relations between the breakaway Republic of Abkhazia and Venezuela. The Order of Malta is a sovereign entity of international law that does not have its own territory. Coulson, Jorge Coulson R. Adamo Tadolini 21 December — 16 February was an Italian sculptor. The table below indicates the types and, where known, numbers of administrative divisions used by countries having territories in South America and their major dependent territories.
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Adriana Cisneros Phelps de Griffin born December 17, is the Venezuelan CEO of Grupo Cisneros, a privately owned media, entertainment, digital media, real estate, tourism resorts and consumer products company. Adriana Monsalve born July 27, is a Venezuelan sportscaster, journalist who currently works for Univision Deportes.
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Alberto Arvelo Torrealba September 3, - March 28, , was a Venezuelan lawyer, educator and folklorical poet. Aldemaro Romero March 12, — September 15, was a Venezuelan pianist, composer, arranger and orchestral conductor. Aldemaro Romero Jr. Aldo Nannini 13 March — 4 November was a Venezuelan professional motorcycle racer. Alejandro Chataing February 24, — April 16, was an important Venezuelan architect. Alejandro Freire born August 23, is a former first baseman in Major League Baseball who played briefly for the Baltimore Orioles during the season.
Alejandro Abraham Guerra Morales born 9 July is a Venezuelan footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder for Brazilian club Palmeiras and the Venezuela national team. Alejandro Enrique Planchart born July 29, is a Venezuelan-American musicologist, conductor, and composer.
Aleksandra Socha born March 30, is a Polish sabre fencer, bronze medal in the World Fencing Championships, European champion in and European team in Alejandro Antonio Prieto born June 19, is a former Venezuelan middle infielder and third baseman in Major League Baseball who played for the Minnesota Twins in part of two seasons spanning — Alex Stiebling born December 26, is a retired American professional mixed martial artist.
Alexander Calder July 22, — November 11, is widely considered to be one of the most important American sculptors of the 20th century. Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt 14 September May was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. Alexandra Braun Waldeck born May 19, is a Venezuelan multi-award winning international actress, model and beauty queen who won the edition of Miss Earth, an annual international beauty pageant promoting environmental awareness.
Alfonso Blanco Parra born February 2, in Caracas, Venezuela is a Venezuelan boxer who competes in the middleweight division. Alfred Missong jun. Alfredo Kraus Trujillo 24 November September was a distinguished Spanish tenor from the Canary islands known professionally as Alfredo Kraus , particularly known for the artistry he brought to opera's bel canto roles. Alfredo Sadel February 22, — June 28, was a popular Venezuelan singer and actor. Alfredo Toro Hardy born in Caracas on May 22, is a Venezuelan retired career diplomat, scholar and public intellectual.
Alicia Freilich born 15 March is a Venezuelan writer, novelist, journalist and educator.
Alicia Pietri Montemayor 14 October — 9 February was a public figure in Venezuela who twice served as First Lady of Venezuela — and — as the wife of Venezuelan president Rafael Caldera. Alimentos La Giralda is a Venezuelan trading company that imports, produces and distributes foodstuffs such as capers, pickles, olives, canned fruits and canned vegetables. Alimentos Polar, C. Alonso Reno Edward Henry born 8 December , commonly known as Alonso Edward, is a Panamanian sprinter who specialises in the and metres. Altamira is a neighborhood located in the Chacao municipality of Caracas, Venezuela.
Amado Rigoberto Morales born July 22, is a retired male javelin thrower from Puerto Rico, who competed for his native country during the s and the s. Amarte Bien is a studio album recorded by Venezuelan singer-songwriter Carlos Baute. This is a list of ambassadors of the Republic of Nicaragua to individual nations of the world, to international organizations, and to past nations, as well as ambassadors-at-large.
Below are current ambassadors of the European Union to third countries and international organizations. The AMC Javelin is an American front-engine, rear-wheel-drive, two-door hardtop manufactured and marketed by AMC across two generations, —70 and — The Americas also collectively called America "America. Ana Camila Donatella Pirelli Cubas born 30 January is a Paraguayan track and field athlete who competes in the heptathlon.
At metres, she is a two-time World Champion , and a two-time Olympic medallist , Ana Mercedes Perez , Puerto Cabello — ; pseudonym "Claribel" was a Venezuelan poet, writer, translator, journalist and diplomat. Anarchism in Bolivia has a relatively short but rich history, spanning over a hundred years, primarily linked to syndicalism, the peasantry, and various social movements.
Anarchism in Venezuela has historically played a fringe role in the country's politics, being consistently smaller and less influential than equivalent movements in much of the rest of South America. March 7, was a master painter from Ecuador who used raw earthen materials such as clay and natural pigments to paint on walls and doors throughout his city when he could not afford expensive artist materials.
Anderson Cardona born June 7, in Cali is a professional male squash player who represents Colombia. The Andes or Andean Mountains Cordillera de los Andes are the longest continental mountain range in the world. Her documentaries feature cultural and ethnological themes discovered in her research, with her major work focusing on music.
Andres J. Andres Levin is a Venezuelan-born American record producer, bandleader, filmmaker, recording engineer and philanthropist. Andrew Bruce born December 7, on Trinidad is a retired athlete from Trinidad and Tobago who specialized in the metres. Andrew Derrom November 30, — July 15, was an English-American civil engineer, industrialist, inventor, and military officer. The Anglo-Spanish War — was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared.
Anita de la Rosa de Berrizbeitia born is a landscape theorist, teacher, and author. Anne Smedinghoff September 18, — April 6, was an American diplomat who last worked for the U. Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan. Saint Anthony Mary Claret, C. Anti-Americanism, anti-American sentiment, or sometimes Americanophobia, is dislike of or opposition to the governmental policies of the United States, especially regarding the foreign policy, or the American people in general.
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Meaning of "espiritista" in the Spanish dictionary
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The Assembly of French Citizens Abroad italic is the political body that represents French citizens living outside France. The final of the Men's metres event at the Pan American Games took place on Wednesday August 6, , with the heats and the semifinals staged a day earlier. The men's metres sprint competition of the athletics events at the Pan American Games took place between the 24 and 25 of October at the Telmex Athletics Stadium.
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The United States maintains numerous embassies and consulates around the world, many of which are in war-torn countries or other dangerous areas. Augusto Brandt born in Puerto Cabello, d. Salvador Augusto Mijares Izquierdo 12 November - 29 June , was a Venezuelan lawyer, historian, writer, educator and journalist.
The lists shown below shows the Australia national soccer team all-time record against opposing nations. Avior Regional was a Venezuelan airline that was a subsidiary of Avior Airlines. The following is a full list of awards and decorations received by Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav president and statesman, sorted by continents and Cold War bloc division. Aymara Lorenzo Ferrigni born 26 December , Caracas is a Venezuelan journalist and audiovisual producer.
English title: What happened to Jacqueline? English title: Never too late, Lit: Old me? Ingrid Betancourt Pulecio born 25 December is a Colombian-French politician, former senator and anti-corruption activist. Oscar Machado Zuloaga International Airport is a general aviation airport in the Miranda state of Venezuela, serving Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. Babs Reingold born in Caracas, Venezuela is an American contemporary interdisciplinary artist working with sculpture, installation, video, painting and drawing.
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Bancaribe is a private bank based in Caracas, Venezuela specialized in Universal banking. Banco del Libro is a non-profit organization for the promotion of children's literature, with headquarters in Caracas, Venezuela. Banco do Brasil S. Bank of Brazil is the second largest bank by assets in Brazil and all of Latin America. Banco Latino was a Venezuelan bank based in Caracas, and at the time of its failure was the country's second largest.
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