Others, however, argued that the original system created more inequity due to lower income students being required to attend poorer performing inner city schools and not being allowed school choice or better educations that are available to higher income inhabitants of suburbs. Instead, it was argued that the school choice promoted social mobility and increased test scores especially in the cases of low income students. Similar results have been found in other jurisdictions. Though discouraging, the merely slight improvements of some school choice policies often seems to reflect weaknesses in the way that choice is implemented rather than a failure of the basic principle itself.
Critics of teacher tenure claim that the laws protect ineffective teachers from being fired, which can be detrimental to student success. Tenure laws vary from state to state, but generally they set a probationary period during which the teacher proves themselves worthy of the lifelong position. Probationary periods range from one to three years. In October Apple Inc. President Barack Obama to discuss U. During the meeting Jobs recommended pursuing policies that would make it easier for school principals to hire and fire teachers based on merit. In tenure for school teachers was challenged in a California lawsuit called Vergara v.
The primary issue in the case was the impact of tenure on student outcomes and on equity in education. On June 10, , the trial judge ruled that California's teacher tenure statute produced disparities that " shock the conscience "  and violate the equal protection clause of the California Constitution. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan commented on the Vergara decision during a meeting with President Barack Obama and representatives of teacher's unions. Duncan said that tenure for school teachers "should be earned through demonstrated effectiveness" and should not be granted too quickly.
Specifically, he criticized the month tenure period at the heart of the Vergara case as being too short to be a "meaningful bar. A study by the Fordham Institute found that some labor agreements with teachers' unions may restrict the ability of school systems to implement merit pay and other reforms. Contracts were more restrictive in districts with high concentrations of poor and minority students. Another barrier to reform is assuming that schools are like businesses—when in fact they are very different.
Legal barriers to reform are low in the United States compared to other countries: State and local governance of education creates "wiggle room for educational innovators" who can change local laws or move somewhere more favourable. Cultural barriers to reform are also relatively low, because the question of who should control education is still open. There are factors that can impede innovations in K education.
There are times attendance in meetings is not adequate or stakeholders are not represented properly. The belief is small meetings attended by a few individuals may not be ideal for innovation. Turnover of teachers is another possible hindrance to such innovations. The learning process is adversely affected because of frequent teacher resignations and replacements. Constant changing of mentors leads to waste of resources and dormant thinking influenced by policies, systems, and traditions. Education Agenda refers to the global commitment of the Education for All movement to ensure access to basic education for all.
It is an essential part of the Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United Nations, over 70 ministers, representatives of member-countries, bilateral and multilateral agencies, regional organizations, academic institutions, teachers, civil society, and the youth supported the Framework for Action of the Education platform. The Framework was described as the outcome of continuing consultation to provide guidance for countries in implementing this Agenda. At the same time, it mobilizes various stakeholders in the new education objectives, coordination, implementation process, funding, and review of Education In other parts of the world, educational reform has had a number of different meanings.
In Taiwan in the s and first decade of the 21st century a movement tried to prioritize reasoning over mere facts, reduce the emphasis on central control and standardized testing. There was consensus on the problems. Efforts were limited because there was little consensus on the goals of educational reforms, and therefore on how to fix the problems.
By , the push for education reform had declined. Education reform has been pursued for a variety of specific reasons, but generally most reforms aim at redressing some societal ills, such as poverty -, gender -, or class -based inequities, or perceived ineffectiveness. Current education trends in the United States represent multiple achievement gaps across ethnicities, income levels, and geographies. The idea that all children should be provided with a high level of education is a relatively recent idea, and has arisen largely in the context of Western democracy in the 20th century.
The "beliefs" of school districts are optimistic that quite literally "all students will succeed", which in the context of high school graduation examination in the United States , all students in all groups, regardless of heritage or income will pass tests that in the introduction typically fall beyond the ability of all but the top 20 to 30 percent of students.
The claims clearly renounce historical research that shows that all ethnic and income groups score differently on all standardized tests and standards based assessments and that students will achieve on a bell curve. Instead, education officials across the world believe that by setting clear, achievable, higher standards, aligning the curriculum, and assessing outcomes, learning can be increased for all students, and more students can succeed than the 50 percent who are defined to be above or below grade level by norm referenced standards.
States have tried to use state schools to increase state power, especially to make better soldiers and workers. This strategy was first adopted to unify related linguistic groups in Europe , including France , Germany and Italy. Exact mechanisms are unclear, but it often fails in areas where populations are culturally segregated, as when the U. Indian school service failed to suppress Lakota and Navaho , or when a culture has widely respected autonomous cultural institutions, as when the Spanish failed to suppress Catalan. Many students of democracy have desired to improve education in order to improve the quality of governance in democratic societies; the necessity of good public education follows logically if one believes that the quality of democratic governance depends on the ability of citizens to make informed, intelligent choices, and that education can improve these abilities.
Politically motivated educational reforms of the democratic type are recorded as far back as Plato in The Republic. In the United States, this lineage of democratic education reform was continued by Thomas Jefferson , who advocated ambitious reforms partly along Platonic lines for public schooling in Virginia. Another motivation for reform is the desire to address socio-economic problems, which many people see as having significant roots in lack of education.
Starting in the 20th century, people have attempted to argue that small improvements in education can have large returns in such areas as health, wealth and well-being. For example, in Kerala , India in the s, increases in women's health were correlated with increases in female literacy rates. In Iran , increased primary education was correlated with increased farming efficiencies and income. In both cases some researchers have concluded these correlations as representing an underlying causal relationship: education causes socio-economic benefits.
In the case of Iran, researchers concluded that the improvements were due to farmers gaining reliable access to national crop prices and scientific farming information. Reforms can be based on bringing education into alignment with a society's core values. The movement to use computers more in education naturally includes many unrelated ideas, methods, and pedagogies since there are many uses for digital computers. For example, the fact that computers are naturally good at math leads to the question of the use of calculators in math education.
The Internet's communication capabilities make it potentially useful for collaboration, and foreign language learning. The computer's ability to simulate physical systems makes it potentially useful in teaching science. More often, however, debate of digital education reform centers around more general applications of computers to education, such as electronic test-taking and online classes. The idea of creating artificial intelligence led some computer scientists to believe that teachers could be replaced by computers, through something like an expert system ; however, attempts to accomplish this have predictably proved inflexible.
The computer is now more understood to be a tool or assistant for the teacher and students. Harnessing the richness of the Internet is another goal. In some cases classrooms have been moved entirely online, while in other instances the goal is more to learn how the Internet can be more than a classroom. Web-based international educational software is under development by students at New York University, based on the belief that current educational institutions are too rigid: effective teaching is not routine, students are not passive, and questions of practice are not predictable or standardized.
The software allows for courses tailored to an individual's abilities through frequent and automatic multiple intelligences assessments. Ultimate goals include assisting students to be intrinsically motivated to educate themselves, and aiding the student in self-actualization. Courses typically taught only in college are being reformatted so that they can be taught to any level of student, whereby elementary school students may learn the foundations of any topic they desire. Such a program has the potential to remove the bureaucratic inefficiencies of education in modern countries, and with the decreasing digital divide, help developing nations rapidly achieve a similar quality of education.
With an open format similar to Wikipedia, any teacher may upload their courses online and a feedback system will help students choose relevant courses of the highest quality. Teachers can provide links in their digital courses to webcast videos of their lectures. Students will have personal academic profiles and a forum will allow students to pose complex questions, while simpler questions will be automatically answered by the software, which will bring you to a solution by searching through the knowledge database, which includes all available courses and topics.
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The 21st century ushered in the acceptance and encouragement of internet research conducted on college and university campuses, in homes, and even in gathering areas of shopping centers. Addition of cyber cafes on campuses and coffee shops, loaning of communication devices from libraries, and availability of more portable technology devices, opened up a world of educational resources. Availability of knowledge to the elite had always been obvious, yet provision of networking devices, even wireless gadget sign-outs from libraries, made availability of information an expectation of most persons.
Whyte researched the future of computer use on higher education campuses focusing on student affairs. Though at first seen as a data collection and outcome reporting tool, the use of computer technology in the classrooms, meeting areas, and homes continued to unfold. The sole dependence on paper resources for subject information diminished and e-books and articles, as well as on-line courses, were anticipated to become increasingly staple and affordable choices provided by higher education institutions according to Whyte in a presentation.
Digitally "flipping" classrooms is a trend in digital education that has gained significant momentum. Will Richardson , author and visionary for the digital education realm, points to the not-so-distant future and the seemingly infinite possibilities for digital communication linked to improved education. Education on the whole, as a stand-alone entity, has been slow to embrace these changes.
The use of web tools such as wikis, blogs, and social networking sites is tied to increasing overall effectiveness of digital education in schools. Examples exist of teacher and student success stories where learning has transcended the classroom and has reached far out into society. Creativity is of the utmost importance when improving education. The "creative teachers" must have the confidence through training and availability of support and resources.
These creative teachers are strongly encouraged to embrace a person-centered approach that develops the psychology of the educator ahead or in conjunction with the deployment of machines. Crowd-Accelerated Innovation has pushed people to transition between media types and their understanding thereof at record-breaking paces. Innovation without desire and drive inevitably flat lines. Mainstream media continues to be both very influential and the medium where Crowd-Accelerated Innovation gains its leverage.
Media is in direct competition with formal educational institutions in shaping the minds of today and those of tomorrow. Additionally, advertising has been and continues to be a vital force in shaping students and parents thought patterns. Technology is a dynamic entity that is constantly in flux. As time presses on, new technologies will continue to break paradigms that will reshape human thinking regarding technological innovation.
This concept stresses a certain disconnect between teachers and learners and the growing chasm that started some time ago. Richardson asserts that traditional classroom's will essentially enter entropy unless teachers increase their comfort and proficiency with technology. Administrators are not exempt from the technological disconnect. They must recognize the existence of a younger generation of teachers who were born during the Digital Age and are very comfortable with technology. However, when old meets new, especially in a mentoring situation, conflict seems inevitable.
Ironically, the answer to the outdated mentor may be digital collaboration with worldwide mentor webs; composed of individuals with creative ideas for the classroom. Another viable addition to digital education has been blended learning. In , over 3 million K students took an online course, compared to when 45, took an online course.
You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. It has been suggested that this article be split into a new article titled Education reform in the United States.
Discuss July It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Education reform in the United States. See also: History of education in the United States. See also: Standards-based education reform. See also: Standards-based education reform in the United States. Main article: Electronic learning. The statement was also based on the following five principles of educational action:. A diagram of the proposed new structure is shown in Appendix 1. Central to the scheme were the objectives of the integration of work and study and the provision of ten years' compulsory basic education for an which was a commitment made in UNIP's Manifesto.
It tackled the education structure as a whole and while selection clearly remains the structure is much less pyramidal The selection system, where it was necessary to retain it, was to be based not on public examinations but on continuous assessment. The reforms aimed to develop productive skins, assumed that there would be productive social and economic roles for all graduates, and built in continuing education and worker's education opportunities.
They accepted that the Ministry of Education has a continuing responsibility for people who have left full-time education and for people who have never been in the system. There was to be a comprehensive system of part-time education for workers and continuing education was to be a genuine partner of compulsory education as the 'second main arm of the national education system' and 'one of the chief instruments for raising the social, cultural and technical levels of the people of Zambia' The main aims of continuing education were to eradicate illiteracy; to provide alternative means for continuation of formal education through part-time study and for re-entry into full-time education where appropriate; and to enable workers to acquire and improve vocational skins.
The Adult Section in the Ministry was to be upgraded to become a Department of Continuing Education which would supervise and have the power to co-ordinate all continuing education programmes with other ministries and agencies. Curricula and certification were to reflect adult interests and needs and a co-ordinated and flexible system of distance, correspondence and face-to-face teaching was to be developed.
The Department was also to supervise a National Literacy Council which was to conduct a Literacy campaign. The poor cousin image of adult education was to be transformed in terms of policy and practice. This transformation was linked to necessary changes in the central formal system of education to form an integrated structure in which adult education was no longer perceived as something to be added on and asked to cope with drop-outs and casualties.
It is true that many aspects of the draft statement were too optimistic in terms of finance, management, the organisation of productive work, professional reactions and attitudes, teacher-supply, rotating in-takes, assessment procedures, volunteers and the role of the Party But the document did not evade the issues and real problems of egalitarian educational reforms in Zambian society in that it recognised that for them to be fully effective there would need to be a concurrent social and economic transformation It made no specific proposals for achieving new economic structures but it was about educational reform and not an overall plan for development.
It did however see educational reform as a part of the process of political and economic development and the struggle to achieve a more socially just society. That is, reform aimed at ending the dual and unequal nature of the educational system is seen as a necessary part of changing the dual and unequal nature of the economic structure. The period and nature of the formal and officially sanctioned National Debate on the reforms did not include realistic opportunities for the mobilisation and development of popular support.
In this sense some local participants redefined the nature of the exercise in their own terms. The written response was small and largely from elite groups who opposed the reforms recognising that the nature of the current system served their interests. There were also changes in personnel in the Ministry of Education which favoured more conservative educational approaches. The October Educational Reform, published in , has left the Zambian educational system little changed. The diagram of the proposed structure is shown in Appendix 2. The pyramidal structure is maintained and the attempt to reach nine years' basic education for all is not likely to be achieved in the foreseeable future due to the lack of finance for the expansion of either basic or secondary education.
The dual nature of the system is maintained. The integration of work and study is not emphasised and production activities are to be seen as serving educational purposes. Public examinations and the selection system are maintained. Controls on profit-making private schools are relaxed and these are mushrooming at present with little control from the Inspectorate. In contrast to the statement, private provision is encouraged as a means of supplementing state provision. There is no mention of achieving a socialist society which was made explicit in the statement.
The Adult Education section of the Ministry is largely restricted to second-chance formal education and while the name has been changed to the Department of Continuing Education its role as a main and integrated arm of the educational system has been discarded. Its role in developing a formal and vocational system of education together with other ministries and agencies for all out-of-school youth and workers is abandoned.
In fact the Ministry of Education has given up its responsibility for unemployed school-leavers. The Reform recommends that skills training for the unemployed be co-ordinated by the Commissioner for Youth.
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The Commissioner for Youth had previously operated in the Ministry of Education and the Reform document recommended that the commissioner should be taken out of the Ministry of Education and operate directly under the Party. They have a target of reaching 5, people a year. Even if they could manage more contact, adequate teaching and learning materials would not be available. There is no literacy campaign. The implementation of the Reforms depends on expansion of a largely unchanged formal structure which would only delay by two years the increase in numbers of unemployed young people.
But to date financial considerations have precluded any significant expansion. A senior ministry official remarked in that the educational system was 'grinding down, halted or going backwards'.
A start had not been made on the planned 16 secondary schools in December In the progression rate from primary to secondary dropped from Plans are going ahead for changes in the curriculum which aim to integrate productive skills into the mainly academic programme. But there are few trained teachers or teacher trainers in craft, and technical skills. Ironically, a search has been made for technical and craft teachers who after Independence were retrained as academic and classroom teachers.
Practical subjects are not given a high priority by most teachers at present. It would also appear that technical skills are not fully integrated into the secondary curriculum in that it appears possible to gain the new Zambian School Certificate without taking examinations in practical subjects. Production activity may be regarded as an additional area and be non-examinable.
But in December final decisions were still to be taken. The lack of resources and increase in the number of children at primary school age are expanding the number of children not enrolled. Staffing, materials, teachers' housing and maintenance are major problems. The Inspectorate once again became very conscious of the problems facing teachers in the class-room in the form of over-enrolment, lack of suitable textbooks, absence of suitable class-room furniture and need for repairs and maintenance of school buildings.
It is hoped that the picture will become brighter some day. The quotation is from the Report and unfortunately the picture is no brighter at present.
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The Reform by maintaining the pyramidal structure intact and advocating piecemeal and incremental changes has not made an impact in either the inefficiencies of the system or the school-leaver problem. The department of Continuing Education, established in , despite the dedicated efforts of its staff, is quite unable to meet demand for more formal education and its attempts to diversify are frustrated by lack of funds and staffing. Total enrolment was down to 33, in and of these only were in commercial and domestic science courses. The level of fees are a significant factor in preventing poorer students from enrolling.
By Term 1 of only 15, were enrolled in classes of which were in commercial and domestic science courses. Enrolment in Supervised Study Groups was 6, There is now no money to pay supervisors and full-time teachers are being asked to supervise free of charge. Responses from teachers cannot yet be assessed but it does jeopardise the study group programme as does lack of funds to print material at the Correspondence College. The College should have moved to purpose-built premises in Lusaka but staff housing is unavailable.
The financial situation is now so bad that in it was not possible to open Form I classes and it was not known what funds would be available for The Adult Education Association of Zambia is assisting by forming branches which employ teachers to run courses where the Ministry has no funds. Although the major objectives and priorities of the Association do not involve the organisation of formal classes, such is the demand that they are pressured into taking this task on.
These courses are mainly in the urban centres and once again the level of fees deters poorer students. The centres aim to design courses locally as well as following national syllabus courses. The emphasis is to be on skills training and courses aimed at increasing self-employment in the local economy. The quantitative and qualitative impact of the Department's work on the appalling prospects facing school-leavers is marginal.
The lack of priority given to continuing and adult education and the lack of power in the Department to co-ordinate is indicated by the fact that the Zambia Adult Education Advisory Board was still trying in December to obtain the teeth it needs through a statutory instrument which could give it the authority to co-ordinate the activities of member agencies. The Ministry of Youth and Sport established in now has the major responsibility for developing skills training programmes for school-leavers and the Commissioner for Youth has been moved from the Ministry of Education to this new Ministry.
The Ministry estimated in that there were , youths, the majority of them primary school leavers, who were not being catered for and to this number has to be added those who were illiterate and semi-literate. It accepted that this was its target group and took the view that unless something drastic was done to mobilise resources to cope with the situation an explosion of dissatisfied and neglected youths was inevitable. Politically it was important to take measures which would make both the youths themselves and the community at large realise that efforts were being made to reduce unemployment through providing skills training programmes.
It is a major understatement to say that it has not yet proved possible to mobilise resources on the scale required. Ministry objectives are to reduce youth unemployment through their direct participation in agricultural production schemes, agricultural settlements, small-scale industries and skills training. The initial emphasis has been on the planning of 50 community based skills training centres, one in each district, at an estimated cost of K2,, Funds made available in were K10, and in K30, although these figures may be supplemented by grants from non-governmental organisations.
One centre has been built at Chiyota. It was hoped in to begin with ten selected district centres but due to lack of funds these were not built. The Department of Youth has only 26 members of staff, five of whom are now posted to the provinces. They do not have their own transport. The provincial officers are to assess what is being done by the various governmental and non-governmental organisations in youth training, to develop co-ordination, examine employment and self-employment possibilities, and to initiate youth development projects with other departments, voluntary agencies and the party.
In establishing themselves they have had to cope with the problems of housing; having to beg office equipment, furniture and space from other departments; and a lack of understanding of their role. Fragmentation and ad hoc initiatives characterise the situation in youth development at field level. A major difficulty for the provincial youth development officer is that in explaining his role to other departments, provincial and district councils, the party, non-government agencies and the public he is continually asked what resources he has brought with him.
Apart from the possibility of small grants to existing non-governmental schemes his answer has to be 'very few' and his standing and influence to create co-ordination with others who also lack resources is diminished. The Ministry's position then in relation to its objectives, policies and practice is one of grave difficulty. Apart from finance it also lacks staff with the necessary teaching skills and it has to develop its own staff training programme. Its impact on its target group can only be minimal given present resources.
The Ministry of Youth and Sport has taken over from the Ministry of Education and Culture the task of making grants to skills training schemes developed by voluntary agencies, local authorities and community groups. In , 46 projects were counted in Zambia. In his excellent study of non-formal training programmes in Lusaka. Hoppers comments that:. In all, non-formal training has become a safety device, predominantly for 'middle-class' school leavers which, it is hoped, will prevent them from sliding too far down into the abyss of poverty and despair and which represents a last effort to fulfil a basic desire of 'cashing in' on the education they have received before.
But the effectiveness of non-formal training is linked by young people to the prospects of obtaining work afterwards. There are at present very few programmes. Some of them are effective for participants in terms of obtaining work afterwards. If however there were to be a large expansion of such schemes their usefulness to participants would disappear in that jobs or self-employment in the limited urban informal sector would not be available.
At present then the social control function of non-formal education visualised by the Ministry of Youth and Sport is ineffective in that the small number of non-formal programmes make its impact marginal. In the unlikely event of a massive expansion of non-formal education the social control function would be severely mitigated by the lack of available subsequent employment. It has to be concluded that non-formal education for school-leavers in the absence of genuine economic change in favour of the poor is likely to have only cosmetic effects.
The importance of rural regeneration and agricultural development to the Zambian economy and the well-being of the majority of the people cannot be overemphasised. Agricultural extension workers in the field are the main link between the farmer and government marketing, farming requisites and credit services.
Their work would be of major importance to a strategy for rural development on a broad front and for tackling increasing rural poverty. But the impact of agricultural extension has been limited and tends to benefit richer and emergent farmers. A major reason, apart from the lack of staff and resources, has been the unrealistic belief that merely by training farmers significant increases in agricultural production and income for rural people would be achieved.
Training alone cannot change the fact of poverty, poor producer prices, structural constraints and lack of credit, transport and marketing facilities. It can however be a vital part of the struggle to achieve awareness and long-term change. They were very clear that the dispensing of agricultural information and skins was insufficient; that extension staff should become more general educators and that their training should take this into account.
The problems of agricultural extension are political, economic and educational. Skills acquisition may be seen as a vital but nevertheless secondary process to the primary educational task of developing social awareness and the capacity and confidence to decide on what can be done.
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Proposals on training and extension approaches made by Honeybone and Marter in , which involved increased priority for subsistence farmers and extension seen as part of a wider adult education in the processes of rural development, have not been taken up although senior officers are well aware of their potential significance. Instead agricultural extension has been characterised by neglect, low priority and a continuing lack of human and financial resources.
There are still only 1, officers in the service at national, provincial and camp levels. Their social status is low and staff are usually poorly paid, badly housed and undertrained. Teaching Harry Potter Catherine L. The Invention of the Secondary Curriculum J. English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy D. Historical, Contemporary, and Comparative Perspectives; B. Wiborg Missing, Presumed Dead? Lee, H.
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