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The many mistakes made in interpreting extrabiblical material should warn us to be more cautious in future. Selman urges that any text being considered as a possible 'parallel' must be properly understood in its own context. Questions to be asked should include: Do we understand this text's literary characteristics. Is it typical of other texts on the same subject from the same site? Finally the text should be compared with others from a variety of locations to establish how widespread the practice is. On the other hand we must also be judicious in our treatment of the biblical material itself.
Misapplication of a parallel to a text can totally change the text's meaning, as in the case of Rachel and the household gods. We have to ask: Does the text itself demand the use of the parallel to explain it? It has to be admitted that a view of the patriarchal age based on these 'parallels' owes more to the ingenuity of 'parallelogists' than to the biblical record.
In many areas the archaeological study of the patriarchal period it has to be conceded that we simply do not have the evidence to make any statement as to the historicity of events one way or the other. The best that can be said is that they have a ring of authenticity and that they do not now appear as far-fetched as was once thought. Charges of provable anachronisms no longer carry the weight that they once had. We may conclude therefore that the burden of proof is very much on those who would deny a second millennium context for the patriarchs.
Lasor, "Archaeology," G. Bromiley, gen. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, , Wright, Biblical Archaeology. London: IVP, , These are precisely the details that archaeology can supply. Gaebelein, Gen. The Expositor's Bible Commentary , Vol. London: SPCK, , New York: Doubleday, , Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine. To deny the relationship of the religion of ancient Israel to those of its neighbours would have been for Gunkel a denial of the real historical context in which the Bible had arisen. London: Lutterworth Press, , Thompson, The Bible And Archaeology, revised. Exeter: Paternoster Press, , "The fact that Bible customs are so close to contemporary customs [discovered through archaeological research] is a strong argument either for written records, or for reliable oral traditions.
We are compelled to conclude that the narratives of Genesis have a solid historical basis. Wiseman, eds. Essays On The Pariarchal Narratives. London: SCM, , Tyndale Press: London, , , , ; K. Chicago: IVP, , , , ; Yamauchi, They conclude that it is therefore incorrect in their view to speak of a 'Patriarchal Period' as such.
London: British Museum Publications Ltd. New Haven, Yale University Press, , See further discussion of van Seter's views below. See further detailed discussion below. London: SCM, , follows van Seters. Yamauchi, Archaeology And The Bible. Cambridge: CUP, , 8. Edinburgh: T. Clark, , ; De Vaux, Anderson, The History and Religion of Israel. Oxford: OUP, , The World of the Bible , translated by Sierd Woudesa. Against this G. Anderson points out that "It is improbable that a Hyksos King would have given the daughter of the priest of On Heliopolis to Joseph as his wife Gen.
Alternatively the writer could simply have used a later name familiar to his contemporaries. Hamilton  provides a helpful summary of some of the suggested parallels that have been made between Biblical and Nuzi practices:. Marriage to a niece A husband obtains the status of a brother by adopting his wife ; ; 3. A childless couple might adopt someone, even a servant, to take care of them; in the end this person would inherit their property. Any naturally born son, however, replaces the adoptee A barren wife must provide her husband with a surrogate, normally the wife's slave girl ; The status of the slave girl and her offspring is protected against the jealousy or whims of either wife or husband A brother may adopt his sister in order to give her in marriage to someone else, providing she agrees A birthright might be sold to another A patriarchal blessing carries the weight of law and is not to be subjected to revision ; A couple might adopt a son-in-law as their own son Possession of the household gods was seen as legal title to an inheritance Gaebelein, Jr.
Gaebelein, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, , 52; Van Seters, He goes on to argue that servants were able to inherit property cf. Van Seters, 87; Hamilton, ; Selman, Youngblood, eds. A Tribute To Gleason Archer. Chicago, Moody Press, , On this point Harrison has moved from his earlier position, which linked teraphim with inheritance. Leicester: IVP, , Note that when they have arrived safely in Canaan, Jacob admonishes his household to rid themselves of foreign gods that have brought back with them Gen.
Brown, J. E Murphy, eds. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Rattling through Elizabethtown, he passed the ElizabethtownAcademy where, only three years earlier, his greatest concern had been Latin and Greek declensions. After pausing to await Gen. Sir William Howe, the British resumed their onslaught.
While American troops tore up the planks of the NewBridge, Hamilton and his guns kept up a hail of grapeshot. Hamilton kept at it until Washington and his men were safely away toward Princeton. We had a smart cannonade whilst we were parading our men. Washington asked one of his aides to tell him which commander had halted his pursuers.
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Ashivering Hamilton and his gunners made passage in a Durham ore boat, joining artillery already ranged along the western bank. The weather grew steadily colder. In command of the brigade, Howe placed Col. His regiments had a reputation for plunder and worse. Reports that the Hessians had raped several women, including a year-old girl, galvanized New Jersey farmers, who had been reluctant to help the American army. Now they formed militia bands to ambush Hessian patrols and British scouting parties around Trenton.
After so many setbacks, it was a risky gambit; defeat could mean the end of the American cause. But a victory, even over a small outpost, might inspire lagging Patriots, cow Loyalists, encourage reenlistments and drive back the British—in short, keep the Revolution alive. The main assault force was made up of tested veterans. Hamilton and his men had blankets wrapped around them as they hefted two 6-pounders and their cases of shot and shells onto the 9-foot-wide, foot-long Durham iron-ore barges they had commandeered, then pushed and pulled their horses aboard.
One mile north of Trenton, Greene halted the column. At precisely 8 in the morning, Hamilton unleashed his artillery on the Hessian outpost.
Three minutes later, American infantry poured into town. Driving back Hessian pickets with their bayonets, they charged into the old British barracks to confront groggy Hessians at gunpoint. Some attempted to regroup and counterattack, but Hamilton and his guns were waiting for them. The mercenaries sought cover behind houses but were driven back by Virginia riflemen, who stormed into the houses and fired down from upstairs windows. Riding back and forth behind the guns, Washington saw for himself the brutal courage and skillful discipline of this youthful artillery captain.
As the Americans recrossed the Delaware, both they and their prisoners, nearly 1, in all, had to stomp their feet to break up the ice that was forming on the river. Five men froze to death. Stung by the defeat, British field commander Lord Cornwallis raced across New Jersey with battle-seasoned grenadiers to retaliate. When the British halted along a three-mile stretch of Assunpink Creek outside Trenton and across from the Americans, Washington duped British pickets by ordering a rear guard to tend roaring campfires and to dig noisily through the night while his main force slipped away.
They reached the south end of Princeton at sunrise, to face a brigade—some men—of British light infantry. As the two forces raced for high ground, American general Hugh Mercer fell with seven bayonet wounds.
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The Americans retreated from a British bayonet charge. Then Washington himself galloped onto the battlefield with a division of Pennsylvania militia, surrounding the now outnumbered British. Some redcoats ran to Nassau Hall, the main building at PrincetonCollege. By the time Hamilton set up his two cannons, the British had begun firing from the windows of the red sandstone edifice.
In the wake of twin victories within ten days, at Trenton and Princeton, militia volunteers swarmed to the American standard, far more than could be fed, clothed or armed. In the four months since the British onslaught had begun, American officers had been killed or captured. It is absolutely necessary for me to have persons [who] can think for me as well as execute orders. As to military knowledge, I do not expect to find gentlemen much skilled in it.
If they can write a good letter, write quick, are methodical and diligent, it is all I expect to find in my aides.
He would get all that and more. There, Washington invited the young artillery officer to join his staff. The appointment carried a promotion from captain to lieutenant colonel, and this time Hamilton did not hesitate. On March 1, , he turned over the command of his artillery company to Lt. Hamilton, the impecunious abandoned son, and Washington, the patriarch without a son, had begun a mutually dependent relationship that would endure for nearly 25 years— years corresponding to the birth, adolescence and coming to maturity of the United States of America.
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Hamilton would become inspector general of the U. Army and in that capacity founded the U. Along with James Madison and John Jay, he wrote the Federalist Papers, essays that helped gain popular support for the then-proposed Constitution. In , he became the first Secretary of the Treasury, under President Washington and almost single-handedly created the U. Mint, the stock and bond markets and the concept of the modern corporation. After the death of Washington on December 14, , Hamilton worked secretly, though assiduously, to prevent the reelection of John Adams as well as the election of Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
In the election, Jefferson and Burr tied in the Electoral College, and Congress made Jefferson president, with Burr his vice president. Hamilton, his political career in tatters, founded the New York Evening Post newspaper, which he used to attack the new administration. On the morning of Thursday, July 11, , on a cliff in Weehawken, New Jersey, Hamilton faced the man who had rescued him 28 years earlier in Manhattan.